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Educational Psychology

Final Exam Test questions and answer
STUDY
PLAY
Normal behavior for children ages 6-12 DOES NOT include...
enuresis
A red flag for a student aged 13-18 is
sexual promiscuity
40% of sexual abuse offenders who abuse children under 6 years old are aged...
under 18
As a teacher, you are able to effectively report child abuse and are mandated to do so
all of the above
John often came to class with bruises. After seeing this occur throughout the year, Mrs. Dillon reported this to the police. After an investigation there we no signs of physical abuse. John's mother tried to press charges against Mrs. Dillon for falsely accussing her of child abuse. Which law or clause protects Mrs. Dillon from this charge?
"Good Faith" Clause
As a mandated reporter, you have many responsibilities. If you have a reasonable belief that a student is being abused and decided a report is necessary, you are legally required to
make sure the report is made either through your principal of by you directly
Mental illness may develop as a result of...
all of the above
Which of the following is NOT associated with burnout
exercising daily
The teacher's lounge in the building is an unpleasant place for you and causes stress because of this you decide to find another place to eat your lunch during the week. This is an example of avoiding stress by:
changing your environment
What is the difference between mental health problems and mental health disorders?
Mental health problems are disstressing enough for students to seek help, but disorders are severe enough that they result in diagnosis
John is a student who is giving you a hard time. He has a low IQ, experiences developmental delay, and physical illnesses. These are risk factors for:
Mental Health
Child neglect is defined as:
Chronic failure of a parent's ability to provide or take care of a child
According to the Safe Schools Act, it is the mandated reporter's responsibility to report the following to their principal except:
any possession of 'offensive materials'
3rd grade student Elizabeth is always on time to school and gets her work done before it is due. She wears appropriate clothing for the weather and there are no physical signs of abuse on her body. However, Elizabeth's interactions with her peers are overtly physically affectionate. She seems to have knowledge of intimate activites that most kids her age do not. What kind of abuse could this behavior signal?
sexual abuse
In social cognitive theorists' conceptualiatin of reciprical causation, which one of the following is a person factor?
Curt's friend Doug will be in his science class this year
Only one of the following statements describes an accurate comparison between behaviorist and social cognitive theories of learning. Which statement is accurate?
Only social cognitive theorists propose that reinforcement affects observers as well as the individuals actually being reinforced
Which one of these is NOT an indicator that a student suffers from mental health issues?
Lack of attention in the classroom
As a mandated reporter a teacher:
has to legally report any signs of abuse or report even if they only hear of abuse
Which of the following elements affect mental health
all of the above
In what way does self-efficacy differ from the term self-concept?
self-efficacy varies depending on the specific task to be performed
Three of the following are aspects of self-regulated behavior as social cognitive theorists define the term. Which one is not necessarily an aspect of self-regulated behavior?
Reading an assigned textbook chapter
Maria is what social cognitive theorists would describe as a self-regulating person when it comes to her moral behavior. Given this info, which of the following descriptions best describes Maria's moral behavior?
She has an internal set of standards regarding right and wrong behavior, and she feels guilty when she violates those standards
Three of the following are characteristics of self-regulated learning. Which one is not neccessarily a characteristic associated with self-regulated learning?
Working as hard a possible to achieve the teacher's instructional objectives
Three of the following statements are consistent with social cognitive theory. Which is not?
Learning occurs only when a change in behavior also occurs
Which of the following examples illustrates vicarious reinforcement?
Alice notices that her friend Ellen gets extra attentio from the teacher when she acts helpless. Alice begins to act helpless as well
these four teachers claim to be practicing principles from social cognitive theory. Based on the following info, which one s not actually doing so?
Mr. Carlson tells his class he smokes cigarettes but admits that he wishes he'd never started
Only one of the following definitely illustrates high self-efficacy. Which one is the best example of self-efficacy?
Danielle knows she is a good singer
Which one of the following is the best example of a social reinforcer
being told that you did a good job
Which of the following is the best example of the use of the Premack principle
Being allowed to play basketball at a friend's house after you finish your homework
The term negative reinforcement can best be described as a situation in which:
Something the learner doesn't want is taken away after a response
Ms. O'Connor reinforces James every time she sees him reading independently. Once he is reading frequently, she begins to reinforce him only every second time, then only every third time, and so on, gradually reinforcing him less and less often. From a behaviorist perspective, we can predict Jimmy will:
Continue to read independently
Which one of the following statements best illustrates the process of cueing acceptable behaviors?
"Students who are sitting quietly will be the first ones to be dismissed,"
Which one of the following statements best characterizes ho reinforement of incompatible behavior can help reduce inappropriate behavior in the classroom?
An undesirable behavior will decrease when a student is reinforced for a behavior in an opposite manner
Three of the following are recommended practices when using punishment to reduce an inappropriate behavior. Which one is NOT recommended?
Administer a students punishment in front of classmates so they learn by example.
Social cognitive theory can best be characterized as being concerned with learning:
through observations of others
Which one of the following statements best illustrates social cognitive theorists' notion of reciprocal causation?
The environment affects students' behavior, but their behavior also affects the environment they experience.
One characteristic common to all behavorist learning theories is an emphasis on:
the effect of the environment on learning
Ivan Pavlov conducted a series of studies that led him to propose his theory of classical conditioning. In these studies Pavlov observed how a dog learned to:
salivate to a simple stimulus such as a light
Which of the following alternatives describes a conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning?
A stimulus that begins to elicit a response it has not previously elicited
Which of the following statements best describes the phenomenon of generalization in behaviorist learning theories?
When students learn to respond to a certain stimulus in a particular way, they are likely to respond to similar stimuli in the same way.
Which one of the following statements best describes positive reinforcement?
Reinforcement consists of getting something a learner wants.
Which one of the following behaviors meets both of the essential criteria for creativity?
Rick finds a new use for old greeting cards: cutting them into circles and coating them with resin so that people can use them as coasters for soft drinks.
Three of the following strategies should promote students' creative behavior. Which one is unlikely to promote creativity?
Introducing a subject in class and then intentionally stopping when students have only a partial understanding of it.
A higher-leval question asks students to respond in which one of the following ways?
To develop an answer not specificaly provided in class
Critical thinking can best be described as involving:
judging the worth of info or arguments
Which one of the following is the best example of positive transfer?
Zelda uses the formula for calculating the area of circles when she wants to figure out how much bigger a 10-inch pizza is than a 7-inch pizza.
Which one of the following is the best example of negative transfer?
Nellie sees five squared (52) in her math book and reads it as "fifty-two)
Which one of the following is the best example of general transfer?
Melinda is trying to learn the 27 ammendments to the U.S. Constitution, so she makes up a memory trick similar to one she used when she had to learn the 12 cranial nerves in biology
If we want to enhance students' metacognitive processes during problem solving, we would be most likely to:
suggest questions that students might ask themselves as they work on problems.
Jeffrey needs to study for an upcoming exam. He does a number of things to prepare for the exam, four of which are listed below. Three of these illustrate metacognition. Which one reflects little or no metacognitive activity?
He directs his eyes to the first page only
Which one of the following is the best illustration of metacognition?
Dolly is studying for a history test. She knows that she has trouble with dates, so she checks herself by giving herself a short quiz after each chapter.
Given the research of effective study skills, Which one of the following pieces of advice should you not give to a struggling student?
"Take notes on a lecture only after it's over,"
Three of the following factors influence students' ability to use effective study strategies. Which one is largely irrelevant to students' use of effective strategies?
Whether they are "morning people" or "night owls"
According to Payne, what are the two anchors of any effective classroom discipline program that helps move students to self-governmance?
structure and choice
Payne cites emotional resources as important for overcoming poverty because:
they provide the stamina needed to persist in new situations, rather than return to old habit patterns.
Which of the following is an example of a middle class hidden rule?
I know how to use most of the tools in the garage.
Which of these hidden rules is NOT associated with the middle class?
Believes fate holds destiny
According to Payne, all individuals possess three internal, guiding voices. It is common for children in poverty to act as their own parents resulting in the loss of the adult voice. Which one of the following defines the adult voice?
factual, non-judgmental, and ahs a win-win attitude
Under what condition would it be considered unethical to break student confidentiality?
If the student's parent requested the info
Select the step which is NOT part of hte 8 Step Ethical Problem Solving Method
Generate a list of alternative punishments possible for hte person involved
In step 4 of the 8 Step Ethical Problem Solving Method you are asked to "Identify the key stakeholders and evaluate the _____?
rights, responsibilities, and welfare of all affected parties
What is the first step in the 8 Step Ethical Problem Solving Model?
Describe the parameters of the situation
Adam, a low SES freshman from inner city Chicago is experiencing problems with communicating with his professors at Mizzou. According to Payne's framework for Understanding Poverty, Adam is likely experiencing problems with...
Formal Register of Language
Ricky is having friend problems at school that he doesn't know how to deal with. He doesn't feel he has anyone to confide in since he is an only child and his parents work long hours every day in their jobs as day laborers in the local farms. Which resource is Henry lacking to address his friendship concerns?
Support systems
According to Payne, the pledge of allegiance is an example of which type of register of language?
frozen
In which of the following scenarios below does the teacher behave in an unethical manner?
Both a and c
A student in your class appears to be under the influence of drugs. His eyes are red, he smells of marijuana, and he has been acting less alert that unsual. According to the 8 Step Ethical Problem Solving Model, the last thing you should do is:
Make the decision to tell the authorities and check back in to see how the student is doing
According to the lecture, there are four ethical principles that a teacher should follow when dealing with student related issues. Which one of the following is NOT one that was discussed in lecture?
responsibility to colleagues
According to the NEA code of ethics, teachers have a commitment to ethical behavior within the profession of teaching because:
the education profession is vested by the public with a trust and responsibility requiring the highest ideals of professional service.
The ethical guidelines of the NEA state that the privacy of colleagues
Shall not disclose info about colleagues obtained in the course of professional service unless disclosure serves a compelling professional purpose or is required by law
In regards to ethics, when dealing with confidentiallity, in which circumstance would it be appropriate to reveal what a student has told you in confidence
both a and b
Which one of the following best reflects the Hidden Rules of the middle class according to Payne?
money is to be managed
Which one of the following is an example of norm-referenced score?
Josh earns a presidential fitness award in gym class for exceeding the average number of pull-ups and for completing a mile in less time that the average kid his age.
According to Payne, the definition of poverty s the extent to which an individual does without resources. In considering the likelihood of moving out of poverty, which one of the following 'resources' does she believe to be the most important?
emotional
Which one of the statements is not an idividual's reason to leave generational poverty as discussed by Payne?
opportunity to accept charity given by others
what does FERPA allow teachers or administrators to do?
tell parents what their child's grade is
Which one of the following statements is consistent with the textbook's discussion of scoring criteria for a formal classroom assessment?
Students should be informed in advance regarding the specific scoring criteria a teacher will use
Which one of the following statements best charaterizes the effects of test anxiety?
a small amount of anxiety about a classroom assessment is likely to facilitate most students' performance
Whenever we modify an assessment to accomidate a student's special needs, we must remember that we areinevitably redcting what characteristic of effective assessment?
standardization
Mrs. Johnson, a middle school Social Studies teacher is trying to figure out whether of not her teaching and her students' learning meet the international goals and the content area standards for the covered material this semester. What type of assessment scores would best communicate this info?
Criterion-Reference scores
an informal assessment is:
an unplanned observation of something a student says of does
In her book, Ormrod lists several solutions to help narrow the achievement gap, which one of these scenarios does NOT represent one of those solutions?
Mrs. Wright helps her students only learn what will be on the standardized tests, so that her students will receive better grades on the tests as to improve the gap.
Which one of the following eamples illustrates informal assessment?
observing how students handle the ball as they play soccer in gym class
Which one of the following is the best example of performance assessment
having students do as many push-ups as they can
by encouraging students to evaluate their own performance during assessment activities we are most likely to:
promote self-regulation
as teachers, we need to be concerned that any assessment tool we use is actually assessing what it is designed to assess. here we are concerned about the ______ of effective (RSVP) assessment practices
validity
classroom assessment instruments can be valid only when they are also
reliable
Which one of the following provides the best example of the halo effect?
Mr. Urchart overrates Cathy's gymnastic skills in P.E. class because she is head cheerleader and he believes she has provided good leadership to the team
when we give high school students instructions about a summutive classroom assessment, we should:
communicate clear guidelines about how they should respond
Which one of the following is a legitimate concern about the use of performance assessment?
its reliability and content validitly are sometimes questionable.
Which of the following students show motivation consistent with theoretical views of self worth?
Monica doesn't read the comments her teacher has written on her research paper because she suspects that they're not very flattering.
which one of the following statements best describes motivation theorists' concept of sense of self-determination?
Believing that you have some choice about what you do.
Four students in Ms. Bennett's social studies class hae to give an oral report on a country of their choosing. Which one of the students apears to have a mastery goal?
John does his report on Spain because that is where his family is from. He has enjoyed talking to his grandfather about what it is like to live in Spain.
Three of the following are accurate statements about interrelationships between affect and motivation. Whihc statement is not accurate?
Learners tend to be most at ease when they know that events are beyond their control
Manual is in the 6th grade and a foreign exchange student from Puerto Rico. He is struggling with adapting to the English language which ultimately affects his grade when he takes a test. Which of the following is NOT a solution for how Manual can potentially do better in the English language and on tests?
Allow Manual to take the test home and if necessary have his parents help him
In your music class the teacher decides on chair order by having your whole trumpet section play the same piece and then evaluates their quality relative to the other students. This best describes what kind of assessmetn?
norm-referenced
According to FERPA, which of the following is NOT an acceptable practice regarding assessment?
Posting test scores on the door based on the students' birthdays
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of informal assessment
informal assesment is valid
of the four essential characteristics for a good classroom assessment instrument the "P" in RSVP stands for?
Practicality; inexpensive, easy to use and takes only a small amount of time to administer and score
Ms. Smith's 7th grade language arts class has a reading chart on the wall to chart how mny books they read during the month of december. If they read 3 books each, the class as a wholewill receive a movie day where they get to choose a movie. What type of motivation is this classified as?
Extrinisic motivation
The cognitive theory of motivation that one fo the congnitions that affect motivation is goals. Out of the four types of goals, which of these scenarios best illustrates a mastery approach?
Sam loves playing football, but for some reason he just can't seem to throw that perfect spiral. After many attempts he asks his dad for tips and suggestions on how to throw a great pass since his dad played football throughout his younger years
"My parents are proud of my academic achievements and peers look up to classmates who are part of a team or club. It means a lot to me that i graduate with a perfect GPA and I hope to be valedictorian" Which type of goal does this indicate?
Performance-approach goal
Anthony is a seventh grade student who is struggling to be motivated in his science class. Which of the following theories regarding Anthony's lack of motivation exhibits a cognitive theoretical approach?
"Anthony's teacher should present him with choices, allowing him some control over his activities. His intrinsic motivation to learn will increase if he is granted a sense of autonomy and self-determination"
what is a good way to enhance student's sense of self determination?
give students opportunites to make choices
elementary-school girls tend to
be more positive about math,science, and sports and have more external attributions
Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. In contemporary cognitive psychology, a script can best be described as..
knowledge about the typical sequence of events in an activity
which one of the following best illustrates Erikson's state of identity versus role confusion?
Craig is trying to decide what career he wants to pursue.
Many cognitive psychologists believe that learning and understanding are often constructive in nature. Three of the following scenarios illustrate such construction. Which scenario does not neccessarily involve construction in learning?
Mr. McFarland asks his third graders to practice their multiplication tables every day. After a month of such practice, Misty can retrieve all the basic multiplication facts quickly and easily.
Which one of the following is the best example of Piaget's concept of assimilation?
A kindergartner uses a white crayon instead of chalk to draw on the blackboard
Each of the teachers below has students with misconceptions about the material they are studying. Three of the teachers are using stategies that should help their students correct these misconceptions. Which teacher is not using an effective strategy for changing misconceptions?
Ms. Cao reminds her students that she will be testing them on the material they are studying.
According to Erik Erikson, students' ability to trust those around them intially stems from:
Experiences with adults during infancy
Which one of the folowing examples best illustrates the idea of promoting multiple constructions of the same situation?
A history teacher describes the Mexican-American War from the perspectives of both the United States and Mexico
Which one of th following statements best describes the notion of conceptual understanding?
Students learn ideas related to a topic in a meaningful and integrated fasion
Which one of the following statements best describes the idea that learning involves a process of construction?
Students use various pieces of new information about a topic to create their own understandings
As his teacher reads a story, Wesley pictures the main characters the way he things they look. By forming visual images based on the verbal descriptions his teacher reads, Wesley is _____ those descriptions.
encoding
Which one of the following best describes Piaget's notion of equilibration?
A child revises existing schemes to incorporate new information
Which one of the following statements best characterized cognitive psychology's approach to learning?
Students's learning is a function of what they do mentally, with the info they receive
Which one of the following examples illustrates how the imaginary audience can be a factor in the adolescent's developing self-concept?
Bernita feels as if everyone must be looking at her when she walks down the hall with her friends
Which one of the following best illustrates Piaget's concept of accommodation?
Donna reviese her understanding of what clouds are like wen she studies them in science
Which one of the following statements best describes sensory register?
It holds everything that is sensed in a relatively unencoded fashion
Which one of the following states best describes Piaget's view of how children acquire knowledge about the world?
Children actively construct their own view of the world from their experiences with the enviornment
Which one of the following statements best describes theorists' rationale for advocating the use of authentic activities?
Authentic activities help students relate classroom subjects to real-world contexts
Which one of the following individuals is in Kohlberg's social contract stage of moral reasoning?
Barbara obeys the teacher because she understands that the only way schools can run smoothly is if students behave appropriately
Which one of the following best describes how information is stored in long-term memory?
in a variety of possible forms
It is difficult to think about too many things all at the same time- a fact that reflects
the limited capacity of working memory
Which one of the following is the best example of problem-based learning?
Devising a way to move a large heavy object using principles of physics
Which one of the following is asociated with Piaget's concrete operations stage?
Awareness that other peoples thoughts might differ from one's own
Which one of the following statements best characterizes working memory(sometimes known as short term memory)?
It actively processes a small amount of info, typically holding it for less than a minute
To remember tat the capital of the state of Washington is Olympia, Bart pictures GEorge Washington running a race in the Olympics. Bart's technique illustrates:
The keyword method
Which one of the following best describes a concept?
a category of similar objects or events
students often hold on stubbornly to their misconceptions about the world. Three of the following are possible explanations as to why this might be so. Which statement is not a likely explanation for the resilience of misconeptions?
Synapes in the brain become less effective over time
Jules is discovering that by being able to write all his letters, he is winning the approval of his teacher. Without knowing anything else about Jules, the best guess is that he is in Erikson's state of
industry versus inferiority
Piaget's sensorimotor state is characterized by
schemes based primarily on perceptions and behaviors
When cogniive psychologists talk about the process of "putting"things in memory, they often use the term:
storage
If we consider Kohlberg's theory of moral development, we could best characterize children's moral development as a process of
Progressing through a series of states from self-centerdness to increasing concern about the needs and rights of others
Which one of the following statements best illustrates a universal in development as developmentalists define the term?
Young children show similar patterns in their language development regardless of the specific language that they learn.
In educational psychology, a theory can best be characterized as:
an explanation of how and why learning or development occurs
Which one of the following is the best example of qualitative research?
interviewing middle school students about cliques at their school
Three of the following are examples of mnemonics. Which one is not a mnemonic?
To learn how to drive a car with a standard transmission Bart practices the various parts of the task (steering, shifting, and braking) separately
Three of the following are accurate statements about the shortcomings of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning. Which one is inaccurate?
Children often show conventional thinking for several years and then revert back preconventional thinking when they reach adolescence.
In the human brain, a great deal of synaptic pruning occurs in early childhood. This pruning appears to be
ad adaptive process that allows children to deal more efficiently with typical tasks in their environment
A sensitive period in development can best be described as:
an age range during which environmental condidtions are most likely to have an effect on a particular aspect of a child's development
Vygotsky's concept of zone of proximal development refers to:
the range of tasks children can accomplish only with support
Three of the following are examples of authentic activities..Which one is least authentic?
taking an essay test in a history class
three of the following are enefits of classroom discussions. Which one is not a typical benefit of discussing info in class?
class discussions promote more rapid learning of classroom subject matter
Which one of the following statements is more accurate regarding how learners often acquire procedural knowledge?
learner first learn it as declarative knowledge; with time and practice, it gradully becomes procedural knowledge
when asked which students they would most like to do things with, most middle school students choose classmates who:
are cooperative and sensitive
Tyler learns tha Christopher Columbus's first voyage across the atlantic was financed by Queen Isabella of Spain. He thinks to himself, "She probably thought she would make a profit on her investment." by considering the queen's motives tyler is demonstrating which one of the following processes?
elaboration
Which one of the following scenarios best reflects the basic idea of social constructivism
two students discuss possible interpretations of the proverb, "we only know the worth of water when the well is dry"
Which one of the following is the best example of a teachers pedagogical content knowldge?
knowing several effective ways to teach studnets about negative numbers
From a Vygotskian perspective, scaffolding serves what purpose in instruction?
it supports students as they perform difficult tasks
which one of the following most accurately describes the general concept of temperament?
an inherited predisposition to interact with one's enviornment in certain ways
from Piage'ts perspective, children are:
eager to interact with and make sense of their world
a community of learnings can best be described as
as classroom in which a cooperative spirit of helping one another learn prevails
In Piaget's theory a scheme can best be described as
an organized set of similar thoughts of actions
which one of the following best describes how neurons transmit messages to one another?
by sending chemical substances across a tiny gap between them
The textbook offers several suggestions for studying a textbook effectively. Which one of the following is not neccessarily reccommended?
take detailed notes on the book's content
Which one of the following teaching practices is definitely an example of evidence-based practice?
a fourth grade teacher uses a reading program that research has shown to be effective for fourth graders