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Union Movements of the late 1800s

- Industrial Workers of the World --> socialists; workers run industries
- Knights of Labor --> skilled and unskilled; make everyone his own boss
- American Federation of Labor --> craft union; had goals; exclude women; successful
- American Railway Union --> Debbs
- government backs big business during strikes

Social Darwinism

- survival of the fittest
- power and wealth naturally flows to the superior/ capable
- weathly had a responsibility to care for inferior people

Social Gospel

- put Christian values in modern world
- reform response to Social Darwinism
- service = salvation

The Jungle

-Upton Sinclair
- fictionalized expose of Chicago meatpacking plants
- objective was to improve working conditions
- yellow journalism

Turner's Frontier Thesis

- expanisionism = success
- keep American influence/values by going west
- go west to escape European influence


- traditional American principles (like democracy and Open Door)
- ideology of internationalism and exceptionalism
* only the US could fix the world

Red Scare

- US hates communism
- we're freaking out about communist takeovers
- Lenin in Soviet Union

Palmer Raids

- climax of Red Scare
- Hoover planned and directed raids
- government agents broke into houses and arrested people for being communist
- most weren't
- people were jailed and deported


- 18th amendment
- no buying, selling, or distributing alcohol
- no one followed it

Lost Generation

- losing Amercan values because of money
- draw attention to the problem of consumerism

Harlem Renaissance

- African American cultural movement
- successful
- whites seek it out (jazz) --> mostly in north
- whites use black influence but switch out the blacks for white people
- art, music, literature, dance, etc.

Military-Industrial Complex

- Eisenhower's farewell address
- don't built industry around war products

The Little Rock Crisis

- after Brown v. Board said to integrate
- governor of Arkansas ordered state National Guard to block blacks from going to white high school
- Eisenhower didn't to anything about it
- Then the governor let the black kids in
- whites threatened to storm the school
-Eisenhower finally sent troops to ensure black students' safety

Montgomery Bus Boycott

- Rosa Parks (NAACP member)
- arrested
- local blacks boycotted bus system
- bus system almost went bankrupt
- effective

Silent Spring

- Rachel Carson
- blame chemicals for animal deaths
- Americans realized environmental consequences of actions

Black Power

- elect black candidates
- organize black schools
- control their own institutions
- basically stay segregated

The Feminine Mystique

- Betty Frioedan
- women were troubled by "the problem that has no name"
- women were expected to get married and have kids
- they felt empty and like sometihng was missing

Kent State and Jackson State

- riots because of Cambodian invasion
- guardsman and policemen attacked rioters

Tonkin Gulf Incident

- USS Maddox was attacked by Northern Vietnam
- two days later, USS Maddox attacked fericiously
- evidence of attacks was questionable

My Lai Massacre

- unit led by Lieutenant William Calley
- massacred women, children, and elderly - some not even Vietcong
- government coverup for 20 months
- army was rewarded, but honors were taken away when the truth came out
- Calley was charged with murders
- killed 200- 500 people

Tet Offensive

- Tet = week-long Vietnamese holiday (they bury dead) (New Years)
- we agreed to stop fighting for the holiday
- throughout the week, Northern Vietnamese stocked ammo and transported it in coffins
- when fighting started again, they easily took back captured cities
- it took US months to regain losses

The Pentagon Papers

- top secret papers about Vietnam
- our leaders were a bunch of liars
- Daniel Ellsburg leaked them
- the New York Times printed them

The Maine

- sent to Havana to protect US citizens
- sunk and blamed on the Spanish
- it was really an internal explosion
- yellow journalism

The Lusitania

- British passenger liner
- left NYW for Europe
- before it left, Germany warned that they'd attack any ship in war-zone waters
- U-Boat sank it
- they said we were transporting weapons
- we denied it, but we were giving weapons to Britain

Zimmerman Telegram

- Gemany told Mexico to declare war on US
- Germans wanted to create a 2-front war
- If Mexico joined the Germans, they would get back the land they lost in 1848
- British intercepted the message and gave it to us
- we were nervous because other messages could've been passed around without our knowledge

Stock Market Crash

- people were spending too much
- investing instead of spending
- couldn't pay off credit
- demand went down
- start of Great Depression


- opened second front of WWII
- Eisenhower's troops took France
- moved on to Germany
- we sent fake messages for fake attacks to the Germans to throw them off
- supposed to be June 5, but they had to postpone it a day because of weather

Internment of Japanese Americans

- not because of crimes, just because they were Japanese
- many were born in the US
- Japanese were thought of as sneaky and evil
- showed US fear

The Army-McCarthy Hearings

- US army was communist
- hearings were on TV
- McCarthy was drunk
- ended McCarthy's career and "witch hunt"

The Long Telegram

- after Stalin gave a speech about the threat of capitalism
- George F. Kennan said that Soviet fanaticism made an understanding impossible
- only toughness would work with Soviets

March on Washington

- Lincoln Memorial
- "I Have a Dream" speech
- blacks knew JFK was on their side in this

Watergate Scandal

- 5 people were arrested (trying to sabotage Democrats)
- Plumbers
- Nixon covered it up
- Saturday Night Massacre --> Nixon getting rid of his administration to keep Watergate secret

Bay of Pigs Invasion

- Kill Castro
- we sent a bunch a troops and anti-Castro Cubans to attack
- we expected Cubans to unite and revolt with us
- that didn't happen at all
- complete disaster (and really embarassing)

Cuban Missile Crisis

- result of US attacks on Cuba
- Krushchev put missiles in Cuba (pointed at US)
- We told them to take away the weapons
- They said they would if we took our missiles (pointed at Soviets) out of Turkey
- We also had to stop attacking Cuba
- We agreed

Spanish-American-Cuban-Filipino War

- started in the Philippines
- Spanish forces collapsed rapidly
- US took control of the Philippines

Roosevelt's Fireside Chats

- FDR got on the radio regularly
- talk to people and reassure them
- connection with the people

The Second Hundred Days

- more cultural programs
- not aiming to fix economy, like the first 100 days

German Invasion of Poland

- Britain and France declared war on Germany
- lightning attacks (land forces and aircraft) in Poland

Battle for Stalingrad

- turning point of the war
- Soviets beat Germany in the Soviet Union and Hitler's forces retreated
- German forces were weak from starvation and Soviet winter

Sputnik and the Missile Race

- US felt vulnerable and inferior
- arms race sped up


- France surrendered in Vietnam
- Eisenhower's Domino Effect --> if one weak nation fell to communism, they all would
- British wouldn't help us and US citizens didn't want a war

1968 Democratic Convention

- Democrats were divided over the war
- police beat protesters
- Humphrey --> win war
- Nixon --> end war

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