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Classical Conditioning

A type of that occurs when individuals learn to produce involuntary emotional or physiological responses similar to instinctive or reflexive responses.

Unconditioned stimulus

An object or event that causes an instinctive or reflexive (unlearned) physiological or emotional response

Unconditioned response

The instinctive or reflexive (unlearned) physiological or emotional response caused by an unconditioned stimulus

Neutral Stimulus

An object or event that doesn't initially impact behavior one way or another.

Conditioned Stimulus

A formerly neutral stimulus that becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus

Conditioned Response

A learned physiological or emotional response that is similar to the unconditioned response


The process that occurs when stimuli similar, but not identical, to a conditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned response by themselves.

Stimulus Discrimination

The process that occurs when a person gives different responses to similar but not identical stimuli


The disappearance of a conditioned response as the result of the conditioned stimulus occuring repeatedly in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus


A form of in which an observable response changes in frequency or duration as a result of a consequence


Event (stimulus) that occurs following a behavior and that influences the probability of the behaviors recurring.


A consequence that increases the likelihood of a behavior recurring


The process of applying reinforcers to increase behavior

Positive Reinforcement

The process of increasing the frequency or duration of a behavior as the result of presenting a reinforcer.

Premack Principle

The principle stating that a more-desired activity can serve as a positive reinforcer for a less-desired activity

Negative Reinforcement

The process of increasing behavior by avoiding or removing an aversive stimulus


The processof reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior

Reinforcement Schedules

Different patterns in the frequency and predictability of reinforcers that have differential effects on behavior

Continuous Reinforcement Schedule

A reinforcement schedule where every desired behavior is reinforced

Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule

A reinforcement schedule where some, but not all, behaviors are reinforced

Interval Schedule

An intermittent reinforcement schedule in which behavior are reinforced after a certain predictable interval (fixed) or unpredictable interval of time has passed (variable)


The disappearance of a behavior as a result of nonreinforcement


The process of using a reinforcer so frequently that it loses its potency- its ability to strengthen behaviors


Consequences that weaken behaviors or decrease the likelihood of the behaviors' recurring


The process of using punishers to decrease behavior

Presentation Punishment

A decrease in behavior that occurs when a stimulus (punisher) is presented

Removal Punishment

A decrease in behavior that occurs when a stimulus is removed, or when an individual cannot recieve positive reinforcement


The process of isolating a student from his or her classmates

Response Cost

The process of removing reinforcers already given


Stimuli that precede and induce behaviors

Applied Behavior Analysis

The process of systematically applying the principles of to change student behavior.

Functional Analysis

A strategy used to identify antecendents and consequences that control a behavior.


A general term that refers to behavioral, cognitive, and affective changes deriving from observing one or more models.


A self-imposed restriction on one's behavior

John Watson

1878-1958; Field: ; Contributions: generalization-inductive reasoning, emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; Studies: Little Albert

John Watson

american psychologist who, in the early 1900s, founded , an approach that emphasizes the scientific study of outwardly observable behavior rather than subjective mental states

John Watson

founded which focused on observable behaviors (influenced by Pavlov)

John Watson

Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief"

John Watson

Father of ; wrote and presented many papers which established as one of two major forces in psychology.

John Watson

Person: associated with Little Albert


the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).


theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior


An approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior.


perspective that defines psychology as the study of behavior that is directly observable or through assessment instruments

Little Albert

subject in John experiment, proved classical conditioning principles, especially the generalization of fear

Little Albert

Subject used by John Watson to test Classical Conditioning on humans; made fearful of white rabbit

Little Albert

The little boy who was conditioned by John Watson and Rosalie Raynor to be afraid of a white rat. Watson and Raynor used classical conditioning to pair the rat with a loud noise, until Little Albert began to exhibit fear in response to the rat.

Little Albert

In which famous experiment did Watson condition a child to fear small white animals after pairing them with a loud bang? Showed Classical Conditioning.


well-learned associations between stimuli and responses that represent the stable aspects of one's personality


in behaviorism, sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic


The acquired behavior pattern that becomes nearly or completely involuntary- is the natural extension of


a change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react


environmental change that triggers a response


signal to which an organism responds


anything that causes a reaction or change in an organism or any part of an organism


the reaction to a stimulus


observable reaction to a stimulus


similar to extinction except the unwanted response does not just disappear, it is replaced by a new, wanted response

reciprocal inhibition

a method of behavior therapy based on the inhibition of one response by the occurrence of another response that is mutually incompatible with it. E.G. a relaxation response might be conditioned to a stimulus that previously evoked anxiety

relaxation, assertiveness, and sexual arousal

Some incompatible responses that could be used to eliminate anxiety include (R, A, and SA)

Systematic desensitization

a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety noun Ex. client is exposed to the threatening situation under relaxed conditions until the anxiety reaction is extinguished

Relaxation training

a treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations

anxiety hierarchy

construction of this consists of events related to the target behavior that are ordered on the basis of the amount of anxiety they evoke.

In Vivo sensitization

Done after the client has been desensitized to about 75 to 85% of the anxiety hierarchy items, he begins to confront anxiety arousing situations in vivo if possible.

dismantling strategy

The researcher wants to know if EMDR works as well without the eye movement component. (To do this technique, individual components are eliminated or isolated from the treatment.)

Behaviorial sex therapy

A type of counterconditioning that has been found useful for treating sexual disorders that are related to performance anxiety.

premature ejaculation and vaginismus

The research has found that sex therapy is most effective for treating _________ (and) __________.

alcohol addictions, paraphilias, and self-injurious behaviors

In Vivo aversion therapy is used to treat
AA, P, (and) SIB


a sexual disorder in which the person's preferred method of sexual arousal and fulfillment is through sexual behavior that is unusual or socially unacceptable

covert sensitization

aversive conditioning that takes place through the imagination. Requires one to imagine unpleasant scenes & pair the images with the targeted behavior

response prevention

The client is exposed in real life to anxiety arousing stimuli for a prolonged period of time and is prohibited from making his usual avoidance or other anxiety reducing response. This is an example of in vivo exposure with ____________.


a technique used in behavior therapy where client is exposed with experiences of a particular kind until becoming either averse to them or numbed to them.


Teaching your dog to sit when greeting a person instead of jumping. Example of ___________

In Vivo Aversion therapy

(example) to eliminate a sexual fetish the fetish object (CS) might be paired with electric shock (US) so that, eventually, the fetish object is avoided because it produces an unpleasant sensation (CR) rather than sexual arousal. Example of _______________

response prevention

treating OCD with this technique involves exposing the client to obsessional cues while prohibiting the client from engaging in his usual rituals. Example of in vivo exposure with ______________


A person afraid of snakes may be exposed to a fear provoking but harmless situation until they get over their fear. Example of __________

Interoceptive exposure

This method may involve spinning a chair, breathing into a paper bag and cardiovascular exercise to evoke the feared bodily cues. Example of _________

Implosive therapy

A snake phobic client, might be asked to imagine a scene that not only involves a personal encounter with a snake and also emphasizes the sexual symbolism of snakes. Example of _________

distressing stimulus and response prevention

Exposure to the ____ (and) _____ are both essential components of treatment.

prolonged continuous

_____ exposure to the anxiety-arousing stimulus is usually more effective than several brief exposures

High anxiety

________ provocation during exposure may not be necessary for successful treatment outcome. Some investigators have found that the simultaneous use of a tranquilizer, which lowers anxiety, can actually enhance the effectiveness of exposure.

self-directed exposure

In some situations, ______ is as effective as therapist-directed exposure.

agoraphobia and OCD

Group exposure can be as effective as individual treatment and partner assisted exposure has been found to be an effective approach for ______

anxiety disorders

Interoceptive exposure has been found effective for reducing anxiety associated with _________

imaginal exposure

Based on the results of their meta analysis of the research, David and Parker conclude that eye movements are unnecessary and that EMDR may be viewed as an _______ technique

Interoceptive exposure

aimed at reducing persons fears of internal bodily sensations that are freuquently associated with the onset of panic attacks (one of the most important ingrediants to treating psychological treatment of panic disorder)

Implosive Therapy

This is always conducted in imagination and involves presenting the feared stimulus vividly enough so as to arouse high levels of anxiety. The images are embellished with psychodynamic themes.


This is based on the assumption that exposure to a trauma can block a neurophysiological adaptive information processing mechanism. It combines rapid lateral eye movements, which are believed to trigger this mechanism-- with exposure and other techniques drawn from cognitive, behavioral and psychodynamic approaches.

classical conditioning

method of in which a neutral stimulus can be used to elicit a response that is usually a natural response to a stimulus. a type of in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.


a type of in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. controlled by the consequences of the organism's behavior

classical conditioning

conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex

Unconditioned stimulus

stimulus that naturally elicits a response.

Unconditioned response

in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

conditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response

0.5 seconds

The optimal time interval between the onset of the CS and the US is generally:

delayed conditioning

In Pavlovian conditioning, that takes place when the conditioned stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus is presented and continues until the organism begins responding to the unconditioned stimulus. It is the most efficient procedure for establishing a conditioned response.

Trace conditioning

type of forward conditioning and entails presenting and terminating the CS prior to presenting the US. Produces a weaker CR than delayed conditioning.

Simultaneous conditioning

Less effective than trace conditioning and involves presenting and withdrawing the CS and US at the same time.

Backward conditioning

entails presenting the USprior to the CS. Backward conditioning does not usually produce a conditioned response: and its ineffectiveness implies that it's the contingency of stimuli (rather than their contiguity) that underlies classical conditioning.

classical extinction

responding quits due to presentation of conditioned stimulus (CS) not paired with unconditioned stimulus (US)

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus

stimulus generalization

the transfer of behavior (learned response) from one stimulus to another stimulus that is similar in nature; in Little Albert's case, Little Albert was afraid of not only white, furry rats but any white and furry objects.

Response generalization

giving a response that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus; when Little Albert responds the same way to a white rat or a white coat.

Stimulus discrimination

Process by which an organism learns to respond only to a specific stimulus and not to other stimuli

experimental neurosis

A pattern of erratic behavior resulting from a demanding discrimination task, typically one that involves aversive stimuli.

higher order conditioning

a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus.


As an example assume that a tone has already been pared with electric shock so that presentation of the tone alone produces a fear reaction and the tone is then repeatedly presented simultaneously with a flashing light prior to presenting the electric shock.


An example of this is that a tone and flashing light are followed by electric shock for several trials so that presentation of the tone and light together produces a fear reaction. when the tone and light are subsequently presented separately, only one of them will elicit fear.

Premack Principle

any high-frequency response can be used to reinforce a low-frequency response

Premack Principle

states that we can positively reinforce performed behavior with a more frequently preformed behavior (ex. rewarding yourself after hw)

Premack Principle

at any moment each person maintains a list of behavioral preferences, ranked from most desirable to least desirable, a psychological " top ten" the higher on the list and activity is the greater power is yields as an enforcer. letting your daughter drive to the mall after mowing the lawn.

Premack Principle

suggests that if a person wants to perform a given activity, the person will perform a less desirable activity to get the more desirable activity (cleaning first so you can watch tv)

Premack Principle

relativity theory of reinforcement

imaginal exposure

form of exposure therapy that does not involve a real stimulus. Instead, the patient is asked to imagine the feared stimulus or situation

imaginal exposure

treatment for anxiety disorders that involves visualizing feared scenes for extended periods of time. Frequently used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, when in vivo exposure to the initial trauma cannot be conducted

imaginal exposure

Using imagery while the therapist guides them through their feared situation(s).
Particularly helpful with PTSD.


the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired wit hthe unconditioned stimulus.


Exposing person to CS without the US until the CS no longer elicits CR


When a Unconditioned Stimulus does not follow a Conditioned Stimulus.
Diminishing of a Conditioned Response.

Backward conditioning

when the natural stimulus is presented and terminated before the conditioned stimulus is presented. If Pavlov had presented the food and then, after the dog ate, presented the sound of the bell, the tone alone would not elicit much salivation, since it no longer signals that food is imminent. Backward conditioning is controversial because many psychologists argue that it does not work.

Backward conditioning

you first obtain a UCS -salivation) then you give him the CS -food powder)

Backward conditioning

a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus is presented shortly after the unconditioned stimulus on each trial

Trace conditioning

the presentation of the CS, followed by a short break, followed by the presentation of the US

Trace conditioning

A classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus but is removed before the unconditioned stimulus is presented so the two stimuli do not occur together.

Trace conditioning

form of conditioning in which a longer delay seperates the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli; requires new neurons in hippocampus to form

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus


The phenomenon whereby the most salient member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a CS and thereby interferes with conditioning of the less salient member.


presence of 1 stimulus condition interferes with acquisition of stimulus control by another stimulus
-reduce influence by:
-rearrange physical environment
- increasing intensity of instructional stimuli
- consistently reinforce behavior in presence of instructional stimuli


interference with the conditioning of a stimulus because of the simultaneous presence of another stimulus that is easier to condition


Only more intense stimulus will condition with compound stimuli (CS1 + CS2).

delayed conditioning

In Pavlovian conditioning, learning that takes place when the conditioned stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus is presented and continues until the organism begins responding to the unconditioned stimulus

delayed conditioning

a classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus and remains present until after the unconditioned stimulus is presented so that the two stimuli occur together

delayed conditioning

The CS is presented followed by the US with them both ending at the same time.

higher order conditioning

a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning.)

higher order conditioning

Occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus causing the neutral stimulus to bcome a second conditioned stimulus. Pavlov would snap his fingers (neutral stimulus) then ring bell (conditioned stimulus) and give food to produce saliva ( conditioned response) the snap when then trigger saliva if paired enough times turning the snap into another conditioned stimulus. Without the UCS the hight order conditiong would be difficualt to maintain and would gradually fade away

higher order conditioning

pairing a second conditioned stimulus with the first conditioned stimulus in order to produce a second conditioned response

Functional Analysis

an analysis of the purposes (functions) of problem behavior, wherein antecedents and consequences representing those in the person's natural routines are arranged within an experimental design so that their separate effects on problem behavior can be observed and measured

Functional Analysis

An analysis of the purposes of problem behavior, wherein antecedents and consequences representing those in the person's natural routines are arranged within an experimental design so that their separate effects on problem behavior can be observed and measured; typically consists of four conditions; three test conditions-contingent attention, contingent escape, and alone-and a control condition in which problem behavior is expected to be low because reinforcement is freely available and no demands are placed on the person.

applied behavior analysis

The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior

applied behavior analysis

Application of the principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior.

Interoceptive exposure

aimed at reducing persons fears of internal bodily sensations that are freuquently associated with the onset of panic attacks (one of the most important ingrediants to treating psychological treatment of panic disorder)

applied behavior analysis

modern term for a behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response

Interoceptive exposure

helps treat panic attacks. usual exposure, but by instigating the trigger symptoms of pd, like fast pulse or sweating

Interoceptive exposure

This form of exposure is aimed at reducing the person's fear of internal, bodily sensations that are frequently associated with the onset of a panic attack. The process is accomplished by having the person engage in standardized exercises that are known to produce such physical sensations.

Neutral Stimulus

A stimulus change that does not elicit respondent behavior.

Neutral Stimulus

stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

spontaneous recovery

the reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a rest period

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