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In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
What is the main explanation for the difference in basal metabolic rates between males and females of the same body weight?
Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass
What are known side effects of having insufficient fat stores?
Infertility, clinical depression, abnormal hunger regulation
Jim is a 45 year old who eats fast food at least 3 times a week and smokes a pack of cigarettes each day. He just had a physical examination and was told that his body mass index is 24. In what category would Jim's BMI be classified?
Jackie, who has a sedentary lifestyle, is 5'5" tall and weighs 165 lbs. She calculated her BMI to be 27.5. She recognizes that her body weight is unhealthy and vows to improve her eating habits and begin a regular program of physical fitness. Her goal is to achieve a BMI of 22. Approximately how much weight (lbs) must she lose?
What percentage of adult body weight is water?
60%; ³/₄ Lean tissue is water; Less than ¹/₄ fat tissue is water
roles of water in the body
1. Transports nutrients and wasted products
2. Maintains structure of large molecules
3. Participates in metabolic reactions
4. Solvent for minerals, vitamins, amino acids, glucose and others
5. Lubricant and cushion around joints, inside eyes, spinal cord, and amniotic fluid
6. Regulate body temperature
7. Maintains blood volume
a brain center that controls activities such as maintenance of water balance, regulation of body temperature, and control of appetite
excessive water contents in all body fluid compartments, rare, occurs mostly in endurance athletes; can lead to hyponatremia and death
enzyme released by kidney cells when blood pressure is low; kidneys reabsorb Na → H₂O; leads to the production of angiotensin II
salts that dissolve in water and dissociate into charged particles called ions; enable body to move fluids
effects of fluid and electrolyte imbalance
vomiting and diarrhea, lose sodium; uncontrolled diabetes, lose glucose; can occur with vomiting, diarrhea, heavy sweating, burns, traumatic wounds
the concentration of hydrogen atoms; unit of measure expressing a substance's acidity or alkalinity
an alkaline compound with that formula HCO₃, it is produced in all cell fluids from the dissociation of carbonic acid to help maintain the body's acid-base balance; it is also secreted from the pancreas during digestion as part of the pancreatic juice
regulate pH in the body; weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp sudden changes in pH
regulation of acid-base balance by the kidneys
selects which ions to retain and which to excrete; urine's acidity level fluctuates; long term control
bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system
If increase in H+, equation would shift to left and generate CO₂ and increase respiration; if pH increases, more CO₂ would combine with H₂O to form H+ ions to decrease pH
the major minerals
sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca²+), phosphorous (P), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S); also called macrominerals, essential mineral nutrients the human body requires in relatively larger amounts (greater than 100mg per day)
H₂CO₃; compound that results from the combination of carbon dioxide and water; of particular importance in maintain the body's acid-base balance
always retain their chemical identity; cannot be destroyed by heat, air, acid or mixing
found in legumes and grains; a binder that can combine chemically with minerals and prevent absorption
found in spinach and rhubarb; a binder that can combine chemically with minerals and prevent absorption
chief roles of sodium
maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance--principle extracellular cation; assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
recommendations for sodium
<2300mg daily; <1500mg for elderly, black people, and people with high blood pressure
sodium food sources
table salt, moderate amount in meats, milks, breads, vegetables, and large amounts in processed foods
a characteristic of individuals who respond to a high salt intake with an increase in blood pressure or to a low salt intake with a decrease in blood pressure
dietary approaches to stop hypertension; diet emphasizes consumption of addition fruits and veggies per day, fat-free or low fat milk and dairy products, inclusion of whole grains, nuts and beans, reduced intake of red meat, butter, and high fat foods
hyponatremia; lost with vomiting diarrhea, heavy sweating; symptoms: muscle cramps and mental apathy
functions of chloride
maintains fluid and electrolyte balance; major anion of extracellular fluids; mostly associated with sodium; part of hydrochloric acid found in stomach, necessary for proper digestion
functions of potassium
body's principle intracellular cation; maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance; facilitates many reactions; supports cell integrity; assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions (steady heartbeat)
increase in blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, glucose intolerance, salt sensitivity, kidney stones, bone turnover
muscular weakness, vomiting, if given into a vein it can stop the heart; kidneys will accelerate excretion
process in which calcium, phosphorus and other minerals crystallize on collagen matrix of growing bone, hardening it
calcium in body fluids
regulates muscle contractions; transmission of nerve impulses; role in mediating constriction and relaxation of blood vessels
a protein that calcium binds with and activates; one role is to activate the enzymes involved in breaking down glycogen, which releases energy for muscle contractions
calcium and disease prevention
may prevent against hypertension; play role in maintaining healthy body weight
a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that regulates blood calcium by lowering it when levels rise too high
a hormone from the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium by raising it when levels fall too low; also known as parathormone
intermittent spasm of the extremities due to nervous and muscular excitability caused by low blood calcium concentrations
factors that inhibit calcium absorption
lack of stomach acid, vitamin D deficiency, high phosphorus intake, phytates and oxalates
peak bone mass
the highest attainable bone density for an individual, developed during the first three decades of life
a protein in the intestinal cells, made with the help of Vitamin D, that facilitates calcium absorption
calcium food sources
milk, milk products; some brands of tofu, nuts and seeds, corn tortilla, mustard and turnip greens, bok choy, broccoli, kale
constipation; increased risk of urinary stone formation and kidney dysfunction; interference with absorption of other minerals
chief functions of calcium in the body
mineralization of bones and teeth; also involved in muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting, blood pressure
chief functions of phosphorus
mineralization of bones and teeth; part of every cell; important in genetic material, part of phospholipids, used in energy transfer and in buffer systems that maintain acid-base balance
chief functions of magnesium in the body
bone mineralization, building of protein, enzyme action, normal muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of teeth, and functioning of immune system
the very dense bone tissue that forms the outer shell surrounding trabecular bone and comprises the shaft of a long bone
the lacy inner structure of calcium crystals that supports the bone's structure and provides a calcium storage bank; sensitive to hormones; losses become significant in the 30s
Which of the following represents the most reliable source of dietary zinc?
Meats and whole grain cereals
After consuming a very large meal, the desire to eat a slice of chocolate cake is an example of behavior known as
What term is given to the condition of a female athlete who has an eating disorder and develops amenorrhea and osteoporosis?
Female athlete triad
How do you increase bone mineral density?
take in adequate calcium and vitamin D; strength training helps to build strong bones
Food sources of trace minerals
dependent on soil and water composition; food processing; interactions with other trace minerals
trace mineral deficiencies
mild-easily overlooked; severe- mostly seen in children resulting in failure to grow and thrive
other iron absorption-enhancing factors
vitamin C, citric acid and lactic acid from foods, HCl acid from stomach
iron absorption inhibiting factors
phytates and fiber, oxalates, calcium and phosphorus, EDTA, tannic acid (tea and coffee)
microcytic hypochromic anemia
small cell, too little color; fatigue, weakness, apathy; iron deficiency anemia
the habit of eating ice, clay paste, or other non food substance; generally seen in women and children from low-income groups
hemochromatosis; more common in men; toxicities may be caused by repeated blood transfusions or massive doses of supplements
found in foods as a result of contamination by inorganic iron salts from iron cookware or iron containing soils
roles of zinc in the body
supports work of many metalloenzymes; involved in growth, development and immune system; sperm and fetal development
zinc deficiency symptoms
growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, impaired immune function, hair loss
zinc food sources
red meat, shellfish, poultry, legumes; can be bound by phytates and fiber in diet (although rare)
Iodide function in body
part of thyroid hormones; regulate body temperature, metabolic rate, reproduction, growth, blood cell production, nerve and muscle function
reduction in thyroid hormone; thyroid gland cells enlarge, visible lump in neck; Goiter
severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy that causes extreme and irreversible mental and physical retardation
feeling of satisfaction, fullness that occurs during a meal; due to stomach receptors stretching, increased CCK
feeling of satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until next meal; determines how much time passes between meals
the energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest; 2/3 of total energy expenditure
thermic effect of food (TEF)
an estimation of the energy required to process food (digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store ingested nutrients)
fat stored within the abdominal cavity in association with the internal abdominal organs
excess fat around the trunk of the body; apple shaped; more common in men; increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, and some cancers
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