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192 terms

Classical Conditioning

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Classical Conditioning
A type of that occurs when individuals learn to produce involuntary emotional or physiological responses similar to instinctive or reflexive responses.
Unconditioned stimulus
An object or event that causes an instinctive or reflexive (unlearned) physiological or emotional response
Unconditioned response
The instinctive or reflexive (unlearned) physiological or emotional response caused by an unconditioned stimulus
Neutral Stimulus
An object or event that doesn't initially impact behavior one way or another.
Conditioned Stimulus
A formerly neutral stimulus that becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Response
A learned physiological or emotional response that is similar to the unconditioned response
Generalization
The process that occurs when stimuli similar, but not identical, to a conditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned response by themselves.
Stimulus Discrimination
The process that occurs when a person gives different responses to similar but not identical stimuli
Extinction
The disappearance of a conditioned response as the result of the conditioned stimulus occuring repeatedly in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioning
A form of in which an observable response changes in frequency or duration as a result of a consequence
Consequence
Event (stimulus) that occurs following a behavior and that influences the probability of the behaviors recurring.
Reinforcement
A consequence that increases the likelihood of a behavior recurring
Reinforcement
The process of applying reinforcers to increase behavior
Positive Reinforcement
The process of increasing the frequency or duration of a behavior as the result of presenting a reinforcer.
Premack Principle
The principle stating that a more-desired activity can serve as a positive reinforcer for a less-desired activity
Negative Reinforcement
The process of increasing behavior by avoiding or removing an aversive stimulus
Shaping
The processof reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior
Reinforcement Schedules
Different patterns in the frequency and predictability of reinforcers that have differential effects on behavior
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
A reinforcement schedule where every desired behavior is reinforced
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
A reinforcement schedule where some, but not all, behaviors are reinforced
Interval Schedule
An intermittent reinforcement schedule in which behavior are reinforced after a certain predictable interval (fixed) or unpredictable interval of time has passed (variable)
Extinction
The disappearance of a behavior as a result of nonreinforcement
Satiation
The process of using a reinforcer so frequently that it loses its potency- its ability to strengthen behaviors
Punishers
Consequences that weaken behaviors or decrease the likelihood of the behaviors' recurring
Punishment
The process of using punishers to decrease behavior
Presentation Punishment
A decrease in behavior that occurs when a stimulus (punisher) is presented
Removal Punishment
A decrease in behavior that occurs when a stimulus is removed, or when an individual cannot recieve positive reinforcement
Timeout
The process of isolating a student from his or her classmates
Response Cost
The process of removing reinforcers already given
Antecendents
Stimuli that precede and induce behaviors
Applied Behavior Analysis
The process of systematically applying the principles of to change student behavior.
Functional Analysis
A strategy used to identify antecendents and consequences that control a behavior.
Modeling
A general term that refers to behavioral, cognitive, and affective changes deriving from observing one or more models.
Inhibition
A self-imposed restriction on one's behavior
John Watson
1878-1958; Field: ; Contributions: generalization-inductive reasoning, emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; Studies: Little Albert
John Watson
american psychologist who, in the early 1900s, founded , an approach that emphasizes the scientific study of outwardly observable behavior rather than subjective mental states
John Watson
founded which focused on observable behaviors (influenced by Pavlov)
John Watson
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief"
John Watson
Father of ; wrote and presented many papers which established as one of two major forces in psychology.
John Watson
Person: associated with Little Albert
Behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Behaviorism
theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
Behaviorism
An approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior.
Behaviorism
perspective that defines psychology as the study of behavior that is directly observable or through assessment instruments
Little Albert
subject in John experiment, proved classical conditioning principles, especially the generalization of fear
Little Albert
Subject used by John Watson to test Classical Conditioning on humans; made fearful of white rabbit
Little Albert
The little boy who was conditioned by John Watson and Rosalie Raynor to be afraid of a white rat. Watson and Raynor used classical conditioning to pair the rat with a loud noise, until Little Albert began to exhibit fear in response to the rat.
Little Albert
In which famous experiment did Watson condition a child to fear small white animals after pairing them with a loud bang? Showed Classical Conditioning.
habits
well-learned associations between stimuli and responses that represent the stable aspects of one's personality
habits
in behaviorism, sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic
habits
The acquired behavior pattern that becomes nearly or completely involuntary- is the natural extension of
stimulus
a change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react
stimulus
environmental change that triggers a response
stimulus
signal to which an organism responds
stimulus
anything that causes a reaction or change in an organism or any part of an organism
response
the reaction to a stimulus
response
observable reaction to a stimulus
Counterconditioning
similar to extinction except the unwanted response does not just disappear, it is replaced by a new, wanted response
reciprocal inhibition
a method of behavior therapy based on the inhibition of one response by the occurrence of another response that is mutually incompatible with it. E.G. a relaxation response might be conditioned to a stimulus that previously evoked anxiety
relaxation, assertiveness, and sexual arousal
Some incompatible responses that could be used to eliminate anxiety include (R, A, and SA)
Systematic desensitization
a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety noun Ex. client is exposed to the threatening situation under relaxed conditions until the anxiety reaction is extinguished
Relaxation training
a treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations
anxiety hierarchy
construction of this consists of events related to the target behavior that are ordered on the basis of the amount of anxiety they evoke.
In Vivo sensitization
Done after the client has been desensitized to about 75 to 85% of the anxiety hierarchy items, he begins to confront anxiety arousing situations in vivo if possible.
dismantling strategy
The researcher wants to know if EMDR works as well without the eye movement component. (To do this technique, individual components are eliminated or isolated from the treatment.)
Behaviorial sex therapy
A type of counterconditioning that has been found useful for treating sexual disorders that are related to performance anxiety.
premature ejaculation and vaginismus
The research has found that sex therapy is most effective for treating _________ (and) __________.
alcohol addictions, paraphilias, and self-injurious behaviors
In Vivo aversion therapy is used to treat
AA, P, (and) SIB
paraphilia
a sexual disorder in which the person's preferred method of sexual arousal and fulfillment is through sexual behavior that is unusual or socially unacceptable
covert sensitization
aversive conditioning that takes place through the imagination. Requires one to imagine unpleasant scenes & pair the images with the targeted behavior
response prevention
The client is exposed in real life to anxiety arousing stimuli for a prolonged period of time and is prohibited from making his usual avoidance or other anxiety reducing response. This is an example of in vivo exposure with ____________.
Flooding
a technique used in behavior therapy where client is exposed with experiences of a particular kind until becoming either averse to them or numbed to them.
counterconditioning
Teaching your dog to sit when greeting a person instead of jumping. Example of ___________
In Vivo Aversion therapy
(example) to eliminate a sexual fetish the fetish object (CS) might be paired with electric shock (US) so that, eventually, the fetish object is avoided because it produces an unpleasant sensation (CR) rather than sexual arousal. Example of _______________
response prevention
treating OCD with this technique involves exposing the client to obsessional cues while prohibiting the client from engaging in his usual rituals. Example of in vivo exposure with ______________
flooding
A person afraid of snakes may be exposed to a fear provoking but harmless situation until they get over their fear. Example of __________
Interoceptive exposure
This method may involve spinning a chair, breathing into a paper bag and cardiovascular exercise to evoke the feared bodily cues. Example of _________
Implosive therapy
A snake phobic client, might be asked to imagine a scene that not only involves a personal encounter with a snake and also emphasizes the sexual symbolism of snakes. Example of _________
distressing stimulus and response prevention
Exposure to the ____ (and) _____ are both essential components of treatment.
prolonged continuous
_____ exposure to the anxiety-arousing stimulus is usually more effective than several brief exposures
High anxiety
________ provocation during exposure may not be necessary for successful treatment outcome. Some investigators have found that the simultaneous use of a tranquilizer, which lowers anxiety, can actually enhance the effectiveness of exposure.
self-directed exposure
In some situations, ______ is as effective as therapist-directed exposure.
agoraphobia and OCD
Group exposure can be as effective as individual treatment and partner assisted exposure has been found to be an effective approach for ______
anxiety disorders
Interoceptive exposure has been found effective for reducing anxiety associated with _________
imaginal exposure
Based on the results of their meta analysis of the research, David and Parker conclude that eye movements are unnecessary and that EMDR may be viewed as an _______ technique
Interoceptive exposure
aimed at reducing persons fears of internal bodily sensations that are freuquently associated with the onset of panic attacks (one of the most important ingrediants to treating psychological treatment of panic disorder)
Implosive Therapy
This is always conducted in imagination and involves presenting the feared stimulus vividly enough so as to arouse high levels of anxiety. The images are embellished with psychodynamic themes.
EMDR
This is based on the assumption that exposure to a trauma can block a neurophysiological adaptive information processing mechanism. It combines rapid lateral eye movements, which are believed to trigger this mechanism-- with exposure and other techniques drawn from cognitive, behavioral and psychodynamic approaches.
classical conditioning
method of in which a neutral stimulus can be used to elicit a response that is usually a natural response to a stimulus. a type of in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
conditioning
a type of in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. controlled by the consequences of the organism's behavior
classical conditioning
conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex
Unconditioned stimulus
stimulus that naturally elicits a response.
Unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
0.5 seconds
The optimal time interval between the onset of the CS and the US is generally:
delayed conditioning
In Pavlovian conditioning, that takes place when the conditioned stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus is presented and continues until the organism begins responding to the unconditioned stimulus. It is the most efficient procedure for establishing a conditioned response.
Trace conditioning
type of forward conditioning and entails presenting and terminating the CS prior to presenting the US. Produces a weaker CR than delayed conditioning.
Simultaneous conditioning
Less effective than trace conditioning and involves presenting and withdrawing the CS and US at the same time.
Backward conditioning
entails presenting the USprior to the CS. Backward conditioning does not usually produce a conditioned response: and its ineffectiveness implies that it's the contingency of stimuli (rather than their contiguity) that underlies classical conditioning.
classical extinction
responding quits due to presentation of conditioned stimulus (CS) not paired with unconditioned stimulus (US)
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
stimulus generalization
the transfer of behavior (learned response) from one stimulus to another stimulus that is similar in nature; in Little Albert's case, Little Albert was afraid of not only white, furry rats but any white and furry objects.
Response generalization
giving a response that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus; when Little Albert responds the same way to a white rat or a white coat.
Stimulus discrimination
Process by which an organism learns to respond only to a specific stimulus and not to other stimuli
experimental neurosis
A pattern of erratic behavior resulting from a demanding discrimination task, typically one that involves aversive stimuli.
higher order conditioning
a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus.
blocking
As an example assume that a tone has already been pared with electric shock so that presentation of the tone alone produces a fear reaction and the tone is then repeatedly presented simultaneously with a flashing light prior to presenting the electric shock.
overshadowing
An example of this is that a tone and flashing light are followed by electric shock for several trials so that presentation of the tone and light together produces a fear reaction. when the tone and light are subsequently presented separately, only one of them will elicit fear.
Premack Principle
any high-frequency response can be used to reinforce a low-frequency response
Premack Principle
states that we can positively reinforce performed behavior with a more frequently preformed behavior (ex. rewarding yourself after hw)
Premack Principle
at any moment each person maintains a list of behavioral preferences, ranked from most desirable to least desirable, a psychological " top ten" the higher on the list and activity is the greater power is yields as an enforcer. letting your daughter drive to the mall after mowing the lawn.
Premack Principle
suggests that if a person wants to perform a given activity, the person will perform a less desirable activity to get the more desirable activity (cleaning first so you can watch tv)
Premack Principle
relativity theory of reinforcement
imaginal exposure
form of exposure therapy that does not involve a real stimulus. Instead, the patient is asked to imagine the feared stimulus or situation
imaginal exposure
treatment for anxiety disorders that involves visualizing feared scenes for extended periods of time. Frequently used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, when in vivo exposure to the initial trauma cannot be conducted
imaginal exposure
Using imagery while the therapist guides them through their feared situation(s).
Particularly helpful with PTSD.
Extinction
the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired wit hthe unconditioned stimulus.
Extinction
Exposing person to CS without the US until the CS no longer elicits CR
Extinction
When a Unconditioned Stimulus does not follow a Conditioned Stimulus.
Diminishing of a Conditioned Response.
Backward conditioning
when the natural stimulus is presented and terminated before the conditioned stimulus is presented. If Pavlov had presented the food and then, after the dog ate, presented the sound of the bell, the tone alone would not elicit much salivation, since it no longer signals that food is imminent. Backward conditioning is controversial because many psychologists argue that it does not work.
Backward conditioning
you first obtain a UCS -salivation) then you give him the CS -food powder)
Backward conditioning
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus is presented shortly after the unconditioned stimulus on each trial
Trace conditioning
the presentation of the CS, followed by a short break, followed by the presentation of the US
Trace conditioning
A classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus but is removed before the unconditioned stimulus is presented so the two stimuli do not occur together.
Trace conditioning
form of conditioning in which a longer delay seperates the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli; requires new neurons in hippocampus to form
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
overshadowing
The phenomenon whereby the most salient member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a CS and thereby interferes with conditioning of the less salient member.
overshadowing
presence of 1 stimulus condition interferes with acquisition of stimulus control by another stimulus
-reduce influence by:
-rearrange physical environment
- increasing intensity of instructional stimuli
- consistently reinforce behavior in presence of instructional stimuli
overshadowing
interference with the conditioning of a stimulus because of the simultaneous presence of another stimulus that is easier to condition
overshadowing
Only more intense stimulus will condition with compound stimuli (CS1 + CS2).
delayed conditioning
In Pavlovian conditioning, learning that takes place when the conditioned stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus is presented and continues until the organism begins responding to the unconditioned stimulus
delayed conditioning
a classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus and remains present until after the unconditioned stimulus is presented so that the two stimuli occur together
delayed conditioning
The CS is presented followed by the US with them both ending at the same time.
higher order conditioning
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning.)
higher order conditioning
Occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus causing the neutral stimulus to bcome a second conditioned stimulus. Pavlov would snap his fingers (neutral stimulus) then ring bell (conditioned stimulus) and give food to produce saliva ( conditioned response) the snap when then trigger saliva if paired enough times turning the snap into another conditioned stimulus. Without the UCS the hight order conditiong would be difficualt to maintain and would gradually fade away
higher order conditioning
pairing a second conditioned stimulus with the first conditioned stimulus in order to produce a second conditioned response
Functional Analysis
an analysis of the purposes (functions) of problem behavior, wherein antecedents and consequences representing those in the person's natural routines are arranged within an experimental design so that their separate effects on problem behavior can be observed and measured
Functional Analysis
An analysis of the purposes of problem behavior, wherein antecedents and consequences representing those in the person's natural routines are arranged within an experimental design so that their separate effects on problem behavior can be observed and measured; typically consists of four conditions; three test conditions-contingent attention, contingent escape, and alone-and a control condition in which problem behavior is expected to be low because reinforcement is freely available and no demands are placed on the person.
applied behavior analysis
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior
applied behavior analysis
Application of the principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior.
Interoceptive exposure
aimed at reducing persons fears of internal bodily sensations that are freuquently associated with the onset of panic attacks (one of the most important ingrediants to treating psychological treatment of panic disorder)
applied behavior analysis
modern term for a behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response
Interoceptive exposure
helps treat panic attacks. usual exposure, but by instigating the trigger symptoms of pd, like fast pulse or sweating
Interoceptive exposure
This form of exposure is aimed at reducing the person's fear of internal, bodily sensations that are frequently associated with the onset of a panic attack. The process is accomplished by having the person engage in standardized exercises that are known to produce such physical sensations.
Neutral Stimulus
A stimulus change that does not elicit respondent behavior.
Neutral Stimulus
stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
spontaneous recovery
the reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a rest period
spontaneous recovery
a behavioral effect associated with extinction in which the behavior suddenly begins to occur after its frequency has decreased to its prereinforcement level or stopped entirely
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
a schedule in which consequences are delivered after a specified or average time has elapsed or after a specified or average number of behaviors has occurred
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
around an average (highest response output), A schedule of reinforcement in which not every instance of the behavior is followed by the delivery of the reinforcer. Includes fixed ratio, fixed interval, variable ratio, and variable interval schedules.
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
Only some instances of behavior are reinforced
Stimulus Discrimination
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Stimulus Discrimination
in classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish the conditioned stimulus from other stimuli that are similar
modeling
process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
modeling
observing and learning from the behaviors of those around you
modeling
term coined by Bandura on how we learn by imitating others. His research - children will spontaneously imitate the behavior of a model without any obvious reinforcement.
covert sensitization
cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce unwanted behaviors by having clients imagine the extremely aversive consequences of the behaviors and establish negative rather than positive associations with them
covert sensitization
form of aversion therapy. patients are direct to imagine themselves engaging in an undesired behavior and then instructed to imagine extremely aversive events occurring once they have the undesired behavior in mind.
covert sensitization
a form of aversion treatment in which a patient is taught to pair the image of a n aversive event with the undesirable behaviour and thus reduce the frequency of this behaviour.
covert sensitization
Shane is being treated for paraphilia by imagining harmful consequences occuring in response to his unwanted behavior and arousal. this is what kind of treatment?
Negative Reinforcement
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
Negative Reinforcement
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs.
Removal punishment
Withdrawal of a pleasant consequence that is reinforcing a behavior designed to decrease the chances that the behavior will recur
Removal punishment
Decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by removing a pleasant stimulus following the behavior
Removal punishment
withdrawal of a pleasant consequence tha tis reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chances that the behavior will recur. -loss of privilege, having to stay after school.
Presentation Punishment
Decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by presenting an aversive stimulus following the behavior.
Presentation Punishment
presenting negative consquences as a stragety for decreasing behavior
imaginal exposure
A method of behavior therapy for phobias in which the therapist describes the feared object in graphic terms, thereby inducing fear w/o direct exposure to the object
imaginal exposure
Form of exposure therapy that does not involve a real stimulus. Instead, the patient is asked to imagine the feared stimulus or situation.
imaginal exposure
treatment for anxiety disorders that involves visualizing feared scenes for extended periods of time; frequently used in the treatment of PTSD when in vivo exposure to the initial trauma cannot be conducted
Satiation
A decrease in the frequency of behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behavior.
Satiation
decrease in the reinforcer effectiveness of a stimulus due to receiving that stimulus
Flooding
A behavioral technique used to treat phobias in which client is presented with feared stimulus all at once until the associated anxiety disappears.
Flooding
behavioral technique; counterconditioning; an aggressive method of desensitization; exposure to anxiety-producing stimuli is great; short-term technique; example: someone who is afraid of spiders must immediately handle a tarantula, makes me think of the show "Fear Factor"
Implosive therapy
A method for decreasing anxiety by exposing the client to an imaginary anxiety stimulus. The method is risky because overexposure can actually increase anxiety.
Response Cost
The contingent loss of reinforcers (e.g. a fine), producing a decre.ase of the frequency of behavior; a form of negative punishment
Antecendents
events that precede a response, in classical conditioning become associated with one another
Antecendents
those behaviors that occur prior to a response (classical conditioning)
Systematic desensitization
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
Systematic desensitization
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias
Counterconditioning
Conditioning with stimulus substitution. The weaker stimulus will be replaced by the stronger stimulus
Implosive therapy
a type of prolonged intense exposure therapy in which the client imagines exaggerated scenes that include hypothesized stimuli.
EMDR
Eye-movement Desensitization & Reprocessing. New treatment for PTSD, client imagines the traumatic event and processes it in a non-threatening manner.
EMDR
while peole imagined traumatic scence, shapiro triggered eye movements by waving her finger in front of their eyes, supposedly enabling them to unlock and reprocess previously frozen trauma memories
EMDR
Shapiro - good for trauma, PTSD, and unprocessed memories - use bilateral stimulation of brain to process memories
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation.
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
dismantling strategy
take one part of therapy that one thinks is effective and manipulate it to see what the effective ingredients are
dismantling strategy
Attempts to compare the full treatment package with another condition, such as the package minus selected ingredients