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123 terms

Informatics in Healthcare

Health Information Technology Definitions Source: LaTour
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Analog
Data or information that is not represented in an encoded, computer-readable format
Application Programming Interface (API)
A set of definitions of the ways in which one piece of computer software communicates with another or a programmer makes requests of the operating system or another application; operates outside the realm of the direct user interface
Application Service Provider (ASP)
A third-party payer service company that delivers, manages, and remotely hosts standardized applications software via a network through an outsourcing contract based on fixed, monthly usage or transaction-based pricing
Applied Healthcare Informatics
Automated information systems applied to healthcare delivery business and work-flow processes, including the diagnosis, therapy, and systems of managing health data and information within the health-care setting
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
High-level information technologies used in developing machines that imitate human qualities such as learning and reasoning
Audit Trails
A chronological set of computerized records that provides evidence of information system activity (log-ins and log-outs, file accesses) used to determine security violations
Autocoding
The process of extracting and translating dictated and then transcribed free-text data (or dictated and then computer-generated discrete data) into ICD-9-CM and CPT evaluation and management codes for billing and coding purposes
Automated Forms-Processing (e-forms) Technology
Technology that allows users to electronically enter data into online, digital forms and electronically extract data from online, digital forms for data collection or manipulation
Bar-Coding Technology
A method of encoding data that consists of parallel arrangements of dark elements, referred to as bars, and light elements, referred to as spaces, and interpreting the data for automatic identification and data collection purposes
Bit-Mapped Data
Data made up of pixels displayed on a horizontal and vertical grid or matrix
Care Maps
A proprietary care-planning tool similar to a clinical protocol that outlines the major aspects of treatment on the basis of diagnosis or other characteristics of the patient
Clinical Care Plans
Care guidelines created by healthcare providers for individual patients for a specified period of time
Clinical Informatics
A field of information science concerned with the management of data and information used to support the practice and delivery of patient care through the application of computers and computer technologies
Clinical Information System (CIS)
A category of a healthcare information that includes systems that directly support patient care
Clinical Messaging System
Secure messaging systems that are important, persuasive tools included in a broad set of contextual collaboration tools for clinicians
Clinical Pathways a.k.a. Clinical Practice Guidelines
A detailed step-by-step guide used by healthcare practitioners to make knowledge-based decisions related to patient care and issued by an authoritative organization such as a medical society or government agency
Clinical Workstation
A single point of access that includes a common user interface to view information from disparate applications and to launch applications
Clinical/Medical Decision Support System
A special sub-category of clinical information systems that is designed to help healthcare providers make knowledge-based clinical decisions
Clinical/Physician Web Portals
The media for providing clinician/physician access to the provider organization's multiple sources of data from any network-connected device
Computer Output Laser Disk/ Enterprise Report Management (COLD/ERM) Technology
Technology that electronically stores the documents and distributes them with fax, email, Web, and traditional hard-copy print processes
Computer-Assisted Coding
The process of extracting and translating dictated and then transcribed free-text data (or dictated and then computer-generated discrete data) into ICD-9-CM and CPT evaluation and management codes for billing and coding purposes
Consumer Health
Providing services that accommodate more knowledgeable patients while helping them to become more informed and to participate as partners in their own healthcare
Consumer Informatics
The field of information science concerned with the management of data and information used to support consumers by consumers (the general public) through the application of computers and computer technologies
Content
The substantive or meaningful components of a document of collection of documents
Continuous Speech Input
The quality of speech/voice recognition technology that does not require users to pause between words to allow the computer to distinguish between the beginnings and endings of words
Data
The dates, numbers, images, symbols, letters, and words that represent basic facts and observations about people, processes, measurements, and conditions
Data Marts
A well-organized, user-centered, searchable database system that usually draws information from a data warehouse to meet the specific needs of the users
Data Mining
The process of extracting information from a database and then quantifying and filtering discrete, structured data
Data Repositories
An open-structure database that is not dedicated to the software of any particular vendor or data supplier, in which data from diverse sources are stored so that an integrated, multidisciplinary view of the data can be achieved; also called a central data repository or, when related specifically to healthcare data, a clinical data repository
Data Types
A technical category of data (text, numbers, currency, date, memo, and link data) that a field in a database can contain
Data Warehouses
A database that makes it possible to access data from multiple databases and combine the results into a single query and reporting interface
Data Warehousing
The acquisition of all the business data and information from potentially multiple, cross-platform sources, such as legacy databases, departmental databases, and online transaction-based databases, and then the warehouse storage of all the data in one consistent format
Decision Support Systems
A computer-based system that gathers data from a variety of sources and assists in providing structure to the data by using various analytical models and visual tools in order to facilitate and improve the ultimate outcome in decision-making tasks associated with non-routine and non-repetitive problems
Dental Informatics
A field of information science concerned with the management of data and information used to support the practice and delivery of dental healthcare through the application of computers and computer technologies
Diagnostic Image Data
Bit-mapped images used for medical or diagnostic purposes (for example, chest x-rays or computed tomography scans)
Digital
1. A data transmission type based on data that have been binary encoded. 2. A term that refers to the data or information represented in an encoded,
Digital Signature Management Technology
The practice of validating the identity of an individual sending data through the use of an electronic signature
Discrete Data
Data that represent separate and distinct values or observations; that is, data that contain only finite numbers and have only specified values
Document
Any analog or digital, formatted, and preserved "container" of data or information
Document Image Data
Bit-mapped images based on data created and stored on analog paper or photographic film
Document-Imaging Technology
The practice of electronically scanning written or printed paper documents into an optical or electronic system for later retrieval of the document of parts of the document if parts have been indexed
Document Management Technology
Technology that organizes and assembles, secures, and shares documents, and includes such functions as document version control, tech in-check out control, document access control, and text and word searches
E-Commerce
The use of the Internet and its derived technologies to integrate all aspects of business-to-business and business-to-consumer activities, processes, and communications
E-Health
The application of e-commerce to the healthcare industry, including electronic data interchange and links among healthcare entities
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
A standard transmission format using strings of data for business information communicated among the computer systems of independent organizations
Electronic Document/ Content Management System
A storage solution based on digital scanning technology in which source documents are scanned to create digital images of the documents that can be stored electronically on optical disks
Electronic Medical Record (EMR)
An electronic record of health-related information on an individual that conforms to nationally recognized standards and that can be created, managed, and consulted by authorized clinicians and staff across more than one healthcare organization
Electronic Records Management Technology
Systems that create and preserve electronic records
Encryption
The process of transforming text into an unintelligible string of characters that can be transmitted via communications media with a high degree of security and then decrypted when it reaches a secure destination
Enterprise Master Patient Index (EMPI)
An index that provides access to multiple repositories of information from overlapping patient populations that are maintained in separate systems and databases
Evidence-Based Medicine
Healthcare services based on clinical methods that have been thoroughly tested through controlled, peer-reviewed bio-medical sciences
Executive Information System (EIS)
An information system system designed to combine financial and clinical information for use in the management of business affairs of a healthcare organization
Expert Decision Support System
A decision support system that uses a set of rules or encoded concepts to construct a reasoning process
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
A standardized computer language that allows the interchange of data as structured text
Extranets
A system of connections of private Internet networks outside an organization's firewall that uses Internet technology to enable collaborative applications among enterprises
Free-Text Data
Data that are narrative in nature
Geographic Information System (GIS)
A decision support system that is capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced data and information
Gesture Recognition Technology
A method of encoding handwritten, print, or cursive characters and of interpreting the characters as words or the intent of teh writer
Health Information Exchanged (HIE)
The exchange of health information electronically between providers and others with the same level of interoperability, such as labs and pharmacies
Health Information Management (HIM)
An allied health profession that is responsible for ensuring the availability, accuracy, and protection of the clinical information that is needed to deliver healthcare services and to make appropriate healthcare-related decisions
Health Information Technology (HIT)
A term that encompasses the technical roles that process health data and records, such as classification, abstracting, retrieval, and so on
Health 2.0
Web 2.0 technologies and tools used in the healthcare industry
Healthcare Informatics
The field of information science concerned with the management of all aspects of health data and information through the application of computers and computer technologies
HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
A standardized computer language that allows the electronic transfer of information and communications among many different information systems
Identity Management
In the master patient index, policies and procedures that manage patient identity, such as prohibiting the same record number for duplicate patients or duplicate records for one patient
Informatics
A field of study that focuses on the use of technology to improve access to, and utilization of, information
Information
Factual data that have been collected, combined, analyzed, interpreted, and converted into a form that can be used for a specific purpose
Information Management
The acquisition, organization, analysis, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information to support decision-making activities
Information Science
The study of the nature and principles of information
Information Systems (ISs)
An automated system that uses computer hardware and software to record, manipulate, store, recover, and disseminate data
Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) Technology
A method of encoding handwritten, print, or cursive characters and of interpreting the characters as words or the intent of the writer
Intelligent Document Recognition (IDR) Technology
Technology that automatically recognizes analog items, such as tangible materials or documents, or recognizes characters or symbols from analog items, enabling the identified data to be quickly, accurately, and automatically entered into digital systems
Interoperability
The ability, generally by adoption of standards, of systems to work together
Interoperable
Adjective form of interoperability
Interoperate
Verb form of interoperability
Intranets
A private information network that is similar to the Internet and whose servers are located inside a firewall or security barrier so that the general public cannot gain access to information housed within the network
Logical (or Conceptual) Repository
The compilation of multiple physical repositories
Management Information Systems (MIS)
A computer-based system that provides information to a healthcare organization's managers for use in making decisions that affect a variety of day-to-day activities
Mark Sense Technology
Technology that detects the presence or absence of hand-marked characters on analog documents; used for processing questionnaires, surveys, and tests, such as filled-in circles by Number 2 pencils on exam forms
Master Patient Index (MPI)
A list or database created and maintained by a healthcare facility to record the name and identification number of every patient who has ever been admitted or treated in the facility
Medical Informatics
A field of information science concerned with the management of data and information used to diagnose, treat, cure and prevent disease through the application of computers and computer technologies
Metadata
Descriptive data that characterize other data to create a clearer understanding of their meaning and to achieve greater reliability and quality of information
Motion or Streaming Video/Frame Data
A medium for storing, manipulating, and displaying moving images in a format, such as frames, that can be presented on a computer monitor
Multimedia
The combination of free-text, raster or vector graphics, sound, and motion video/frame data
Natural Language Processing Technology
The extraction of unstructured or structured medical word data, which are then translated into diagnostic or procedural codes for clinical and administrative applications
Neural Networks
Nonlinear predictive models that, using a set of data that describe what a person wants to find, detect a pattern to match a particular profile through a training process that involves interactive learning
Nursing Informatics
The field of information science concerned with the management of data and information used to support the practice and delivery of nursing care through the application of computers and computer technologies
Object-Oriented Database
A type of database that uses commands that act as small, self-contained instructional units (objects) that may be combined in various ways
Online/ Real-Time Transaction Processing (OLTP)
The real-time processing of day to day business transactions from a database
Open Source Technology
Applications whose source (human readable) code is freely available to anyone who is interested in downloading the code
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Technology
A method of encoding text from analog paper into bit-mapped images and translating the images into a form that is computer readable
Outcomes Management
The process of systematically tracking a patient's clinical treatment and responses to that treatment, including measures of morbidity and functional status, for the purpose of improving care
Par Level
The accepted, standard inventory level for all supplies and equipment in an organization
Patient/ Consumer Web Portals
The media for providing patient/member access to the provider organization's multiple sources of data from any network-connected device
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
A hand-held microcomputer, without a hard drive, that is capable of running applications, such as e-mail and providing access to data and information, such as notes, phone lists, schedules, and laboratory results, primarily through a pen device
Personal Health Record (PHR)
An electronic or paper health record maintained and updated by an individual for himself or herself
Physical Data Repository
A repository organized into data fields, data records, and data files, storing structured, discrete, clinical, administrative, and financial data as well as unstructured, patient free-text, bit-mapped, real audio, streaming video, or vector graphic data
Physiological Signal Processing Systems
Systems that store vector graphic data based on the human body's signals and create output based on the lines plotted between the signals' points
Pixel
An abbreviation for the term picture element, which is defined by many tiny bits of data or points
Point-of-Care Information Systems
A computer system that captures data at the location (for example, bedside, exam room, or home) where the health care service is performed
Protocol
In healthcare, a detailed plan of care for a specific medical condition based on investigative studies; in medical research, a rule or procedure to be followed in a clinical trial; in a computer network, a protocol is used to address and ensure delivery of data
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
A system of digital certificates and other registration authorities that verify and authenticate the validity of each party involved in a secure transaction
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
An automatic recognition technology that uses a device attached to an object to transmit data to a receiver and does not require direct contact
Raster Image
A digital image or digital data made up of pixels in a horizontal and vertical grid or a matrix instead of lines plotted between a series of points
Real Audio Data
The storing, manipulating, and displaying of sound in a computer-readable format
Record Locator Service (RLS)
A key infrastructure component of the Common Framework to support connectivity and interoperability
Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO)
An organization that manages the local deployment of systems promoting and facilitating the exchange of healthcare data within a national health information network
Relational Database
A type of database that stores data in predefined tables made up of rows and columns
Secure Messaging Systems
A system that eliminates the security concerns that surround e-mail, but retains the benefits of proactive, traceable, and personalized messaging
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Software that is provided through an outsourcing contract
Speech Recognition Technology
Technology that translates speech into text
Structured Data
Binary, computer-readable data
Taxonomy
The principles of a classification system, such as data classification, and the study of the general principles of scientific classification
Text Mining
The process of extracting and then quantifying and filtering free-text data
Unstructured Data
Nonbinary, human-readable data
Vector Graphic (or Signal Tracing) Data
Digital data that have been captured as points and are connected by lines ( a series of point coordinates) or areas (shapes bounded by lines)
Web Content Management Systems
Systems in which information placed in a Web site can be labeled and tracked so that it can be easily located, modified, and reused
Web Portal
A Web site entryway through which to access, find, and deliver information
Web Services
An open, standardized way of integrating disparate, Web browser-based and other applications
Web 2.0
The second generation of Internet-based services that emphasizes online collaboration and sharing among users; some of these applications and technologies include blogs, social networks, content communities, wikis, and podcasts
Web-Based Systems and Applications
Systems and applications that use Internet technology
Wireless Technology
A type of technology that uses wireless networks and wireless devices to access and transmit data in real time
Workflow Technology
Technology that automatically routes electronic documents into electronic in-baskets of its department clerks or supervisors for disposition decisions