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AP Bio Quick Review

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axial skeleton
the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
appendicular skeleton
forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones
osteocytes
mature bone cells
bone marrow
a soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
skeletal muscle
a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton
cardiac muscle
the muscle tissue of the heart
smooth muscle
a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
artery
a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
vein
a blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart
erythrocytes
also known as red blood cells (RBC) are mature red blood cells produced by the red bone marrow. The primary role of these cells is to transport oxygen to the tissues. The oxygen is transported by the heomglobin.
leukocytes
white blood cells, or WBC, form in the bone marrow and are part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
platelets
tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation
plasma
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended
lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
lymph nodes
Bean-shaped filters that cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. They function as a cleanser of lymph as wells as a site of T and B cell activation
thymus
a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity