Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
created in 1970 to coordinate most of the governments efforts to protect the environment.
Air Pollution, Water pollution, land pollution (land fills)
is formed when emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, by-products of the burning of fossil fuels by utilities, manufacturers, and motor vehicles, combine with natural water vapor in the air and fall to earth as rain or snow that is more acidic than normal. it can damage the ecosystems or lakes, rivers, reduce crop yields, and degrade forests.
contamination of land by both solid and hazardous waste.
the efforts to prevent inequitable exposure to risk, such as from hazardous waste.
A business strategy to prevent or reduce pollution at the source, rather than to dispose of or treat pollution after it has been produced. (Also known as pollution prevention act in 1990)
CERCLA or Superfund
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability act. Popularly known as Superfund. passed in 1980. This law established a fund, supported by a tax on petroleum and chemical companies that were presumed to have created a disproportionate share of toxic wastes.
standard amounts of particular pollutants allowable by law or regulation. This approach is also called: command and control regulation, because the government commands business firms to comply with certain standards and often directly controls their choice of technology.
a form of regulation, used in environmental policy that uses market mechanisms to control what companies do (corporate behavior)
allows businesses to buy and sell permits that entitle the bearer to emit a certain amount of pollution. the government issues these permits and caps the total amount of pollution that may be produced. "tradable permit"
Emission fees or charges
is another market-based type of pollution control. each business is charged for the undesirable waste that it emits, with the fee varying according to the amount of waste released. The result is: "The more you pollute, the more you pay"
The gov't encourages companies to pollute less by publishing info about the amount of pollutants individual companies emit each year. In may cases, companies voluntarily reduce their emissions to avoid PUBLIC EMBARRASSMENT.
Civil and Criminal Enforcement
Companies that violate environmental laws are subject to stiff civil penalties and fine, and their managers can face prison if they knowingly or negligently endanger people or the environment. "companies that endanger their environment in a blunt manner"
Costs and benefits of environmental regulation
one central issue of environmental protection is how costs are balanced by benefits
Greening of Management
The process by which managers become more proactive with respect to environmental issues
Stages of corporate environmental responsibility
1. Population prevention: focuses on minimizing or eliminating waste before it is created. 2. Product Stewardship: managers focus on all environmental impacts associated with the full life cycle of a product from the design of a product to its eventual use and disposal. 3. Clean technology (most advanced): businesses develop innovative new technologies that support sustainability.
The ecologically Sustainable organization
(ESO) is a business that operates in a way that is consistent with the principle of sustainable development. An ESO could continue its activities indefinitely, without altering the carrying capacity of the Earths ecosystem.
A voluntary, collaborative partnership between or among businesses, govt regulators, and environmental orgs to achieve specific environmental goals. and draw on the unique strengths of the different partners to improve environmental quality or conserve resources.
Environmental Management in practice
Top management commitment, Line manager involvement, codes of environmental conduct, cross-functional teams, rewards and incentives, environmental audits.
Environmental Mgmt as a competitive advantage
Cost savings: companies that reduce pollution and hazardous waste, reuse or recycle materials, and operate with greater energy efficiency can reap significant cost savings.
Companies that develop a reputation for environmental excellence and that produce and deliver products and services with concern for their sustainability can attract environmentally away customers.
Creating "green" products and services-- and pitching them to environmentally away customers
formed from the words "green" and "white-wash" When a company or organization misleads consumers regarding the environmental benefits of a product or service.
environmentally proactive companies are often technological leaders, ass they seek imaginative new methods for reducing pollution and increasing efficiency. in many cases, they produce innovations that can win new customers, penetrate new markets or even be marketed to other firms as new regulations spur their adoption.
companies must adopt sophisticated strategic planning techniques to allow their top managers to assess the full range of the firms effects on the environment. The complex auditing and forecasting techniques used by these firms help them anticipate a wide range of external influences on the firm. wide-angle planning helps these companies foresee new markets, materials, technologies, and products.