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The Civil War

EO 5, Part B - Chapter 17
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Rebels
The nickname given to Confederate soldiers during the Civil War.
Yankees
The nickname given to Union soldiers during the Civil War.
Battle of Gettysburg
The most celebrated of the Civil War battles. It was Lee's final attempt to invade the North. A Union victory after three days of battle in Pennsylvania.
Battle of Vicksburg
The Union victory that resulted in the Union gaining full control of the Mississippi River. This split the Confederacy into two smaller parts.
Total War
To wage war on all fronts. The strategy used by the North to destroy the South's property. Led to the destruction of any property deemed important to the enemy's cause.
Battle of Antietam
Lee's first attempt at invading the North. This battle led to the Emancipation Proclamation.
First Battle of Bull Run
The first major battle of the Civil War. A confederate victory that warned both sides that the war would be long and difficult.
Secede
To break away.
Border States
Slave states that remained loyal to the Union.
Appomattox Courthouse
Site of the South's surrender in April 1865. Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant.
Draft
The random selection and then mandatory requirement of military service during the war.
Copperheads
Name given to Northerners who openly opposed fighting the war. President Lincoln felt they were poisoning the efforts of the Union army.
Battle of Hampton Roads
The first ever battle between iron clad ships - the Monitor and the Virginia.
Atlanta and the March to the Sea
Sherman's strategy of marching through Georgia and South Carolina using the tactic of total war.
Habeas Corpus
The right to have a hearing in order to be informed why you are being detained. Lincoln suspended this legal process in order to deal with war opponents.
Jefferson Davis
The President of the Confederate States of America.
Robert E. Lee
The commanding general of the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia.
Ulysses Grant
The Union general victorious at Shiloh and Vicksburg. He would eventually become the commander of all Union armies. He accepted the South's surrender in April 1865.
Abraham Lincoln
The President of the United States of America.
Robert Shaw
Regiment commander of the 54th. Massachusetts, one of the best know African-American units.
Emancipation Proclamation
Decree issued by Abraham Lincoln, it declared that all slaves in rebel held states would be free
54th Massachusetts
African-American Civil War unit that fought exceptionally well at the Battle of Fort Wagner.
Clara Barton
Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross
Union Strengths
population; Lincoln; factories; navy; finances; railroads
Confederate Strengths
well trained generals, defensively home turf, close supplies, fight for homes
Union Strategy
(Anaconda Plan) blockade all ports on east and south coast, divide the South by seizing the Mississippi River, and capture the capital Richmond
Confederate Strategy
fight a defensive war, gain foreign allies, wear out the North's will to fight
J.E.B. Stuart
A Confederate general and cavalry commander.
Stonewall Jackson
Confederate General in the First Battle of Bull Run and the Battle of Chancellorsville. He was accidentally shot by his own troops.
Battle of Shiloh
1862 Civil War battle in Tennessee that ended in a Union victory
Hunley
Confederate submarine that sank the U.S.S. Housatonic. First submarine to sink an enemy ship.
Pickets' Charge
The failed Confederate charge on the third day at the Battle of Gettysburg. 10,000 men wounded or killed in the span of one hour.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Union General who destroyed South during his "march to the sea" from Atlanta to Savannah - an example of total war
July 4, 1863
Considered to be the turning point of the war. After two separate victories the Union's advantages become much more apparent after this point. (Gettysburg/Vicksburg)
The Gettysburg Address
The speech delivered by Abraham Lincoln at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg. He defined the importance of liberty and focused the nation on the task at hand - to finish by winning the war so that the soldiers did not die in vain.
Union Goal
to preserve the union at all costs
Confederate Goal
to be recognized as an independent nation