Chemistry 112 Test #1
Terms in this set (38)
amount of energy to increase the surface of a liquid by a certain amount.
stronger intermolecular forces = higher surface tension
how resistant a liquid is to flowing.
stronger intermolecular forces = higher viscosity.
temperature where vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure.
stronger intermolecular forces = higher boiling point.
the temp where the energies of the particles let them break free of their fixed position.
stronger intermolecular forces = higher melting point.
equilibrium vapor pressure
pressure exerted by particles that have escaped to the gas phase.
stronger intermolecular forces = lower vapor pressure.
vapor pressure increases as temperature increases.
solid --> liquid
liquid --> gas
solid --> gas
liquid --> solid
gas --> solid
gas --> liquid
a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more compounds.
the substance(s) present in smaller quantity.
present in greater quantity.
to what extent the solute dissolves in the solvent.
contains less solute than is possible to dissolve at that temperature.
no undissolved solute present.
contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute for the solvent at that temperature.
there will be extra solute present.
more solute is dissolved than in a saturated solution at that temperature.
excess solute will eventually crystallize out of solution.
intermolecular forces are broken
between solute and solute particles
between solvent and solvent particles
intermolecular forces are formed
between solute and solvent particles
a measure of disorder or randomness
AN INCREASE IN ENTROPY IS FAVORABLE
moles of solute/ liters of solution
mole fraction (X)
moles solute/ total moles (solute + solvent)
moles solute/ kg solvent
precent by mass
(mass solute/mass solution) x 100%
(mass solute/mass solution) x 10^6
(mass solute/mass solution) x 10^9
solubility of gas INCREASES with pressure
depend on the number of solute particles present, not the type or identity of the particles.
1. vapor pressure lowering
2. boiling point elevation
3. freezing point depression
4. osmotic pressure
a reversible reaction where the rate (speed) of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction.
Kc < 1
Kc = 1
neither reactants or products favored
Kc > 1
products are favored
Qc < Kc
reaction goes to the right
Qc = Kc
reaction at equilibrium
Qc > Kc
reaction goes to the left
if you add reactants or take away products: reaction shifts to the right
if you add products or take away reactant: reaction shifts to the left
changing volume or pressure
if you decrease volume or increase pressure: reaction will shift to side with fewer moles of gas.
if you increase volume or decrease pressure: reaction will shift to side with more moles of gas.