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The Hopi Peoples are matrilineal pueblo people that arrived on First, Second, and Third Mesa in Northeastern Arizona and are Uto-Aztecan speakers. They are dry land farmers who could harvest in somewhat arid lands. They cap water from the ground and set their fields below the mesas. They also are not one clan but many that arrived on the mesas. THe Bear clan was the first and accepted new clans through religious offerings. These Religious ceremonies are owned by clan.
Hopivotskwani (Hopi Path of Life)
Hopivotskawani is the Hopi way of life which they were taught after they had risen out of the earth thru the first, second and third worlds. As they entered the fourth world they were presented six ears of corn and chose the blue corn (Sakwapu) which gave a life of language, work, hardship, but long-lasting. Their culture revolves around these deep religious cycles.
THe Katsinam is the mediator between Hopi and deities, and Hopi spirits that bring water to the Hopi people. They offer water in the winter in the form of snow for their first crops and second crops from summer rains. These people do not practice irrigation farming. The Katsinam was speculated to have begun after Great Drought in the 1200s.
Hopi matrilineal clans
After the clans had arrived in the fourth world, they were instructed to spread and did so by following descent matrilineally. The Hopi do not consider themselves one clan but many clans who arrive on the Mesas at different times. Each clan has a Wuuya or symbol that commemorates their journey.
Pueblo Revolt of 1680
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was a successful united revolt against the Spaniards on April 10th. This resulted from interaction with the Spaniards since colonization in 1629. The Spanish established encomiendas that permitted the extraction of corn, woolen or cotton. They also suppressed Religious traditions and destroyed kivas that were used in order to regain balance.
The Awat'ovi is a Hopi clan that was destroyed by the other Hopi clans after they had allowed Spanish mission to re-enter their lands. After the Pueblo revolt in 1680, the Spanish attempted to reclaim the Pueblo lands in the 1700s, and the Hopi were the only one who kept their land. The killing of the Awat'ovi has left a scar on the Hopi since they claim to be peaceful people.
Peabody Black Mesa Coal Mine
Peabody Coal Mine on Black Mesa was an establishment that granted from Navajo and Hopi peoples in 1966, but this led to rising factionalism with in the peoples. John Boyden represented the Peabody coal and Hopi, screwed over the Indians in profits. Tension is created because although the Hopi are offered royalties for social projects, and employed, others are upset about the pollution of the water and sacred lands.
The Eastern Pueblos differ from the Western Pueblo peoples due to the value that they place on non-kin moieties or bilateral descent. The Tewas where non-kin related division, and importance was given to organizations. They are also very collaborative due being situated along the Rio Grande and necessity of irrigation. These people do however, share commonalities through their sedentary life, their layered and close housing, and autonomous social structure.
The Western Pueblos differ from the Eastern Pueblo peoples due to the value that they place on matrilineal descent. The Hopi and Zuni peoples organize their society in terms of Matrilineal clans. The first thing they say upon greeting is the clan they come from. They people however, share commonalities through sedentary life, their layered and close housing, and autonomous social structure.
Pueblo Languages range from the Uto-Aztecan, Keresan, Kio-Tanoan and linguistic isolates. This shows the wide diversity of the structurally similar Pueblo peoples. It also illustrates how the Pueblo peoples came from different places of origin and came together and adopted others patterns.
Dozier's Irrigation Hypothesis
Dozier's Irrigation Hypothesis asserts that the importance of irrigation in the Eastern Pueblo peoples led to greater village integration, sociopolitical organization, and sodalities of crosscutting clans. This is strongly supported by the Eastern Pueblo peoples dependency on one another in order to control agriculture by irrigation of along the Rio Grande.
Matrilineal descent is the tracing of lineage through the ancestry of the mother. The Matrilineal descent is valued in Western Pueblos of the Hopi, Laguna, Zuni, and Acoma. This also relates to Martrilocal residence or the residing with the mother's clan.
Bilateral descent is the tracing of lineage through the ancestry of the mother and father. Americans share this custom. Eastern pueblos have a stronger emphasis on Bilateral descent but have an emphasis on moiety organization or the division of society.
Juan de Onate
Juan Onate was the man who colonized New Mexico and the Pueblo lands, creating tension between Pueblo and Spaniards. The colonization in 1598 made the horse prominent enough to impact raid economies, and was the first and lasting contact between Pueblos and Spaniards.
During early contact between the Pueblo peoples and Spaniards, Encomiendas were established in order to acquire tribute from Pueblo peoples in the form of corn, cotton or woolens. This affected the lifestyles of the Pueblo as droughts occurred and disease broke out.
Pueblo Revolt of 1680 (Pueblos)
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was the escalation of tensions between Pueblos and Spaniards since the colonization by Juan de Onate in 1598. Tensions grew as Franciscan Missions eliminated the old religious practices of the Pueblos and destroyed kivas, the encomienda systems was established to extract tribute in the form of corn, cotton and woolens, old world diseases and drought made life difficult in order to provide for both the family and the encomienda. Pueblos began secrete revolt in the form of religious practicings. They finally united temporarily in order to force out the Spaniards.
During the late 1600s, a reconquista was made in order to reclaim the Pueblo lands. In 1692, Diego de Vargas led the reconquista and reclaimed all of the Pueblo clans except the Hopi peoples. After the reconquest, Spain was concerned about the Pueblo peoples for fear of another revolt. As a result, the Spanish were less harsh and later unified in order to combat the Apache raid economies.
U.S. v Sandoval (1913)
The US v Sandoval of 1913 reversed the previous decision of US v Joseph in 1876 and granted that Pueblos were entitled to the same protection as other US Tribes. Following the independence in 1821 35 Spanish land grants were recognized under the Treaty of Guadelupe in 1848. The US stated that Pueblo land grants could be sold in the 1876 case US v. Joseph. The decision was reversed in 1913 claiming that the Pueblos were Indians.
Pueblo Lands Act (1924)
The Pueblo Lands Act of 1924 attempted to redistribute land that had been taken by non-Indians. The Act stated that if a non-Indian could prove that he held the land for an period of time, they would be awarded the land and have to offer compensation (Low) to the Indians. Under the Bursum Bill, it confirmed titles which were held for more than 10 years prior to 1912. This essentially allowed non-indians to claim valuable farmland of the Pueblo.
Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 was an act that decreased federal control over Indian Tribes and granted Indians greater autonomy. The BIA Religious Crimes Code was enacted from requests to suppress the public display of Pueblo rituals. Other BIA policies attempted to integrated Indians by sending them to boarding schools. Easterners who hated industrialization of America protested against such policies and was led by John Collier who was taken in under FDR. The Merriam Report was published in 1928 and revealed the abuses of the BIA and supported the Reorganization Act.
The Southern Athabaskans consists of Navajo/Dine and the Apache peoples that moved Southwest along the Rockies from Alaska. Both the Apache and Navajo were known to be Athabaskans that shared closely related dialects of a single language (Querechos), but during the 16th and 18th century they grew more independent.
Navajos / Diné
The Navajo or Apache de Navaju as the Spanish referred to them during the Corrinado expeditions, are Athabaskan speakers who came into contact with the Pueblos and Spanish. From contact with the Pueblos, they adopted agricultural, matrilineal, weaving and pottery practices. Upon contacts with the Spanish, they adopted livestock, metalworking, silversmithing, and wool market traditions. From being introduce to livestock and the horse they became the Greatest Pastoralists, centered around sheep livestock and expanded into low vegetation environments.
The Long Walk
The Long Walk was a walk that the Navajo and other Native Americans were sent on along the Bosque Redondo river during the 1860s to Fort Sumter at the Bosque Redondo Reservation. During the U.S. Civil War, James Carlton pushed native out of their communities by killing livestock and burning crops and sent them along the Bosque Redondo River. They were then picked apart by the Comanche raids. After four years the let them return to their homeland and offered them seeds to rebuild their communities.
Bosque Redondo was the arid land that nearly 8,000 Navajos were confined to. After Navajo crops and livestock were destroyed they were confined to the Bosque Redondo. Manuelito and others rebelled and fled into the mountains until they surrender from starvation. Manuelito petitioned to grant the people new land and were granted to return to their homeland.
The Stock reduction was a loss of Livestock during the 1930s of the Dust Bowl. After the Navajo were released from Bosque Redondo, their livestock and crops expanded significantly. As the Dust Bowl hit, forty-five percent of topsoil was gone, and their stock declined from 1 million to 449 thousand. This sent the Navajo into great poverty and hunger.
Four sacred mountains
The Four Sacred Mountains are the four corners which mark the boarders of the Navajo Homeland. The Sacred mountains are also incorporated into their oral history and origin story. The Dine feel they belong and are responsible for the stewardship of the land.
These were 400 Native American soldiers who fought in World War II and were known for communicating in a code that had been derived from their own native Languages. Some of these Talkers were part of the navajo nation
Dine Bikeyah is the homeland which the Navajo people claim to be located with the border created by the four sacred moutons. The Dine feel they belong and they are responsible for the stewardship of the land. They believe that the plants, animals, land and spirituality must be protected in order for the Dine to survive.
He was a Navajo Chief who was a political and spiritual leader who signed several different treaties. He was known for being the chief to sign the Treaty of1868 which ended the long walk of the Navajo to Bosque Redondo. Barboncito is probably most responsible for the long-term success of the Navajo culture and relations with non-Navajos. After we get back to our country it will brighten up again and the Navajos will be as happy as the land, black clouds will rise and there will be plenty of rain. Allowed them to preserve a separate sense of self. Navajo celebrated their continuation in the heart of their homeland.
This was a Treaty that was signed by Barboncito to end the Long Walk of the Navajo to Bosque Redondo. It was signed and made official at Fort Sumter. This is the only native nation that has ben able to increase their land base. After the Civil War, the biggest expense is the Indian Wars and how can they become effective. The Republican take over and cut the military spending up to the Northern Plains. Navajo see this as a victory and retain the west land but lose the New Mexican territory.
The Western Apaches are Athabaskan Indians that settled in Northern Arizona in the 1600s and were influenced by the Pueblo Zuni, Hopi and O'odham. The had adopted traditions of matrilineal, matrilocal, and agricultural traditions, but relied primarily on hunting, gathering and raiding. Agriculturally, the Agabe plant was harvested for its sugar and became a staple food. Raiding was distinguished from warfare. Raiding consisted of 15 men who would gather enemy food and runoff their livestock. Warfare was death of an enemy through large violent groups. This was driven by kinship tension or to eliminate. GOWA GOTA
The Chiricahua Apaches were another group of Apaches located in Southeastern Arizona that had not been influenced by the Pueblo people because the were not agriculturally based, but had been more greatly influence by the Spanish. Mangas Coloradas, Cochise Victorio, Geronimo were Chiracahua Apaches. During the Civil War, Chiricahua Apaches were moved to the San Carlos Reservation. Since they were promised a place near the Heila River (1878) Victorio fled into the mountains with women and children and had evade the US for sometime. When Victorio was captured he was executed 1880. Geronimo was captured in 1886 and they were sent to a prison in Florida then to Alabama and later to Oklahoma and offered also to go to New Mexico
General George Crook
General George Crook conquered the Yavapais and Western Apaches in 1873-1875. He was able to conquer the Apache because of Apache scouts. General Crook destroyed Apache food and supplies and confined them first to small reserves. In 1874, he confined all groups to the San Carlos Reservation on the Gila River.
San Carlos Reservation (1874)
The San Carlos Reservation was the reservation the General Crook had placed many different tribes on one reservation along the Gila River. The Yavapai (Yuman) and Apache were believed to be similar by the US and called them Apache Yavapai. They had different languages, but did intermarry and share customs. From skirmishes and destruction of food supplies, Indians were forced to move to the Reservation. In the reservation, there was great conflict between the Yavapai and the Apache.
Cochise Victorio was a famous diplomat and war leader of the Chiricahua Apaches. When the US attempted to force the Apache to move to the San Carlos Reservation, they fled into the mountains in 1878 because they had been promised a place near the Heila River. They were later run down by the Mexican Militia in Chihuahua in 1880 and Victorio was killed.
Geronimo was one of the famous men of the Chiracahua Apaches. When the Apaches had been forced to move to the Reservation at San Carlos, he had fled and hide from the Military and Militia. He was chased by General George Crook and was later captured in 1886.
Matrilocality is a form of locating a clan or family in the clan of the Mother. The Western Apache and Navajo people were known to have been Matrilocal.
Authority in Apache Culture
Authority of the Apaches consisted of a Gota who was the head of a clan usually by marrying into it. The clans did not function as political units or own land. There were also no clan officers except for clan chieftainship which was possessed by certain families. The power of the clan relied on the networks of obligation to the clan by kinship. The chiefs of raiding or war parties didn't have to be clan chiefs but was based on experience and bravery.
Power in Apache Culture
There exists no equivalent distinction between natural, and supernatural in Western Apache Culture. Power is abstract, invisible, inexhaustible and undefinable. However it is attributed to classes of objects such as water, fire, lightning, bears, eagles and gan. Individuals can acquire small amounts of power in two ways, by finding power through dreams and instructs you to learn chants and prayers. The other way is by seeking power and learning chants and dreams.
Landscapes in Apache Culture
Apache landscapes are full of named places where time and space have fused through historical tales. Place making, and place naming are perhaps the oldest form of human history.
Place of Emergence
The Zuni place of emergence is known to be the deep in the earth on the fourth level in which there was darkness. As the two sons of the bow priest climbed up through the worlds the move closer to light. This story relates to the Grand Canyon and their place of origin could have possibly been in the Canyon.
The origin stories of the Zuni people is passed down through oral tradition. There is not one history but a multiplicity of historical narratives, each explaining specific aspects of Zuni Culture and society. Kyaklo comes during kiva initiations to recount Zuni history with a chanted prayer that names sacred springs and villages between the place of origin and Halona: Itiwana the middle place were they migrated to the east in search of and where they believe to be the key to their identity. This is marked by the place of the water spider.
Pedro Pina advocated democracy while the US military. They early Zuni communities first offered goods and crops of grain and corn for the US Military. Although Pino had worked to establish good relations with the US, they took over the Zuni by putting them on reservations and claim their lands. The Tribe occupies a reservation of 640 square miles in West-Central New Mexico, and 18 square miles in Arizona in East-Central Arizona. They were offered such as a small reservation because they were not as aggressive and savvy as Navajos at using legal means to secure lands
British Indian Policy
The British Indian Policy or institutions and attitudes were adopted by the US. Unlike Spain, the British and US were not interested in incorporating the Indians into their societies and culture. As long as they were out of the way. America had also established ambiguous and inconsistent laws that claimed that they were not the same as French and Spanish in that they were Independent and Sovereign Nation. They made treaties that recognized them as Dependent Domestic Nations.
Isolation (Pueblo Zuni)
Although the Zuni are identified as Pueblo peoples, they are considered to be one of the few linguistic Isolates that do not have strong similarities to the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Trail of Tears
The Trail of Tears was the path that Cherokee were forced to take by Andrew Jackson. Jackson wanted the indians out of the way and refused official and constitutional laws. He forced Southeastern indians to move to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River under the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Even the territory that they moved to in Oklahoma began to be populated by American Citizens and further pushed the Indians into Isolation.
Assimilation was a forced Assimilation through education of children being sent to boarding school, and religious reforms implemented by the BIA with the Religious Crimes Codes and the Denomination missions established on reservations.
Dawes Act of 1887: Land Allotment
The Dawes Act of 1887 was enacted in order to divide reservations into individual allotments to encourage private property. From effective conversion of Protestants and producing of self-sufficient property owners, they were able to be assimilated and able to attain surplus lands. As a result 91 million acres of tribal lands were lost between 1887 and 1934. Small lands allotments in the Southwest were offered to the Navajo, O'odham. The Navajo were able to keep some of their original reservation land.
Compulsory Education, which require Indian children to be educated in Anglo school, was established in order to assimilate Indian peoples. These Boarding schools were far from reservations and kids were taken from their parents. The prominent idea in the Education, was to Kill the Indian, and Save the Man. This was not only and education reform but a way of changing the culture, religion, and everything that was Indian.
In 1869, the Grant Administration Indian Bureau provided funds to Protestant denominations to establish schools on Indian reservations. So one denomination was established on one reservation. The Lutheran was established among the Apache, Navajos and Zunis. Presbyterian denomination was established on the Gila, and Pima. In the 1890s, the Bureau established reservation school but maintained missionaries. By 1915, 8 different denominations were established on Southwestern reservations.
Religious Suppression was also enforced through the single denomination established on a certain reservation. Also the BIA had establish Religious Crimes Codes in order to suppress rituals. This was a forcible integration of Indians into Anglo American culture.
Indian Boarding Schools
Indian Boarding School were established in order to reform Indian culture and Kill the Indian and Save the Man. These Boarding schools were often far away from the reservations. Parents were also forced to send their children away were they would cut their hair and punish them if they were to not speak in English.
Protestant denominations and Indian reservations
Protestant groups and denominations were sent by Congress to settle and organize the Indian reservations during the late 19th century. During the 1870s, after the Civil War, efforts were directed towards the Indians such as the Sue, Comanche and Apache, which were preventing the US from expanding into the west. In 1872, Congress prohibited further Treatise with Indian and prevented opportunities to be recognized as Independent Sovereign Nations. In order to satisfy the Indians on the Reservations, they sent representative, but it resulted in corruption. In order to resolve the problems, they sent missions and Protestants.
Tribal Sovereignty is the right of Native Nations to make decisions for themselves and to pursue their own courses of action free from outside interference. This was a bone of contention because they have debates whether or not that sovereignty is a De Jure or DeFacto Sovereignty native Americans contended that they are entitled to their lands because they had held the lands first. They also believe the they hold inherent sovereignty and was never given up under US and Spanish conquest. The act with De Facto sovereignty but lack De Jure sovereignty.
De jure vs. De facto
De jure is the Legal principal of have the sovereignty. De Facto Sovereignty is the actual practice of sovereignty of a certain society. There has been a debate over whether Tribal sovereignty is merely de our or de facto sovereignty
Tribal Jurisdication has evolved out of both supreme Court and treatise. They have their right to declare who is a citizen of the Nation. They also have jurisdiction over the government laws or tribal laws up to a point. Most of the available jurisdiction is limited. As tribes have developed more sovereignty, permission is required before initiating certain research of cultural and religious affairs. They are taking control of social and economic status. Native Americans however do not have jurisdiction over Non-Indian Crimes. They also cannot offer land leases because the government believes the land is solely offered to them.
The Doctrine of Plenary Power is a doctrine that Congress has absolute power of Indian Affairs. However, the doctrine relies on the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution, which states: The Congress shall have the power... to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes. It boiled down to whether the Federal Government or State had the power over Indian Affairs. The case United States v. Kagama stated that the US had jurisdiction over major crimes committed on Indian reservations and by extension, plenary power over Indian affairs and not the State.
Commerce Clause (U.S. Constitution)
The Commerce Clause of the US constitution states that The Congress shall have the power... to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states and with Indian tribes. This state which offered plenary power to the Federal Government was further emphasized in the case United States v. Kagama in 1886 which stated that the US has jurisdiction over major crimes committed on Indian reservations.
Doctrine of Discovery
The Doctrine of Discovery is a doctrine that assumes that Americans inherited the sovereignty because of discovery after the had liberated from Britain. Although with the Doctrine of Discovery there are levels of Sovereignty such as Absolute: Natives retain no rights, Expensive: Natives inherit rights to lands but need a person to manage the, Preemptive: Natives have right to land and ability to sell or not to the US.
Absolute, Expansive, and Preemptive Rights of Discovery
Absolute rights of discovery is an interpretation that does not allot any rights to Native Peoples. The Expansive rights of Discovery states that Natives have right to land but requires legal guardian. The Preemptive rights grant that Discovering nations have exclusive preemptive rights of purchasing Indian lands if Natives agree to sell.
U.S. v Kagama (1886)
US. v. Kagama was a supreme court decision that stated that the US Federal government has jurisdiction over major crimes committed on Native American Lands. This reenforced that the Federal government had plenary power over Indian nations rather than states power. This also gave congress the power to pass the Dawes Act which granted 100 acre of land allotments to Native Americans, but anything in excess was granted under public domain.
John Collier declared by Franklin Roosevelt to overlook Indian Affairs, of which he reduced the Dawes ACt and made the lands be independent to the Natives. Treatise which had been established with Native Americans secured Rights to lands of the Natives, but Jackson declared the Indian Removal Act (1830) which offered him the right to negotiate the removal of treatise with Indians and push them west. The Indian Appropriation Act (1871) removed treatise and denied Independent Sovereignty of Indians and were forced to move to Oklahoma. Collier restored limited tribal sovereignty and religious freedom. The tribal constitutions had to be approved by the Secretary of Interior.
There is a stubble between tribes and federal government but also tribes and states and federal government for sovereignty and plenary power. Such rely on the interpretation of the ambiguous commerce clause. The problem surrounding gaming began with the supreme court case Bryan v Itasca County in 1976 which argued who had the right to tax on property.
Bryan v Itasca County (1976)
This case began the debate over tribal gambling and under what jurisdiction shall it fall under. This case argued for whether or not the State should be able to tax property on Native Reservations. In 1972, Chippewa couple received a property tax notice for $147.95 from Itasca County. They later argued that the state had not right to levy personal property. The Supreme court ruled that the Federal government only had the right to tax property on Reservations. This further emphasizes the plenary power of the Federal government over the State government.
California v Cabazon Band of Mission Indians (1987)
This was a case that also tested the power and jurisdiction of State law of Tribes. Cabazon band near Indio, CA, established a smoke shop and mail-order cigarette business. The business also intended to begin selling peyote and marijuana. They later started a gamin operation in 1979. High-stakes bingo was also established on the Seminole Reservation in Florida. Counties tried to shut the Seminoles and Cabazon Band and the case was taken to the supreme court in 1987 and the Court ruled in favor of the Tribes. Reinforcing that the Federal government could only regulate gaming.
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (1988)
Because States thought that Tribal gaming were reducing state gamin revenues, the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (1988) was passed by senators Inouye of Hawaii and McCain and Representative Mo Udall of Arizona in order to compromise. The Regulatory act establish three classes of gaming: traditional, Bingo and Card Games, and Casino Gambling. Depending on the class the state had certain rights to regulate the gaming. Tribes are able to regulate traditional gaming of Class 1, Tribes could regulate Class 2 only if the states allowed Class 2, and Class 3 was only allowed if states permitted casino Gambling, and they had to have a compact approved by the Secretary of Interior.
Distribution of gaming revenues
Because there was great attention towards the revenue gained by the Tribal Gaming, their was somewhat tension between where the money went. From 1988 to 2009, tribal gamin revenues rose from 110 million to 26.5 billion dollars. 233 of the 565 federally recognized tribes run gaming operations. 75 percent of tribes devote all gaming revenue to tribal services and not as per capita payments which people believed only would redirect Native American dependency from the Federal Government to Tribal Gaming. Within the tribal services, 11%- Housing, 20% Education 19% Economic Development, 17% Health Care 17% Police & Fire Protection and 16% Infrastructure.
Arizona Benefits Fund
88% of State-Shared Revenues from Indian Gamins is given to the Arizona Benefits Fund which also benefits Non-Indians from Class three Casino Gambling. This is used in order to improve Instructional Improvement, Trauma & Emergency Services Fund, Tourism Fund, and Wildlife Conservation Fund.
The Grand Plan was a plan designed to support the Explosive population in the Southwest after World War II. This plan conceived of have 23 Public and Private Utility companies establish Nuclear Power plants, Hydro Electric Damns and Coal fields in across the Southwest in order to create three times the power of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Companies like Souther California Edison and Arizona Public Services established plants with the Western Energy Supply and Transmission Associations (WEST). In 1962, the Arizona Public Service purchased coal from the The Utah Construction and Mining company lease 25,000 acres in Northeast Navajo Reservation to Strip mine.
Navajo Generating Plant (1962)
In response to protest against creating dams along the Grand Canyon, Secretary of Interior, Stewart Udall decided to build a Coal Mining Station on Black Mesa. The area was part of land dispute between the Hopi and Navajo which the 1882 Executive order Established 3863 square miles of land to the Hopi. But in 1936 the reservation was divided in 18 land management. Other than district 6, was under joint use between Hopi and Navajo. A case was filed in 1958 by the Hopi against the Navajo's decision to create the Generating plant, However, the Lawyers Norman Littell and John Boyden were supportive the mining and resolved the issue by splitting the revenues 50/50.
Peabody Coal: Kayenta Mine, Black Mesa Mine
In 1964 Peabody Coal signed a contract with the Navajo Nation to strip mine coal from 40,000 acres of Navajo Nation on Black Mesa and 25,000 on the Navajo-Hopi Joint use Area. Though Peabody had to receive approval from the Hopi Tribe. Although the tribal council which represented the Hopi under the Reorganization Act of 44, was filled with supports of Peabody, the Hopi Tribal constitution forbad the council from leasing , and mining land with out approval of people. Boyden, the representative, convince Secretary of State Stewart Udall to grant the tribal council leasing authority. And the lease was granted in 1966, groaning Peabody to mine 400 million tons of coal.
Western Energy and Supply Transmission (WEST)
The West Energy and Supply Transmission Association was conceived of 23 public and private utility companies like Souther California Edison and Arizona Public Services to create nuclear Power plants, Hydro electric dams, and coalfields in order to increase energy three times higher. This was part of the Grand Plan to support massive population expansion in the Southwest after World War II.
The Black Mesa Mine was signed to Peabody Coal in 1964 by the Navajo nation to strip coal mine 40,000 acres on the Black Mesa. The mine also create a 274 mile slurry line to the Mohave Plant near the Colorado River. Peabody originally paid 3.3% for the coal which was about half what the federal government charged for mining on federal lands. the lease was amended to allow 4,000 acre feet per year from Black Mesa Acquifers fro $1.67 per acre feet, which was below the commercial rate of 30-50 dollars per acre feet.
Mohave Generating Plant
The Black Mesa Mine created a 274 mile slurry line to the Mohave Generating plant on the Colorado river near Loughlin, Nevada. The Slurry line was considered harmful because of the large amounts of water that was required to operate the Slurry line. As protest began concerning the pollution of water sources by mining companies the EPA had declared the coal-generating plant to be the dirtiest in the West. The Mohave plant was later shut down due to high expenses to install pollution control devices require by the 1999 settlement.
The Navajo Nation was supportive of Peabody Coal and resulted in populating larger water sources and redistributing land allotments with the Hopi. Establishing the Hopi-Navajo Joint-Use Area.
With the loss of the revenue from the Peabody Coal Mines, economic income declined. Decommission of the Mohave Generating Plant cost 400 Hopi jobs and & Million dollars in annual revenue. Without that income, they believed that they would become a ward of the US government. But other were supportive due to the elimination of pollution. The Hopi though the Mines were desecration of the earth by the reduction of aquifers, which was part of their water value. The Mining closures caused great factionalism in the Hopi Tribe.
Hopi-Navajo Joint Use Area
The Hopi-Navajo Joint use area was a settlement negotiation between Norman Little rep of the Navajo Nation and John Boyden rep. of the Hopi Tribe where, the 3863 square miles of Hopi reservation land was divided so the Navajo received a smaller portion of than the Hopi. The dispute allowed the Navajo to proceed to lease the Joint-use Land to Peabody Coal. Boyden convince Secretary Udall to grant the tribal council to lease the land.
Healing v Jones (1963)
When the Hopi sued the Navajos in 1958 over title to 1882 Executive Order reservation, which offered land 3863 square miles of land to the Hopi reservation. Norman Little was the representative of the Navajo Nation and John Boyden was the representative of the Hopi Nation. Since they were both supportive of the Peabody Coal, they decided to negotiated the settlement in 1963 which offered the Hopi a large portion of the Navajo Joint Use Area and split the mining revenues evenly among the Tribes.
John Boyden was the representative to the Hopi Tribe which was enacted by the Indian Reorganization act of 1934, but he was also worked for Peabody coal secretly from 1964-71. His position and conflict of interest resulted in the Hopi Tribe offering the leasing authority to allow Peabody Coal to Mine on Navajo and Hopi Joint territory after the Hopi tribal constitution forbade the Tribal council from leasing without the approval of the Hopi People..
Norman Little was the Lawyer to Navajo Nation in the Healing v. Jones case where the Hopi sued the Navajos on the 1882 Executive Order which allot 3863 square miles to the Hopi tribe. Both Norman Littell and John Boyden, who were rival lawyers were however supportive of the Peabody Coal Mining and negotiated a settlement to the case, dividing the Executive Order to a Joint-Use area.
Black Mesa Trust
The Black Mesa Trust formed to protest against the Black Mesa Mine which had been claimed to have highly populated the waters sources which were being used for the Mines. Hopi and Navajos also united in order to protest against the population. Studies had shown that aquifer levels dropped by 100 feet and springs declined by 10%. The EPA declared the Mohave Mine to be the dirtiest coal-generating plant in the West and was shut down in 2005 because Southern California Edison decided that population controls required by 1999 settlement were too expensive. The Black Mesa Mine also shut down with no market for coal.
Prior Appropriation Doctrine
The Prior Appropriation Doctrine manages water rights. The Doctrine states that those who had show prior use of water sources has priority over future use over the water source. It also states that water sources are not owned but are jointly own by all persons and those showing use for beneficial purpose will be offered rights to water sources. If a person shows to not be using the water sources beneficially, the water rights can be revoked. Also water that runs through land owned by a certain person does not grant the land owner exclusive rights to water.
The Colorado River is the main body of water to the Southwestern States. Deciding the devision of the Colorado River severely impacts the economics and the scheme of the Water Rights debate.
Colorado River Compact
The Colorado River Compact was the Compact the Divide the River water supply amongst 7 states along the Colorado. The Compact and the division of the water source was based on the calculated annual flow of 16.4 million acre-feet. Dividing 7.5 million acre feet to the Upper Basin, 7.5 Million to the Lower Basin, and 1.5 million for Mexico. The rate was recalculated to about 14.8 million acre feet from 1896-1968. The original decision inaccurately divided the water sources and makes the race for water rights even more tense.
Winter's Doctrine (1908)
The Winters Doctrine which was passed under the supreme court case Winters v. United States in 1908 ruled that establishment of Indian reservation was part of Federal Reserved lands and also reserved rights to amounts of water necessary for proposes. This was later extended to Park Reservations, National Forests and monuments. Although the amounts of reserved water has be quantified and decisions have been made to limit Federal Reserve water, the State does not have jurisdiction over the issue. This establishes the foundations of Indian Water Rights.
The Reserved Rights are granted by the decision of the Winter's Doctrine 1908 which was enacted following the Supreme Court Case Winters v. United States which Reserved quantities of Water by the Federal Reserve for National Parks, National Monuments and Indian Reservations. This granted Indians the rights to amounts of water that would suffice the present needs as well as future needs. Since the Water Rights of the Indians are reserved under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government, they have more priority of municipal water sources.
Arizona v California (1963)
The Compact was ratified by 6 of the 7 states. Arizona argued that it would be suicide to continue with the division of water with California. The contested for twenty years in Arizona v. California and settled for 2.8 million acre feet to Arizona and 4.4 Million acre feet to California with 1 million acre-feet of reserved water for Native Tribes. This affirmed the Winter's Doctrine stating that Indian tribes were entitled to enough water for present and future needs.
Central Arizona Project (CAP)
The Central Arizona Project was the plan designed to move water sources from the Colorado river to Central Arizona where it was need most. The water project was the last big water project on Arizona's horizon and constructed 300 miles of aqueducts in order to move water sources. This project was estimated to have costed 1.5 billion dollars in 1968 and 3.6 billion by 1990.
Southern Arizona Water Rights Settlement Act (1982)
The Settlement was between O'odham and Tucson Copper mines for the allotment of water sources. As the O'odham population increased, cultivating from water sources in the Santa Cruz was difficult while Channelization of ground water destroyed settlements. IN 1975 the Tohono O'odham pressured the Federal Government to sue the Copper Mines under the Winter's Doctrine. The Southern Arizona Water Rights Settlement Act of 1982 granted the O'odham 76,000 acre-feet per year from three sources: 10,000 from groundwater pumping, 28,000 from Tucson effluent, and 37,800 from the Central Arizona Project.
Gila River General Adjudication
The Gila River General Adjudication, which demand 1.5 million acre-feet per year under the Winter's Doctrine Called into question "tens of thousands of non-indian water rights claims" across Arizona as well as water rights of other tribes. The Akimel O'odham were known to have cultivated the lands along the Gila river and helped desperate US troops during the Mexican war by bartering wheat flour and corn. In the 1870s, the river was diverted up-stream and the O'odham were urged to relocate to Oklahoma territory. 1,200 Maricopas moved north of the Salt River and the Gila River dried out. in 1975 the filed a petition to adjudicate water rights from the Salt river morphed in General Adjudication of Gila River and all its tributaries.
Arizona Water Rights Settlement Act (2004)
The Arizona Water Rights Settlement Act of 2004 which was signed by President Bush provided adjustment to the Central Arizona Project in Arizona by offering 197,500 acre-feet for present and future tribal settlements, authorize the Gila River Indian Community water rights settlement by granting 653,500 acre-feet per year, and to amend the Southern Arizona Water Rights Settlement Act of 1982, it also established the San Carlos Apache Water Rights Settlement Act.
Ak-Chin Indian Community
In 1978, the Congress and the previous administration enacted an Ak-Chin water settlement act which required the Federal Government to provide an interim supply of water beginning in 1984 and permanent water not later than 2003. The Ak-Chin Community water Settlement was a series of agreements negotiated by officials of the department of the interior with the affected parties over the past 2 years. It settled the outstanding water claims of the Ak-Chin Indian Community, by providing permanent water supply to be delivered throughout the Central Arizona Project facilities, provided funds for water conservation, and provided that water not needed to satisfy the Ak-Chin entitlement would be available for allocation to other water users in Central Arizona.
Del Webb's Anthem
The Ak-Chin Water Settlement Act of 1984 allocated of the 75,000 acre feet in the Central Arizona Project, 16,000 water to the Ak-Chin Farms and 10,000 acre-feet per year leased to Del Webb's anthem north of Phoenix.
Indian New Deal
The Indian New Deal refers to John Collier's innovative years a director of the US Bureau of Indian Afrairs from 1933 to 1945. Collier was an energetic and humane visionary who sought to revolutionize federal Indian Policy. The keystone of the New Deal Indian reform was the Indian Reorganization Act, which ended allotment, organized tribal self-government, established revolving loan programs for tribes, and provided a mechanism for tribes to buy back land.
John Collier was a Eastern American citizen who disagreed with the industrialization of America and supported the ways of the Indians. He sought to revolutionize federal Indian policy and educate Americans on Native American culture and policy when he was chosen as director of the US Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1933 by Franklin Roosevelt. He began by ended allotment of the Dawes Act of 1887 and Established the Indian Reorganization Act which allowed Tribes to establish a tribal constitution, create a Tribal council to represent themselves in Federal Issues. He also eliminates religious suppression, set of up markets and economic sources for Native Americans, and allow children to speak their own language in schools. He was also never forgiven fro the stock reduction of Sheep on Navajo lands.
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
The Bureau of Indian Affairs is the organization that directly dealt with Land Trust between the Native Americans and The Federal Government, but also over saw the education, and other affairs which dealt with the Native Americans. The Organization had been known for establishing Religious Crimes Codes which prevented the public display of Hopi Rituals. The Bureau was very lax up until the arrival of John Collier in 1933, where he established the Indian New Deal and redistributed power to the native American people.
Allotment (Dawes Act of 1887)
Congressman Sen. Henry Dawes enacted The Dawes act originally as an allotment act to benefit the welfare of Indians by providing for the distribution of Indian reservation land among individual tribesmen, with the aim of creating responsible farmers in the white man's image, but the original act was amended to provide that any land remaining after the allotment to the Indians would be available for public sale since they were considered US citizens. Under the Dawes Act, life deteriorated. The act also provided that any surplus land be available to whites. By 1932, whites had acquired 2/3s of the 138 million acres of Indian land.
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
This Act redistributed land allotments from the Dawes Act of 1887 and gave Indian Tribes representation through Tribal Councils and power through creating Tribal Constitutions. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 was the main step in granting Native Americans Tribal Sovereignty through the New Indian Deal under John Collier. This act was however a transposition of American systems of government onto Indian and Native American culture or societal regulation. The Act wasn't shaped to the Indians own ways of organizing, as a result tribes became corrupt and factionalism occurred, however it was a first step in granting more power to the Indians.
Tribal Approval of the IRA
Tribal Approvals of the Indian Reorganization Act were most significant for economic development and higher attorneys in order to sue the government. Part of the Indian Reorganization Act was that in order to pass or enact a certain issue, the issue had to be approved by the Tribal Council.
Tribal Constitutions were also created in order for the Indians to be able to reject the adoption of American Constitutions. This allowed for more power and Tribal sovereignty over their own affairs. But such constitutions and political systems were Western systems that were transposed on the Indian ways of organization. Nevertheless, it was a step towards self rule and sovereignty.
The Biodiversity of Salmon ranges from the Northern Hemisphere to the Southern hemisphere. The are more concentrations of Salmon in the Northern Hemisphere than the lower hemisphere. Salmon are not native to Tazmonia, Chile, but they have established fish farms that proved the worlds quantities of salmon
Adaptive capacity is "the general ability of institutions, systems and individuals to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. The Nez Perce Tribe are Adaptice because they continue Knowledge, establish Sovereign relations, and take leadership for the future. They have shown their capacity to adapt by The Horse and Period of Significant and Rapid Population Decline, Treaty Negotians to Preserve Sovereignty, Globalization allotment, Dam Building, and Sovereignty through Salmon.
The Coolidge Dam was created in 1928 on the Gila Dam. Such an eyesore and offers water to 90% of the iceberg lettuce and water quantity. 90% of the Dam water is diverged upstream, and the water is limited.
Husbandry is the idea of the care and cultivation of a certain animal or crop. The Indians were able to cultivate and breed certain salmon with the use of Fish Traps called River Scalping which were large walls that trapped Salmon as the water levels receded.
Colorado River water
90 percent of the Colorado river water is diverged upstream from the Coolidge Dam that was greated in 1928. This water is used to produce 90% of the iceberg lettuce, the water quantity of Iceberg lettuce also necessitates a large quantity of water.
This is a category in which the NAGPRA claims to have rights over and must be returned to the Native Tribes that it has been taken from. These objects of Cultural Patrimony is the concept that the objects due not own to a single individual but are owned by an entire tribe.
NAGPRA is the Graves and Repatriation Act of 1990 which was the enacted to return ancient artifacts that were taking by archeologists belonged to Native Tribes. Although the native materials were used to continue teaching of the Native Indian cultures, they were however not granted the right to share the knowledge or artifacts of an entire Native Tribe. This applied to Human remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, and Objects of Cultural Patrimony
Repatriation is the reclaiming of or returning of certain objects. In the case of NAGPRA, the ancient remains are returned to the Tribla group that is most affiliated with the remain.
Coercion has been recognized to be part of the NAGPRA by the influencing of scientist to reveal evidence that allows certain tribes to gain rights to the remains. Tribes have also place artifacts or copied artifacts in order to show relation and cultural affiliation with the remains and claim the rights.
Cultural Affiliation means there is relationship of shared group identity which can be reasonably traced historically or prehistorically between a present day Indian Tribe or Native Hawaiin organization and an identifiable earlier group. They use geography, kinship, biology, archeology, anthropology and many other departments. Cultural Affiliation is the process in which the Federal Government discovers which Tribes has rights over Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred objects and Obejcts of Cultural Patrimony. If cultural affiliation is not determined and remains are from Federal Land Recognized by the Indian Claims Commision or US Court of Claims as the aboriginal land of some Indian tribe, with a) the Indian tribe that aboriginally occupied that area, b) the indian tribe that has the strongest demonstrated relationship.
Unclaimed Remains are remains which are not claimed under section 3 and are subject to regulations that yet to be promulgated.
On Inadvertant Discovery of Remains, NAGPRA requires the cease of activity, take immediate steps to secure and protect remains, within 3 days to notify tribes likely to be affiliated and provide information, initiate consultation with tribes, carry out excavation, removal and disposition as per law, and Legal construction actives can resume in 30 days.
The Indian Act of 1985 allowed that each band elect a chief and council, which has full authority over federal monies and band land, using a first-past-the-post vote. This was controversial because the land was recognized by the Canadian crown to be only passed matrilineally. Women are also considered equal in aboriginal law which is contradictory to the Candian law. So land is difficult to be recognized under the Native rights.
In the Case Guerin v. the Queen in 1984 they ruled that the crown has a fiduciary duty towards Indians by virtue of aboriginal title. It is an inalienable right buy may in particular instance be surrendered to the Crown in which case the Crown must ensure that the land is used for the interests of the Indians.
The numbered treaties remain interpreted as cession treaties rather than agreements to share. The Treatise where conceived between the Crown and aboriginal groups, but the debate has arose about wether or not the agreements were to cececeed or share the rights to land
The Haida, which is an aboriginal group that live off the western coast were said to have been accommodated by the crown but British Columbia didn't file an injunction to stop the harvesting timber. SO the Haid blocked the roads and forced government was forced to grant them accommodation
Anthropologists try to both participate in and observe "culture in action." Both structured events like ceremonies and rituals, as well as everyday life. This goes alongside field work or field site, where a anthropologist does their research in the field for more than a year at a time and return often.
Ethnography is a form of Anthropological methodology that gives record of observations, analysis and conclusion. This combines the author's arguments with specific social theories, as well as previous works that relate to the people or phenomenon being studied. Usually in book for but anthropologists also now use film and mixed-media.
Elsie Clews-Parson followed excessive Frank Hamilton Cushing, who was interested in folklore and became a great support of efforts by Franz Boas to promote cultural relativism which was an early theory of Anthropological study. She wrote 95 articles on the Southwest including on the Zuni Religion, matrilineal descent among hopi, Family structure of Tewa, Kachina religious beliefs of Western Pueblo. She also wrote the famous book Pueblo Indian Religion.
The use of anthropological methods or data to solve or shed light on an already defined issue or problem. This is the the additional subfields: archeology, linguistics, physical anthropology, and socio-cultural anthropology, of Anthropology
Much of the litigation and body of proof for water rights cases are based on ethnohistory or the telling of stories of people without history. In order to tell the history, cultural anthropology, applied anthropology and history are unified and incorporate historical documentation with oral tradition to piece together formalized history.
Cultural Contact is contact that evolves and is a process of interaction between cultures. Spicer explained cultural contact in two process, Social Integration, and Cultural integration. It has proved to be difficult to study since not every situation is the same, and not every situation produces the same outcome. No power and enforcement through power.
The process of one religion of a culture that adopts customs of another. Examples of their are found in the symbols used before the coming of catholicism, Kiva Murals were put beside the church and matachines were similar dance processions to the Catholic procession.
This is a form of Ideological syncretism. Missionization is the process in which conversion is used and the process of contact changes missionizer and miss ionized. Mission programs were not fixed and unchanging, but moved geographically, Missionaries war moving among missions, and Indians were moving among communities and missions.
Conversion is a concept made by people for the purpose of spreading beliefs. and example of this is in the Jesuits and the Tarahumara where they believe their were good christians, Bad Christians, uninformed Christians, Apostates and Gentiles. Conversion is also relative to perspective of the person or group of peoples
Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause
Freedom of Religion is the US constitution outlines the regulations of laws under two clauses: the establishment clause which states that Congress shall map no law representing an establishment of religion and the Free Exercise Clause which prohibits the enacting of laws which deny the free exercise of religion. The US tries for religious freedom, but hasn't always worked.
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