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American History

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House of Burgesses
1619, the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts; it set a precedent for future parliaments to be established
Mayflower Compact
1620, A document signed by 41 of the male passengers on the Mayflower prior to their landing at Plymouth that agreed to form a body politic to submit to the majority's rule; This set the precedent for future constitutions to be written
Petition of Rights
1628, A legal petition sent to King Charles I from Parliament complaining about the breeches in the law; Foreshadowed later colonial petitions for rights.
Maryland Toleration Act
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, including Catholics; Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
Control of the Purse
Since the legislative branch controlled the payment of the British governor's/executive's salary, he was forced to be loyal to that legislature; This gave colonists some influence in colonial law, but angered local British leaders
Bacon's Rebellion
Rebellion of discontent former landless servants led by Nathaniel Bacon. Though the rebellion was crushed, it caused a move from indentured servants to African slaves for labor purposes.
"Salutary Neglect"
From about 1690-1760, the American colonies suffered from neglect from the motherland. During this time, the colonies were given indirectly more autonomy in provincial and local matters while supporting Britain economically; The autonomy would ultimately backfire when colonials grew accustomed to the treatment and despised any type of restraint, resulting in a rebellious attitude towards the acts passed by Britain after the Seven Years War.
Middle Passage
A route where slaves were transported to the colonies/new world. Most if not all of the slaves in America came by this route.
Anne Hutchinson
A Puritan woman who was well learned that disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island. She displayed the importance of questioning authority.
Roger Williams
He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas. He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration.
William Bradford
Pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. He was chosen governor 30 times. e also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation."
John Winthrop
emigrated from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to lead a religious experiment. He once said, "we shall be a city on a hill."
Letters from an American Farmer
A document written by an emigrant French aristocrat turned farmer posing the famous question, "What, then, is the American, this new man?" This is the only critical edition available of what is regarded as the first ever work of American literature.
New England Confederation
New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.
Iron Act
Part of the British Trade and Navigation acts; it was intended to stem the development of colonial manufacturing in competition with home industry by restricting the growth of the American iron industry to the supply of raw metals. This set a feeling of discontent and a feeling of being a tool among colonials.
Molasses Act
A law that imposed a tax on molasses, sugar, and rum imported from non-British foreign colonies into the North American colonies; it was aimed to reserve a monopoly of the colonies. This caused anger among colonials due to the fear of increased prices of rum, since they felt that the British West Indies could not meet the needs of the colonies.
Navigation Acts
Series of laws designed to restrict England's carrying trade to English ships. The law angered colonials who felt that they could profit more if they were not restricted and that they were just tools of British mercantilism.
Great Awakening
It was a revival of religious importance in the 17th century. It undermined older clergy, created schisms, increased compositeness of churches, and encouraged missionary work, led to the founding new schools. It was first spontaneous movement of the American people (broke sectional boundaries and denominational lines).
Zenger Case
The Zenger Case was a trial against the author of an article in a New York newspaper that criticized a corrupt British governor. Zenger was charged with sedition and libel, but he was acquitted. The event was a contribution to the adaptation of the policy of freedom of the press.
Paxton Boys
An uprising of frontiersmen in Pennsylvania who massacred (nonviolent) Conestoga Indians. Governor attempted to try those involved, but they were never tried This showed the bias against frontiersmen in the eastern government, and prompted 600 frontiersmen to march on Philadelphia.
Albany Plan of Union
Colonial confederation calling for each town to have independence in a large whole. It was used for military defense and Indian policies Set a precedent for later American unity.- overally, failed
Peace of Paris
This ended the Seven Years War/French and Indian war between Britain and her allies and France and her allies. The result was the acquisition of all land east of the Mississippi plus Canada for Britain, and the removal of the French from mainland North America.
Proclamation Line
The line that was setup by the British that forbids any movement/settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. This angered many colonials, who felt that the current space was too crowded, and that they had every right to move if they desired to since it was they that battled against the French during the Seven Years
George III
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
Patrick Henry
He was an orator and statesman and a member of the House of Burgesses where he introduced seven resolutions against the Stamp Act. Famous for his comment "Give me liberty or give me death", he also promoted revolutionary ideals.
Writs of Assistance
It was a search warrant allowing officials to enter buildings in which smuggled goods may be. It required no cause for suspicion and homes were often ransacked. It influenced the fourth amendment to ensure that officials required a warrant for search and seizures.
Sugar Islands
The only land that France had in the New World after the Seven Years war. These were the places where many New England merchants smuggled sugar from.
Benjamin Franklin
An American diplomat, writer, and inventor. He helped the writing of the Declaration as well as securing French aid.
George Grenville
British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament
Sugar Act
Amended the Molasses Act that had taxed all foreign molasses entering the U.S. at sixpence a gallon in 1764. The new act ended the previous British policy of keeping Americans out of all revenue-raising measures.
Stamp Act
A means of raising revenue in the colonies, and was passed by Parliament. It stated that all legal documents, contracts, licenses, pamphlets, and newspapers must carry a stamp that is taxed. It angered the colonists greatly, and led to the creation of the Stamp Act Congress.
Virtual & Actual Representation
The British claimed that all British subjects were represented by members of the House of Commons, while the colonials argued that they were not at all represented as they did not choose their representatives. This caused more anger in the colonies, and influenced how representation functioned after the war.
Regulators
This name applies to several groups of insurgents who, in 1764, wanted to protect the rights of their community. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Sons of Liberty
A secret society of patriots which was organized in 1765 in the colonies. They formed a Committee of Correspondence to defend themselves against British actions. It was one of the first forms of organized resistance against the British parliament, and members took part in the Boston Tea Party.
Declaratory Acts
Act which was issued in 1766 in order to confirm the British government's right to pass acts which were legally binding to the colonists. It was used to save face after the colonists forced the repeal of the Stamp Act.
Quartering Act
It allowed for British officers to be permitted to stay in the homes of colonials to cut down maintenance cost of the colonial garrison. IT angered many colonists, and influenced the third amendment.
Charles Townshend
British Prime Minister. Influenced Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts.
Boston Massacre
An event that took place in Boston where colonial agitators provoked British troops with snowballs with rocks inside them. The result was an accidental firing of muskets into the crowd and the death of some colonials; it became a prime piece of anti-British propaganda.
Lord North
British Prime Minister during revolution. He had passed the Coercive Acts and supported the king greatly to the extent that Britain was ruled only by the king.
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
A declaration of rights at the Stamp Act Congress It argued against the duties of the Townshend acts in this publication.
Gaspee Incident
A schooner was beached in Providence, RI, This upset Americans because it was one of the last of the customs racketeering ships. It was burned down by local inhabitants. It greatly angered the British and showed how militant the colonials were becoming.
Tea Act
Act eliminated import duties entering England, lowering the selling price to consumers, also allowing selling directly to consumers, hurting middlemen. It angered the colonies since it gave a monopoly to the British East India Tea Company, thus forcing local tea sellers out of business.
Boston Tea Party
A group, disguised as Indians boarded the ships and dumped all the tea into Boston Harbor in protest of the Tea Act. It angered the British, and led to the closure of Boston harbor as well as the other Coercion Acts.
Intolerable or Coercive Acts
Several laws that were composed in 1774 in response to colonial rebellion. (Boston Tea Party) It angered the colonies greatly, pushing them further into unity.
Quebec Act
Law which established Roman-Catholicism as the official religion in Quebec and gave it more freedom in order to keep from interferring in war(please them). Angered protestants and colonials who felt that they deserved better.
First Continental Congress
The congress was the colonists' response to the Coercive/Intolerable Acts. This called for a complete boycott of all British goods in 12 of the 13 colonies, showing a growth in unity.
Lexington and Concord
These were the first "battles" of the Revolutionary War. Lex, delayed troops on way to concord. IT showed that the British had only military resolve in mind.
Olive Branch Petition
The petition was a last ditch effort- created by the second Continental Congress- to have King George III redress colonial grievances to avoid further bloodshed The king refused to receive it, and it showed that Britain's only choice was war, and also that the colonists weren't all for full independence
Hessians
German mercenaries that were hired by the British for putting down the rebellion of the colonies. The hiring of these men showed to the colonists that the British had only military action in mind as a solution to the current problems.
Bunker Hill
a battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.
Second Continental Congress
The congress had resolved that the only option was war due to the rejection of the Olive Branch Petition. It named George Washington as commander in chief of the Continental army and later on adopted the Declaration of Independence.
Common Sense
This was a pamphlet that was written by a Thomas Paine, a common man in the colonies. The pamphlet supported and gave reason to support secession from Britain as well as promote a representative type of government.
Declaration of Independence
Document that contained a list of grievances placing the blame on George III. Additionally, it asserted certain natural rights It was the colonies official declaration of rebellion.
Republican Mothers
The ideal American women. raised patriots Proved to be the defining role for women in the 19th century.
Articles of Confederation
The articles were the first governing document that unified the colonies against the British It showed the French that the colonials were serious about independence and that they had a post-war plan.
Valley Forge
Place in Pennsylvania where George Washington and his Continental Army spent the winter. It allowed for Washington to regroup and retrain his rag-tag army.
Lafayette and von Stuben
Foreign advisors who helped train American soldiers. Lafayette helped urge France into allying, and von Stuben proved to be a valuable drillman.
Trenton
a battle that ended with an American victory against the Hessian mercenaries hired by the British. This battle proved to be a morale booster, and was one of Washington's few victories.
Saratoga
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
Yorktown
the last major engagement/battle of the war. Washington's armies along with the French naval fleet under de Grasse surrounded British general Charles Cornwallis and received his surrender It ended major engagements in the colonies, thus putting an "end" to the war.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty that officially ended the war. The negotiations were between the French, the Americans, and the British. The British gave the North West territory to the Americans.- were recognized as legit indep.
Stono Rebellion
slave rebellion; south-less rights
Currency Act
prohibits from creating money
Jay-Gardoqui Treaty
A treaty between Spain and the United States. It guaranteed Spain's exclusive right to navigate Mississippi River for 30 years. It also opened Spain's European and West Indian seaports to American shipping.
Land Ordinance of 1785
It set up how the new land gained after the revolution would be distributed and organized. The ordinance set up townships that were 36 sq miles where each plot of land was 1 sq mile and the 16th plot was sold for public schooling. The action was a huge success for the new government; it prevented a second revolution and was used for the later frontier states.
Northwest Ordinance; 1787
It declared that once a territory had a population of 60000, it would gain full statehood. However, before this, it would remain as a subordinate of the federal government. The action was a huge success for the new government; it prevented a second revolution and was used for the later frontier states.
Daniel Shays
a leader in a rebellion against the state of Massachusetts due to the amount of discontent of farmers that lost their land due to mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies during the war while they were off fighting. The rebellion, though put down by the state militia, signaled the need for a stronger central government.
Annapolis Convention
As a result of the commerce squabbles among the states, Virginia called for a convention in Annapolis to revise articles of confederation. It led to another one in Philadelphia, which was later to be the Constitutional Convention.
Great Compromise
A compromise that proposed two houses of Congress; one where the population would determine how many representatives a state has, and another to ensure that all states are represented equally. Created the House and Senate while resolving the dispute between the large and small states. - Roger Sherman
3/5 Compromise
It was a compromise between the northern states with the southern ones that decided that although slaves were not citizens, each one would count as 3/5 of a man for representation. It got Southern states to ratify the constitution.
Commerce Compromise
Compromise that made it so that only congress could regulate interstate commerce. It ended the commercial dispute where states would have different tariffs for other states.
Federalism
It was a belief in a strong and powerful central government. It had a strong influence for a couple of decades in the early country.
Separation of Powers
A system that separated the powers of government into three separate braches to limit arbitrary excesses by the government. It led to the system of checks and balances so that the government would not become centered on one branch.
Checks and Balances
A system that ensured that no particular branch of government gained too much power over another. It demonstrated the fear of absolute power in one group/individual as well as preventing one branch from overpowering the others.
Preamble
First sentence of the constitution. Outlined the purpose of writing the constitution.
Impeachment
The act of by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.This is part of the system of checks and balances so that the judicial and the executive do not abuse their powers.
Filibustering
This is an attempt to obstruct a particular decision from being taken by using up the time available, typically through an extremely long speech. This would prevent the "opposing" party to pass an unfavorable law and ultimately force a compromise.
Elastic Clause
It states that Congress has the power "to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper" for governing the country. This was made due to the fact that no one knew what the country would be like in the future, and therefore this clause gave congress power to adjust to the times in order to preserve the strength of the union.
Habeas Corpus
Common law where a judge could release a state prisoner if he was held unlawfully It protected the rights of all and prevented abuse of power.
Ex Post de Facto
A law that makes illegal an act that was legal when committed increases the penalties for an infraction after it has been committed, or changes the rules of evidence to make conviction easier This was prohibited by the constitution in order to keep the justice system equal and fair.
Electoral College
The system that the United States used and still uses to elect the president. Each state has a number of electoral votes based on the number of representatives it has in congress. The system showed the lack of trust the founding fathers had in the common man.
Judicial Review
It was a power given to the judiciary branch in order to sustain checks and balances. This power let judges examine a law or act passed by the government to see if it was constitutional or not.
Treason
An act against one's country One can be tried for treason if two witnesses witness the act of treason.
Federalist Papers
The papers were a collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison explaining how the new government/constitution would work. Their purpose was to convince the New York state legislature to ratify the constitution, which it did.
Federalists
A political group who believed in a strong and powerful central government/executive branch. They were influential during Washington's presidency and taught America how to walk. Initiated political party system with the Republicans.
Republicans
Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system.
Funding
An economic policy of Hamilton where the government would pay the national debt at face value. It would help relieve the government out of its huge debt.
Assumption
Economic policy of Alexander Hamilton where the central government would assume the debts of all the states. It would tie the states closer to the federal government.
Bank of the US
The central bank of the nation designed to facilitate the issuance of a stable national currency and to provide a convenient means of exchange for the people. The bank was responsible for providing the nation economic stability.
Whiskey Tax
Part of the excise taxes, the whiskey tax added a tax on whiskey at seven cents a gallon This helped pay of some of the debt.
Report on Manufactures
A proposal written by Hamilton promoting protectionism in trade by adding tariffs to imported goods in order to protect American industry Though congress did not do anything with it, the report later influenced later industrial policies.
James Madison
A co-author of the Federalist Papers, he was an influential delegate of the Constitutional Convention later to be called the Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. By writing the Bill of Rights, he secured the faith of those who were not sure about the Constitution.
Neutrality Proclamation
A proclamation issued by Washington that proclaimed that The United States was a neutral state when war erupted again between France and England This illustrated the truism that self-interest is the glue of alliances.
Citizen Grant
sent to the U.S. by the French to find soldiers to attack British ships and conquer the territories held by Spain -act of how many did not take the neutrality proclamation seriously. He was a French representative that landed at Charleston and took part in un-neutral activities not authorized by the alliance unknowing of the real American opinion Showed that America was not willing to fight in a European war.
Jay Treaty
A treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. This resulted in a vitalization of the Democratic-Republicans and Pinckney's Treaty with the Spanish.
Pinckney Treaty
agreement between Spain and the United States, fixing the southern boundary of the United States at 31° N latitude and establishing commercial arrangements favorable to the United States. U.S. citizens were accorded free navigation of the Mississippi River through Spanish territory as well as privilege of a tax-free deposit. This treaty showed that the U.S. was slowly becoming a world player, as they made a treaty with Britain the previous year.
John Adams
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
Farewell Address
The address was Washington's farewell letter that was written by Hamilton and published in newspapers It warned against permanent alliances and political parties.
XYZ Affair
A diplomatic incident when made public in 1798, nearly involved the United States and France in war The incident ended the Franco-American treaty and resulted in the undeclared war between the two countries and prompted the build up of the U.S. Navy.
Barbary Pirates
These were Muslim pirates operating from the coast of North Africa that hampered merchant shipping in the area by breaking treaties, attacking ships, and taking hostages/prisoners. The attacks prompted the build up of the U.S. Navy to stop the attacks
Alien and Sedition Acts
the alien act allowed the exportation of any alien believed to be a threat to national security and during times of war; sedition act made it a criminal offense to plot against the government -oppressed people's first amendment rights
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions; Jay-Gardoqui Treaty
protest to the Alien and Sedition Acts; Virginia resolution said states had the right to intervene in unconstitutional acts in government; Kentucky resolution stated that federal government could not extend powers outside of constitutionally granted powers
Aaron Burr
Republican who received the same number of electoral votes as Jefferson since they ran together, thus throwing the election to the House. Caused an amendment to state that President and Vice-President were to be voted separately.
Judiciary Act
Act was an effort by the lame duck Federalist majority in Congress to prolong its control of the federal judiciary before the end of John Adams' termThis effort showed that the Federalists were waning in power.
Mercy Otis Warren
New England woman who wrote many works. These included a history of the revolution, a play, and poems One of America's first writers.
Albert Gallatin
He was an American politician, diplomat, and Secretary of the Treasury. He was responsible for balancing the budget, which let America purchase the Louisiana territory from France.
Waltham Method
The method was a set of unique production methods used at Lowell's Mills. It is purported to increase efficiency, productivity and profits in ways different from other methods, which gave America a help in industrializing.
Yazoo Land Claims
Fraud perpetrated by several Georgia governors and the state legislature from 1795 to 1803 by selling large tracts of land to insiders at low prices. The lands were to be the states of Alabama and Mississippi later on and it was the first state law repealed by the Supreme Court.
Robert Livingston
He was the U.S. Minister to France from 1801 to 1804. He negotiated the purchase of the Louisiana Territory.
Louisiana Purchase
The treaty describes the United States acquisition of more than 529,911,680 acres of territory from France in 1803. This greatly increased the size, power, and wealth of the U.S.
Marbury v. Madison
A court case that came from a dispute between Marbury and Madison where Madison refused to sign Marbury's appointment. IT established the basis for the exercise of judicial review and made the judicary branch equal in power.
Chesapeake-Leopard
An incident where the Leopard, a British warship, demanded the surrender for 4 deserters on the Chesapeake. It refused, and the Leopard fired upon the ship This escalated the tensions between the two nations, and directly caused the Embargo Act of 1807 and was an ingredient to the War of 1812.
Orders-in-Council
Set of several trade regulations which established a blockade of part of the continent of Europe and prohibited trade with France. Escalated tensions between Britain and America.establishes a blockade of part of the continent of Europe and prohibited trade w/ France un less American ships went to British ports for licenses for trades
Embargo Act
Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
Non-Intercourse Act
The act was a replacement of the Embargo Act. It reopened trade with the world except with France and Britain. Like its predecessor, it was ineffective and a precursor to war.
War Hawks
These were mostly young Republicans who had been imbued with the ideals of the American Revolution as youths, who wanted to take Canada and Florida and deal with the Indian problem. They held a majority in Congress, and were responsible for declaring war in 1812
Daniel Webster
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
Hartford Convention
It was a gathering of Federalists in New England whose purpose was to discuss their grievances and to seek redress for their wrongs. They desired amendments to the Constitution that would restore the Federalists, but ultimately, the desires of the convention would be the end of the Federalist Party.
Battle of New Orleans
A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.
Treaty of Ghent
It was the treaty that ended the War of 1812 by declaring an armistice between US and Briatain. The treaty in essence, declared the war as a draw; however, the treaty proved to be popular since nothing was lost.
Rush-Bagot Treaty
The Treaty demilitarized the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval armaments and forts still remained, and laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the US and British North America This agreement was indicative of improving relations between the United States and Britain during this time period following the end of the War of 1812.
Era of Good Feelings
This phrase was coined by a Boston newspaper that was commonly associated with the administration of James Monroe. It represented a time of a sense of nationalism in the country, as well as a sober executive.
Frances C. Lowell
American business man who started Boston Manufacturing Company. A fore-runner to future American industrialists and pioneered the employment of women, which started the Lowell system of hiring young unmarried women
Cumberland Road
The road was the first interstate highway, and the only one entirely paid for by federal funds. It ran from Maryland to Illinois and helped with the westward movement.
Tariff of 1816
The tariff raised import duties 25% It lessened the flood of imports, protected domestic industry, and prevented an economic crisis
James Monroe
He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
John C. Calhoun
He was a senator for South Carolina that was at first a supporter of the Tariff of 1816 but switched sides later on He claimed that it was a pro-Northerner act that would not build up the self-sufficiency of the economy. He was an example of the sectionalism between North and South.
Adams-Onis Treaty
known as transcontinental treaty, purchased Florida from Spain. Established western boundary for US and prevented Seminoles from invading Georgia
McCulloch v. Maryland
This was a judicial case that involved an attempt by Maryland to destroy a branch of the Bank of the United States by imposing tax on the notes This ended with John Marshall promoting Hamiltonian policy of implied powers and claimed that Maryland had no right to tax the bank. This was a blow to state rights and an increase in power of loose interpretation.
Dartmouth v. Woodward
This was a Supreme Court case dealing with the impairment of contracts. It strengthened the Contract Clause and limiting the power of the States to interfere with private institutions' charters. The decision protected contracts against specifically state encroachments.
Panic of 1819
This was the first widespread economic crisis in the United States which brought deflation, depression, backrushes, bank failures, unemployment and soup kitchens. This set back nationalism to more sectionalism and hurt the poorer class, which gave way to Jacksonian Democracy.
Erie Canal
It is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean It cut transport costs into what was then wilderness by about 90%. The Canal resulted in a massive population surge in western New York, and opened regions further west to increased settlement
Tallmadge Amendment
This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
Missouri Compromise
This was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. The South won Missouri as a slave state, and the North won Maine and the right to forbid slavery in the remaining territories. It showed that compromise again prevented break up.
Denmark Vesey Revolt
A failed revolt by Denmark Vesey to steal arms and lead slaves to freedom. It failed due to loyal slaves. The revolt scarred the South, and made them even more coercive on the manners of slavery.
Gibbons v. Ogden
A case that arose from an attempt by New York State to grant a monopoly of steamboat operation between New York and New Jersey. Ogden was licensed to operate the ferry and argued that navigation commerce was a state regulated thing, but Gibbons had his own ferry business incensed by a statue enacted by congress. The court disagreed with Ogden claiming that Congress had as much power over commerce as navigation. This established a broad interpretation of the constitution.
Henry Clay
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
American System
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
John Quincy Adams
Sixth president of the United States He was in favor of funding national research and he appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. During his presidency the National Republicans were formed in support of him.
Corrupt Bargain
An event during the 1824 presidential election where Henry Clay did behind the scenes work in order to secure the victory of John Quincy Adams over Andrew Jackson. This enraged Jackson supporters, and would help him win in 1828.
Tariff of Abominations
The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.
Thomas W. Dorr
He was a U.S. lawyer and political figure who drafted a liberal constitution for Rhode Island which was passed by popular referendum.
South Carolina Exposition & Protest
The document, written by John C. Calhoun, was a protest against the Tariff of 1828. It promoted the nullification theory. This was another example of the rising tension between the North and South and foreshadowed secession.
Martin Van Buren
He was the eighth president of the United States who was experienced in legislative and administrative life. He passed the Divorce Bill which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and denied the backing system.
Peggy O'Neal-Eaton Affair
Sex scandal involving members of Jackson's cabinet Forced several members of Jackson's cabinet to resign, allowing Van Buren to be elevated as Jackson's successor
Webster-Hayne Debate
It was an unplanned series of speeches in the Senate, during which Robert Hayne of South Carolina interpreted the Constitution as little more than a treaty between sovereign states, and Daniel Webster expressed the concept of the United States as one nation. The debate cemented the image of Daniel Webster, as a legendary defender of Constitution and Union
Maysville Road Veto
A veto by Jackson that prevented the Maysville road from being funded by federal money since it only benefited Kentucky. This was a blow to Clay's American System, and it irritated the West.
Indian Removal Act
An act that granted the ability to negotiate land-exchange treaties to the federal government. Part of the Indian Removal policy of the government. This allowed the movement of the Indians which granted new land in the south.
Indian Intercourse Act
These were several acts passed by the United States Congress regulating commerce between American Indians and non-Indians and restricting travel by non-Indians onto Indian land. It regulated relations between Indians living on Indian land and non-Indians, this final act identified an area known as "Indian country".
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Court refused to hear case of the Cherokees, which they brought forward, because Georgia had abolished their tribal legislature and courts. This showed that the Cherokee's position was on their shoulders, and it was a precursor to Worcester v. Georgia
Nullification Ordinance
declared the tariff of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the state borders of South Carolina
Compromise Tariff of 1833
It was a new tariff proposed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816 This compromise avoided civil war and prolonged the union for another 30 years.
Force Bill
The bill authorized President Andrew Jackson's use of whatever force necessary to execute laws, e.g. collect taxes from states who didn't want to pay them; The bill was furthered the power of the presidency.
Nicholas Biddle
He was an American financier who was also president of the Bank of the United States. He was also known for his bribes. He was in charge during the bank war, where Jackson refused to deposit federal funds, which bled the bank dry. He also showed the corruption of the bank.
Roger B. Taney
The fifth Chief Justice. him... and other justices appointed by Jackson favored the power of the states . In the Dred Scott decision (1857) he ruled that slaves and their descendants had no rights as citizens.
Democracy in America
classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville on the United States in the 1830s and its strengths and weaknesses such as the tyranny of the majority It explained why republicanism succeeded in the U.S. and failed elsewhere.
Loco Focos
They were a radical faction of the Democratic Party that existed from 1835 until the mid-1840s. Martin van Buren incorporated many ideals from the group.
Whig Party
A political party that lasted from 1834 to 1860, formed to oppose the policies of President Andrew Jackson, The creation of the party signified the end of one party rule.
Specie Circular
Executive order that required payment in gold/silver in order to buy land since paper money was inflating. This signified the growing economic problems which would result in the panic of 1837.
Panic of 1837
As a result of Jackson's economic policies, the United States went through another depression It resulted in the closure of many banks and record unemployment levels.
Independent Treasury System
The act removed the federal government from involvement with the nation's banking system by establishing federal depositories for public funds instead of keeping the money in national, state, or private banks This was the system the government adopted until the federal reserve act of 1910.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
Dispute over the toll bridge of Charles River and the free bridge of Warren. The court ruled in favor of Warren. Reversed Dartmouth College v. Woodward; property rights can be overridden by public need
Samuel Morse
He developed an electric telegraph which allowed information to be transferred from one place to another by means of a strung wire using a dot-slash code. This was an early form of quick communication that helped tie people together regardless of distance.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
A Massachusetts Supreme Court case regarding the issue of worker unions; it ruled that unions were not illegal conspiracies provided that their actions were honorable and peaceful. While this did not legalize the worker strikes, it was a milestone for later acts regarding worker unions.
John Deere
American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.
Cyrus McCormick
Irish-American inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America.
Cumberland Road
A national road that stretched from Maryland to Illinois. It was the first national/interstate highway, and it was a milestone for the eventual connection of all the states by highways, thus increasing trade.
Robert Fulton
Inventor of the steamboat, which as a boat that had a powerful steam engine. These enabled boats to travel upstream on rivers, thus increasing trade while at the same time improving inter and state transportation.
DeWitt Clinton
Governor of New York who started the Erie Canal project. His leadership helped complete the canal, which boosted the economy greatly by cutting time traveled from west New York to the Hudson.
Cyrus Field
American businessman who laid the first telegraph wire across the Atlantic. This cut down the time it took for a message to be sent from Europe to American and vice-versa.
Eli Whitney
A mechanical genius who invented the cotton gin, which was a machine that separated the cotton from the seed; This greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves. Eventually led to the rapid expansion of the textile industry
Second Great Awakening
A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Joseph Smith
He was responsible for forming the Mormon sect of Christianity. This new sect was an American one and not European in origin as with all the other sects; first Christian sect created in America
Brigham Young
The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
Noah Webster
American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.
Deism
Belief that held that God did exist, but man was responsible for building upon what was created. It would help promote scientific advancement as well as inspire Unitarianism.
Catherine Beecher
Female reformer that pushed for female employment as teachers; however, she still embraced the role of a good homemaker for women. She was an example of the fact that not all women were pushing for radical reforms.
Elizabeth Blackwell
A woman who challenging the taboo of professional women. She graduated from medical college, thereby proving that women are able to do what men can.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
Walt Whitman
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
American poet that was influenced somewhat by the transcendentalism occurring at the time. He was important in building the status of American literature.
Perfectionism
Due to the new liberal movements and religious fervor, many Americans believed that perfection was attainable. Therefore, a series of movements took place to perfect society, such as prison reform, temperance, etc.
Utopian Experiments
Due to the perfectionism occurring in the country, some radical groups attempted to create utopian societies based on communism and equality. These were just examples of the feelings felt by certain Americans that somewhat reflected the general perfectionism.
Transcendentalists
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Reform Crusades
These were a series of movements designed to better American society. They included movements such as prison reform, temperance, and women's rights. While not bringing an immediate change, the reforms did act as a starting point for a series of changes later on.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She was an American writer famous for Uncle Tom's Cabin, which was about the blackness of American slavery. Acclaimed in Europe and the North, the book furthered the abolitionist movement, and it was a cause of the Civil War.
William Lloyd Garrison
Ardent abolitionist that fought against slavery for moral reasons. His influence brought many people to his standard, as well as to oppose him. He created the Anti-Slavery Society. argued for immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves and founded The Liberator
The Liberator
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
Frederick Douglas
Famous black abolitionist that escaped from slavery who would later right a narrative of his own life that described his life. He promoted the abolitionist cause and drew the line where evil must be denounced.
Immigration Patters
Due to the varied problems in Europe, distinct groups immigrated to America. First were the Irish, who were hated for their Catholicism and their taking of American jobs. The next group was the Germans, who faired better than the Irish due to the fact that they brought over culture and already knew how to farm. Their massive movement caused a growth of nativist feelings in American, as well as the creation of the Know Nothings.
Know-Nothing Party
A party which pushed for political action against these newcomers. They displayed the feelings of America regarding newcomers that were different and therefore, the double standard of the country.
Log-Cabin Campaign, 1840
This was William Henry Harrison's bid for the presidency as a Whig. The campaign attempted to gain the support of the population by portraying Harrison as a simple man who lived in a log cabin. Harrison ultimately won, and was the beginning of active campaigning and slogans.
Caroline Incident
An incident where an American steamer was attacked by the British. It caused a rise in tensions between the two countries.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Canada as well as the location of the border in the westward frontier up to the Rocky Mountains -called for a final end to the slave trade on the high seas, to be enforced by both signatories
Oregon Question
A dispute between the British and the Americans over the boundary of Oregon. However, it was resolved by declaring the 49th parallel the official border, preventing war yet again.
Texas Question
Dispute between those who wanted Texas to be immediately accepted as a state; and those who wanted to wait until there was a new free state ready to join so that the balance in the Senate would not be undone. It increased the tensions between the North and South.
Santa Anna
Mexican dictator who was in charge when war broke out between the Mexicans and Americans. He lost Texas to rebels, and was the leader of the armed forces during the war.
Samuel Houston
An American who went to Texas. During the Texan Rebellion, he was made commander in chief of their armed forces and ultimately defeated the Mexicans. He later served as president of Texas for two terms. He was influential in getting Texas its statehood.
Slidell Mission
This was a last ditch attempt to gain California for America. Polk sent Slidell to offer a maximum of $25 million for it, but it was rejected by the Mexicans. This prompted Polk to provoke war with the Mexicans.
John Fremont
American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States First Presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform of opposition to slavery.
Bear Flag Revolt
A revolt of American settlers in California against Mexican rule. It ignited the Mexican War and ultimately made California a state.
General Winfield Scott
United States Army lieutenant general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. He was responsible for defeating Santa Anna. He also conceived the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
was the peace treaty that ended the Mexican-American War The treaty provided for the Mexican Cession, in which Mexico parts of modern-day Texas, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming, as well as the whole of California, Nevada, and Utah.
Wilmot Proviso
Proposed that slavery be banned in land acquired from the Mexican War. The proviso pushed the country closer to civil war; it raised questions about slaves that had not been asked previously
Mexican Cession
historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. this massive land grab was significant because the question of extending slavery into newly acquired territories had become the leading national political issue.
Underground Railroad
network of clandestine routes by which African slaves in the 19th century United States attempted to escape to free states, or as far north as Canada It allowed thousands of slaves to escape to freedom.
Harriet Tubman
Known as Black Moses or Grandma Moses, she was a black freedom fighter. She freed over 300 slaves including her parents on various trips into the south.
Compromise of 1850
Series of legislation addressing slavery and the boundaries of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War. California was admitted as a free state, Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands West of the Rio Grande river, the territory of New Mexico was organized with popular sovereignty, the slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C., and the Fugitive Slave Law was passed It temporarily defused sectional tensions in the United States, postponing the secession crisis and the American Civil War. Also repealed the compromise of 1820.
Fugitive Slave Law, 1850
) fleeing slaves couldn't testify on their own behalf, (2) the federal commissioner who handled the case got $5 if the slave was free and $10 if not, and (3) people who were ordered to help catch slaves had to do so, even if they didn't want to.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
A writer and relative of Catherine Beecher. Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe about a slave who's ordered to be beaten to death by two other slaves. Showed northerners the horrors of slavery while southerners attack it as an exaggeration, it was also a cause of the Civil War.
William Lloyd Garrison
Ardent abolitionist that fought against slavery for moral reasons. His influence brought many people to his standard, as well as to oppose him. He created and led the Anti-Slavery Society.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
Supreme Court case in which Edward Prigg appealed to the US Supreme Court on the grounds that the Pennsylvania law arrogated the State powers over and above those allowed by the US Constitution The court held that Federal law is superior to State law, and overturned the conviction of Prigg as a result.
Liberty Party
a former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery. Later merged with antislavery Whigs to form the Free Soil Party
De Bow's Review
a widely circulated magazine of "agricultural, commercial, and industrial progress and resource" in the American South. It convinced many southerners to join in secession.
Peculiar Institution
A euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South. The term aimed to explain away the seeming contradiction of legalized slavery in a country whose Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal". It was one of the key causes of the Civil War.
Nat Turner
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
Hinton Helper
a Southern critic of slavery during the 1850s who wrote a book entitled The Impending Crisis of The South The book put forth the notion that slavery hurt the economic prospects of non-slaveholders, and was an impediment to the growth of the entire region of the South.
Free-Soil Party
A short lived political party that was against the expansion of slavery into new territories. They had enough people in Congress to influence certain decisions.
Ostend Manifesto
a document drawn up in 1854 that instructed the buying of Cuba from Spain, then suggested the taking of Cuba by force It caused outrage among Northerners who felt it was a Southern attempt to extend slavery as states in Cuba would be southern states.
Gadsden Purchase
the purchasing of land from Mexico that completed the continental United States It provided the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad.
Kansas Nebraska Act
An act made to decide if the Kansas-Nebraska territory would be slave or free by popular sovereignty. The dispute strengthened the rift between the north and south states.
Bleeding Kansas
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Sumner Brooks Affair
During an antislavery speech, a Senator named Sumner insulted another congressman named Butler who was related to another Congressman named Brooks. Brooks beat Sumner with his cane as Sumner sat writing at his desk in the Senate Chamber. It showed how far southerners were willing to go to protect slavery as well as tarnishing the image of the South.
Lecompton Constitution
supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
Topeka Constitution
First attempt to establish a constitution for Kansas Territory. Angered pro-slavery people who claimed it was illegal. Started another dispute and led to "Bleeding Kansas."
Stephen A. Douglas
American politician from Illinois who developed the method of popular sovereignty as a way to settle slave state or free state. He helped passed the compromise of 1850 as well as giving the states the choice with popular sovereignty.
Popular Sovereignty
Doctrine that government is created by and subject to the will of the people, who are the source of all political power. Helped decided the dispute in Kansas and Nebraska.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Dred Scott, a slave, had been taken to Illinois by his owner for several years, so he sued for his freedom; however, the court ruled that he could not sue since he was a slave. A key cause of the American Civil War.
Roger B. Taney
Fifth Chief Justice, he was the first Roman Catholic to hold the job and was pro-slavery. He wrote the decision on the Dred Scot case.
Lincoln-Douglass Debates
a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas for an Illinois seat in the Senate. led to Abe Lincoln being elected to the senate and this experience later propelled him to the Presidency
Freeport Doctrine
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
Panic of 1857
A notable sudden collapse in the economy caused by over speculation in railroads and lands, false banking practices, and a break in the flow of European capital to American investments as a result of the Crimean War. Since it did not effect the South as bad as the North, they gained a sense of superiority.
John Brown's Raid
An attempt by abolitionist John Brown to cause a slave rebellion by seizing a weapons arsenal; however, it failed since no slaver knew about it. Caused south to believe northern abolitionists were all radical and militant.
John C. Breckinridge
The South's pro-slavery Democratic candidate in the election of 1860. Completed the split of the Democratic Party by being nominated.
John Bell
Presidential candidate of the Constitutional Union Party. He drew votes away from the Democrats, helping Lincoln win.
Secession
Term that is used when part of a country leaves the rest of the country to form their own country. The South's secession led to the outbreak of the Civil War.
Jefferson Davis
American soldier and politician who became the first president of the Confederacy. Led the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Election of 1860
The election in which Abraham Lincoln was first elected President due to the schism of the Democrats. Caused a chain reaction of southern states to secede from the Union since they were afraid of Lincoln's policies.
Crittenden Compromise
A last-ditch effort to resolve the secession crisis by compromise. It proposed to bar the government from intervening in the states' decision of slavery, to restore the Missouri Compromise, and to guarantee protection of slavery below the line. Lincoln rejected the proposal, causing the gateway to bloodshed to be open.
Matthew Perry
An American commodore in the navy, who made a couple trips to Japan. He forced the opening of Japan to western trade, and prompted a revolution against the shogunate. It also foreshadowed later American imperialistic foreign policy.
Frederick Douglas
Famous black abolitionist that escaped from slavery who would later right a narrative of his own life that described his life. He promoted the abolitionist cause and drew the line where evil must be denounced.
Samuel Morse
He developed an electric telegraph which allowed information to be transferred from one place to another by means of a strung wire using a dot-slash code. This was an early form of quick communication that helped tie people together regardless of distance.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
A Massachusetts Supreme Court case regarding the issue of worker unions; it ruled that unions were not illegal conspiracies provided that their actions were honorable and peaceful. While this did not legalize the worker strikes, it was a milestone for later acts regarding worker unions.
John Deere
American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.
Cyrus McCormick
Irish-American inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America.
Cumberland Road
A national road that stretched from Maryland to Illinois. It was the first national/interstate highway, and it was a milestone for the eventual connection of all the states by highways, thus increasing trade.
Robert Fulton
Inventor of the steamboat, which as a boat that had a powerful steam engine. These enabled boats to travel upstream on rivers, thus increasing trade while at the same time improving inter and state transportation.
DeWitt Clinton
Governor of New York who started the Erie Canal project. His leadership helped complete the canal, which boosted the economy greatly by cutting time traveled from west New York to the Hudson.
Cyrus Field
American businessman who laid the first telegraph wire across the Atlantic. This cut down the time it took for a message to be sent from Europe to American and vice-versa.
Eli Whitney
A mechanical genius who invented the cotton gin, which was machine that separated the cotton from the seed. This greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves.
Second Great Awakening
A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Joseph Smith
He was responsible for forming the Mormon sect of Christianity. This new sect was an American one and not European in origin as with all the other sects.
Brigham Young
The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
Noah Webster
American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.
Deism
Belief that held that God did exist, but man was responsible for building upon what was created. It would help promote scientific advancement as well as inspire Unitarianism.
Catherine Beecher
Female reformer that pushed for female employment as teachers; however, she still embraced the role of a good homemaker for women. She was an example of the fact that not all women were pushing for radical reforms.
Elizabeth Blackwell
A woman who challenging the taboo of professional women. She graduated from medical college, thereby proving that women are able to do what men can.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
Walt Whitman
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
American poet that was influenced somewhat by the transcendentalism occurring at the time. He was important in building the status of American literature.
Perfectionism
Due to the new liberal movements and religious fervor, many Americans believed that perfection was attainable. Therefore, a series of movements took place to perfect society, such as prison reform, temperance, etc.
Utopian Experiments
Due to the perfectionism occurring in the country, some radical groups attempted to create utopian societies based on communism and equality. These were just examples of the feelings felt by certain Americans that somewhat reflected the general perfectionism.
Transcendentalists
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Reform Crusades
These were a series of movements designed to better American society. They included movements such as prison reform, temperance, and women's rights. While not bringing an immediate change, the reforms did act as a starting point for a series of changes later on.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She was an American writer famous for Uncle Tom's Cabin, which was about the blackness of American slavery. Acclaimed in Europe and the North, the book furthered the abolitionist movement, and it was a cause of the Civil War.
William Lloyd Garrison
Ardent abolitionist that fought against slavery for moral reasons. His influence brought many people to his standard, as well as to oppose him. He created the Anti-Slavery Society. argued for immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves and founded The Liberator
The Liberator
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
Frederick Douglas
Famous black abolitionist that escaped from slavery who would later right a narrative of his own life that described his life. He promoted the abolitionist cause and drew the line where evil must be denounced.
Immigration Patters
Due to the varied problems in Europe, distinct groups immigrated to America. First were the Irish, who were hated for their Catholicism and their taking of American jobs. The next group was the Germans, who faired better than the Irish due to the fact that they brought over culture and already knew how to farm. Their massive movement caused a growth of nativist feelings in American, as well as the creation of the Know Nothings.
Know-Nothing Party
A party which pushed for political action against these newcomers. They displayed the feelings of America regarding newcomers that were different and therefore, the double standard of the country.
Log-Cabin Campaign, 1840
This was William Henry Harrison's bid for the presidency as a Whig. The campaign attempted to gain the support of the population by portraying Harrison as a simple man who lived in a log cabin. Harrison ultimately won, and was the beginning of active campaigning and slogans.
John Tyler
Vice-president under Harrison brought in to gain support of the South. His presidency was responsible for the veto against another Bank of the U.S and settled the Texas and Maine disputes in the country
Caroline Incident
An incident where an American steamer was attacked by the British. It caused a rise in tensions between the two countries.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Canada as well as the location of the border in the westward frontier up to the Rocky Mountains -called for a final end to the slave trade on the high seas, to be enforced by both signatories
James K. Polk
He was the next American president after Tyler. His presidency is known for settling the Oregon dispute, granting Texas statehood, and winning the Mexican-American War.
Oregon Question
A dispute between the British and the Americans over the boundary of Oregon. However, it was resolved by declaring the 49th parallel the official border, preventing war yet again.
Texas Question
Dispute between those who wanted Texas to be immediately accepted as a state; and those who wanted to wait until there was a new free state ready to join so that the balance in the Senate would not be undone. It increased the tensions between the North and South.
Santa Anna
Mexican dictator who was in charge when war broke out between the Mexicans and Americans. He lost Texas to rebels, and was the leader of the armed forces during the war.
Samuel Houston
An American who went to Texas. During the Texan Rebellion, he was made commander in chief of their armed forces and ultimately defeated the Mexicans. He later served as president of Texas for two terms. He was influential in getting Texas its statehood.
Slidell Mission
This was a last ditch attempt to gain California for America. Polk sent Slidell to offer a maximum of $25 million for it, but it was rejected by the Mexicans. This prompted Polk to provoke war with the Mexicans.
Seneca Falls Convention
This was a meeting of feminists at Seneca Falls where the women mimicked the Declaration to include women and their grievances as well as demanded the vote. The convention started the feminist movement.
Samuel Slater
British mechanic who "stole" the plans of British machinery and used them to reconstruct a machine to spin cotton in NE. This started the Industrial Revolution for America and placed the North at the center.
John Fremont
American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States First Presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform of opposition to slavery.
Bear Flag Revolt
A revolt of American settlers in California against Mexican rule. It ignited the Mexican War and ultimately made California a state.
General Winfield Scott
United States Army lieutenant general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. He was responsible for defeating Santa Anna. He also conceived the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
was the peace treaty that ended the Mexican-American War The treaty provided for the Mexican Cession, in which Mexico parts of modern-day Texas, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming, as well as the whole of California, Nevada, and Utah.
Wilmot Proviso
Proposed that slavery be banned in land acquired from the Mexican War. The proviso pushed the country closer to civil war; it raised questions about slaves that had not been asked previously
Mexican Cession
historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. this massive land grab was significant because the question of extending slavery into newly acquired territories had become the leading national political issue.
Underground Railroad
network of clandestine routes by which African slaves in the 19th century United States attempted to escape to free states, or as far north as Canada It allowed thousands of slaves to escape to freedom.
Harriet Tubman
Known as Black Moses or Grandma Moses, she was a black freedom fighter. She freed over 300 slaves including her parents on various trips into the south.
Compromise of 1850
Series of legislation addressing slavery and the boundaries of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War. California was admitted as a free state, Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands West of the Rio Grande river, the territory of New Mexico was organized with popular sovereignty, the slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C., and the Fugitive Slave Law was passed It temporarily defused sectional tensions in the United States, postponing the secession crisis and the American Civil War. Also repealed the compromise of 1820.
Fugitive Slave Law, 1850
) fleeing slaves couldn't testify on their own behalf, (2) the federal commissioner who handled the case got $5 if the slave was free and $10 if not, and (3) people who were ordered to help catch slaves had to do so, even if they didn't want to.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
A writer and relative of Catherine Beecher. Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe about a slave who's ordered to be beaten to death by two other slaves. Showed northerners the horrors of slavery while southerners attack it as an exaggeration, it was also a cause of the Civil War.
William Lloyd Garrison
Ardent abolitionist that fought against slavery for moral reasons. His influence brought many people to his standard, as well as to oppose him. He created and led the Anti-Slavery Society.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
Supreme Court case in which Edward Prigg appealed to the US Supreme Court on the grounds that the Pennsylvania law arrogated the State powers over and above those allowed by the US Constitution The court held that Federal law is superior to State law, and overturned the conviction of Prigg as a result.
Liberty Party
a former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery. Later merged with antislavery Whigs to form the Free Soil Party
De Bow's Review
a widely circulated magazine of "agricultural, commercial, and industrial progress and resource" in the American South. It convinced many southerners to join in secession.
Peculiar Institution
A euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South. The term aimed to explain away the seeming contradiction of legalized slavery in a country whose Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal". It was one of the key causes of the Civil War.
Nat Turner
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
Hinton Helper
a Southern critic of slavery during the 1850s who wrote a book entitled The Impending Crisis of The South The book put forth the notion that slavery hurt the economic prospects of non-slaveholders, and was an impediment to the growth of the entire region of the South.
Free-Soil Party
A short lived political party that was against the expansion of slavery into new territories. They had enough people in Congress to influence certain decisions.
Ostend Manifesto
a document drawn up in 1854 that instructed the buying of Cuba from Spain, then suggested the taking of Cuba by force It caused outrage among Northerners who felt it was a Southern attempt to extend slavery as states in Cuba would be southern states.
Gadsden Purchase
the purchasing of land from Mexico that completed the continental United States It provided the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad.
Kansas Nebraska Act
An act made to decide if the Kansas-Nebraska territory would be slave or free by popular sovereignty. The dispute strengthened the rift between the north and south states.
Bleeding Kansas
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Sumner Brooks Affair
During an antislavery speech, a Senator named Sumner insulted another congressman named Butler who was related to another Congressman named Brooks. Brooks beat Sumner with his cane as Sumner sat writing at his desk in the Senate Chamber. It showed how far southerners were willing to go to protect slavery as well as tarnishing the image of the South.
Lecompton Constitution
supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
Topeka Constitution
First attempt to establish a constitution for Kansas Territory. Angered pro-slavery people who claimed it was illegal. Started another dispute and led to "Bleeding Kansas."
Stephen A. Douglas
American politician from Illinois who developed the method of popular sovereignty as a way to settle slave state or free state. He helped passed the compromise of 1850 as well as giving the states the choice with popular sovereignty.
Popular Sovereignty
Doctrine that government is created by and subject to the will of the people, who are the source of all political power. Helped decided the dispute in Kansas and Nebraska.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Dred Scott, a slave, had been taken to Illinois by his owner for several years, so he sued for his freedom; however, the court ruled that he could not sue since he was a slave. A key cause of the American Civil War.
Roger B. Taney
Fifth Chief Justice, he was the first Roman Catholic to hold the job and was pro-slavery. He wrote the decision on the Dred Scot case.
Lincoln-Douglass Debates
a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas for an Illinois seat in the Senate. led to Abe Lincoln being elected to the senate and this experience later propelled him to the Presidency
Freeport Doctrine
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
Panic of 1857
A notable sudden collapse in the economy caused by over speculation in railroads and lands, false banking practices, and a break in the flow of European capital to American investments as a result of the Crimean War. Since it did not effect the South as bad as the North, they gained a sense of superiority.
John Brown's Raid
An attempt by abolitionist John Brown to cause a slave rebellion by seizing a weapons arsenal; however, it failed since no slaver knew about it. Caused south to believe northern abolitionists were all radical and militant.
John C. Breckinridge
The South's pro-slavery Democratic candidate in the election of 1860. Completed the split of the Democratic Party by being nominated.
John Bell
Presidential candidate of the Constitutional Union Party. He drew votes away from the Democrats, helping Lincoln win.
Secession
Term that is used when part of a country leaves the rest of the country to form their own country. The South's secession led to the outbreak of the Civil War.
Jefferson Davis
American soldier and politician who became the first president of the Confederacy. Led the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Election of 1860
The election in which Abraham Lincoln was first elected President due to the schism of the Democrats. Caused a chain reaction of southern states to secede from the Union since they were afraid of Lincoln's policies.
Crittenden Compromise
A last-ditch effort to resolve the secession crisis by compromise. It proposed to bar the government from intervening in the states' decision of slavery, to restore the Missouri Compromise, and to guarantee protection of slavery below the line. Lincoln rejected the proposal, causing the gateway to bloodshed to be open.
Transcontinental Railroad
a railroad that connected the eastern United States to the western United States. The railroad firmly bonded the West Coast the Union, created a trade route to the far-east, and helped the western expansion
James Fisk
an American financier that was partnered with Jay Gould in tampering with the railroad stocks. He, like other railroad kings, controlled the lives of the people more than the president did and pushed the way to cooperation among the kings where they developed techniques such as pooling.
Jay Gould
an American financier that was partnered with James Fisk in tampering with the railroad stocks for personal profit He, like other railroad kings, controlled the lives of the people more than the president did and pushed the way to cooperation among the kings where they developed techniques such as pooling.
Boomer
settlers that were waiting for the government to officially open Oklahoma for settlement. Their haste helped Oklahoma by 1907; however, they showed that the frontier was slowly shrinking in respect to available land.
Sooner
eager settlers that jumped the gun to settle Oklahoma when the government declared the availability of new land. Their haste helped Oklahoma by 1907; however, they showed that the frontier was slowly shrinking in respect to available land.
Sand Creek
a massacre of Indians by federal troops just so that they didn't make any trouble.
George Custer
an American general/colonel that took part in the Sioux War and ultimately died in an engagement at the Big Horn.
Helen Hunt Jackson
an author who wrote A Century of Dishonor which chronicled the government's actions against the Indians. She also wrote Romona, which was a love story about Indians. Her writing helped inspire sympathy towards the Indians.
Dawes Act
This act removed the status of legal entity from the tribes, removed tribal ownership of land and gave family heads 160 acres. It also granted citizenship if they acted like good Americans for x number of years. The act attempted to make the Indians act more as individuals and reflected the government's stance towards them until 1934. The act also accelerated the decay of Indian culture but increased the population.
Trust
an economic method that had other companies assigns their stocks to the board of trust who would manage them. This made the head of the board, or the corporate leader wealthy, and at the same time killed off competitors not in the trust. This method was used/developed by Rockefeller, and helped him become extremely wealthy. It was also used in creating monopolies.
Pool
an economic agreement between CEOs to divide business in a given area and share the profits. This was ineffective due to personal greed, but it deed lead the way to Trusts.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
George Pullman
the inventor of the Pullman Car, which was a luxurious train car for the rich. These cars helped convince the rich to take the train.
J.P. Morgan
a highly successful banker who bought out Carnegie. With Carnegie's holdings and some others, he launched U.S Steel and made it the first billion dollar corporation.
Gustavus Swift
He was a meat king that used a trust to get wealthy. It showed that wealth was dominating the common wealth.
Phillip Armour
He was a meat king that used a trust to get wealthy. It showed that wealth was dominating the common wealth.
Charles Pillsbury
He was the founder of Pillsbury & Company.
John D. Rockefeller
He was the richest man who developed the trust and created Standard Oil Company. He was ruthless in the world of business and controlled the petroleum industry. He influenced other businessmen to use trusts in order to obtain wealth, and he was an example of how the new rich was taking over the place that old patricians once held.
Alexander Graham Bell
He was an American inventor who was responsible for developing the telephone. This greatly improved communications in the country.
William Graham Sumner
He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
Charles Darwin
He was a British scientist who was most famous for developing his Theory of Evolution. Besides making a great milestone in the world of science, his theory had an effect on society, which created Social Darwinism.
On Origin of Species
This book by Charles Darwin explains his theory of evolution and natural selection. This made his theory open and accessible to the public, marked a milestone in scientific achievement, and influenced the development of Social Darwinism.
Social Darwinism
This was a belief held by many that stated that the rich were rich and the poor were poor due to natural selection in society. This was the basis of many people who promoted a laissez fairee style of economy.
Russell Conwell
He was a Revered and a staunch advocate of Social Darwinism. He helped the justification of the rich and the need to not help the poor in his "Acres of Diamonds" lecture.
Andrew Carnegie
a steel giant that got where he was by vertical integration. He pioneered vertical integration as a way to run a corporation, and was an anti-trust advocate as well as a philanthropist.
Acres of Diamonds
This was a lecture written by Russell Conwell that advocated Social Darwinism It justified the rich being rich and the poor being poor and, it called people not to help the poor since it was their fault, thus promoting a laissez faire ideal.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
William M. Tweed
Democratic boss of New York City in the 1860s; showed corruption in politics when stole $ millions
Old Immigrants
These were immigrants that came during the first phase of immigration (1840s) who were usually Irish and German. These people were second generation, which meant that they have assimilated into America, gotten into politics, and opened their own shops. Their position in government and hypocritical nature made them hostile to new immigrants, passing laws against them.
New Immigrants
These were immigrants that were recently arriving into America. These were unskilled laborers that filled the jobs no one else wanted.
Chinese Exclusion Act; 1882
This act permanently banned anyone from China to immigrant to the U.S. This was a display of how old immigrants used their status against new immigrants and the nativist feeling in America.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
This act banned any formations that would restrict trade, not distinguishing between bad and good trusts. The act was a hamper on worker unions, but it showed that the government was slowly moving away from laissez faire ideals.
United States v. E.C. Knight Co.
This was a case where the government sued E.C Knight Co. due a violation in the Sherman Anti-Trust Act since E.C. controlled 98% of the sugar refinement industry. The court ruled in favor of E.C. Knight, stating that manufacturing was not subject to the act. This made regulation more difficult.
Scab
a non-union worker who usually worked for low wages. They were used as strike breakers since they were not part of a union.
Yellow Dog Contract
an agreement some companies forced workers to take that forbade them from joining a union. This was a method used to limit the power of unions, thus hampering their development.
Scrip
temporary substitute for money, securities, or other valuable claims. Business enterprises and municipalities have at times, especially when short of cash, paid employees in scrip, and communities have facilitated trade by using it.; forced workers to become completely loyal to their companies
William Sylvis
Leader of the National Labor Union; which was the first national labor federation in the United States, lead to Knights of Labor
Knights of Labor
national labor union that was open to nearly all workers. It was a secret society. They were open to all, therefore more equal than others, but more importantly, it gave them a large population, which led them to gain an 8 hour day after many strikes.
Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
American Federation of Labor
a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
Molly Maguries
They were a secret group of Irish-American coal minters that fought and protested the living and working conditions. Their violent acts led them to be removed, while damaging the reputation of unions.
Great Railroad Strike
A group of railroad workers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad rose up and began to strike due to wage cuts. This spread up and down the railroad line across the nation. Railroad roadhouse was torched. Their violent acts led them to be suppressed by the government, while damaging the reputation of unions.
Haymarket Riot; 1886
The riot took place in Chicago between rioters and the police. It ended when someone threw a bomb that killed dozens. The riot was suppressed, and in addition with the damaged reputation of unions, it also killed the Knights of Labor, who were seen as anarchists.
Homestead Strike
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
Henry Clay Frick
was Carnegie's supplier of coke to fuel his steel mills as well as his right hand man. He was very anti-union. He was in charge of the mills when the Homestead Strike occurred. His decision to use strike breakers ignited the riot, and helped stain the image of unions.
Eugene V. Debs
He was the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. He organized the Pullman Strike and helped organized the Social Democratic party.
IWW
revolutionary industrial union organized in Chicago in 1905 by delegates from the Western Federation of Mine; unionized the non-unionized
Pullman Strike
This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions.
Solidarity Forever
This was one of the many rallying songs for unions. It helped rally people to Unions.
Horatio Alger
a popular writer of the Post-Civil War time period. He was a Puritan New Englander who wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction during his career; the famous "rags to riches" theme.
Comstock Law, 1873
United States federal law that made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious" — with contraceptive devices and information explicitly put in that category — materials through the mail An example of censorship in the United States. Also, this law later led to the court case banning contraceptive devices, the court ruling that banning them was unconstitutional. The other things in this law is still enforced today
National American Woman's Suffrage Association, 1890
American women's rights organization was established by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in May of 1890. This and other groups led to the nineteenth amendment: women's suffrage.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A social activist and a leading figure of the early women's rights movement Helped establish the National Woman's Suffrage Association
Carrie Chapman Catt
A women's suffrage leader, she was twice the president of the NAWSA She was one of the main people attributed to woman's suffrage.
Minor v. Happersatt, 1874
A United States Supreme Court case appealed from the Supreme Court of Missouri concerning the Missouri law which ordained "Every male citizen of the United States shall be entitled to vote." (a female wanted to vote) Decision of the supreme court case said that women cannot vote because the fourteenth amendment said that only men could.
Jane Addams
an American social worker, sociologist, philosopher and reformer. She was also the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, and a founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement.
Hull House
co-founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr who were soon joined by other volunteers called "residents," it was one of the first settlement houses in the U.S. and eventually grew into one of the largest, with facilities in 13 buildings At its beginning, its main purposes were to provide social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood, many of whom were recent immigrants. There were classes in literature, history, art, domestic activities such as sewing, and many other subjects, concerts free to everyone, free lectures on current issues, and clubs both for children and adults. Later, the settlement branched out and offered services to ameliorate some of the effects of poverty.
Walking Cities
compact cities and towns; an intermingling of residences and workplaces; a short journey to work for those employed in a variety of tasks; mixed patterns of land use; and the location of elite residences at the city centers Served as meeting places, open markets for buying and selling goods, and parade grounds for special occasions
Streetcar Cities
The separation between work and residence for the middle and upper classes was much more pronounced than in the walking city, as these groups increasingly fled the central cities for the suburbs Served as a living area for the more elite members of the American society.
Dumbbell Tenement
Houses that poor people lived in, located in cities Showed some atrocities of American industrial life.
Chicago Fire
Was a conflagration that burned from Oct. 8-10, 1871, killing hundreds and destroying several square miles in Chicago, Illinois. Though the fire was one of the largest U.S. disasters of the 19th Century, the rebuilding that began almost immediately spurred Chicago's development into one of the most populous and economically important American cities. Led to the palmer house, this was the "first fireproof building." Also, the event showed the people's quick response in rebuilding Chicago.
Settlement House Movement
Starting in England, they were houses which connected the students of universities with their neighbors in slum cities. These houses helped education, savings, sports, and arts for people.
"Waving the Bloody Shirt"
It refers to the demagogic practice of politicians using sectionalist animosities of the American Civil War to gain election in the post bellum North from the 1860s to 1880s. Helped northerners get elected into office in post bellum years
Thomas Nast
A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians
Horace Greeley
An American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Republican party, reformer and politician He helped support reform movements and anti-slavery efforts through his New York Tribune newspaper
Stalwarts
A faction of the Republican party in the ends of the 1800s Supported the political machine and patronage. Conservatives who hated civil service reform.
Roscoe Conkling
A politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party. Was highly against civil service reforms, it was thought that the killing of Garfield was done in Conkling's behest.
Half-Breeds
term of disparagement ginned-up by the Stalwarts, was applied to the moderate faction of the Republican Party They backed Hayes' lenient treatment of the South and supported moderate civil service reform. James G. Blaine of Maine was the leader of this group, but failed to win the party nomination in 1876 and 1880. James A. Garfield was also affiliated with the Half-Breeds.
James G. Blaine
A U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. He funded Bates college. He helped install the Blaine Amendments
Charles Guiteau
A U.S. lawyers and a stalwart. He killed Garfield and led to people thinking that Conkling killed Garfield
Pendleton Act, 1883
An 1883 United States federal law that established the United States Civil Service Commission, which placed most federal employees on the merit system and marked the end of the so-called "spoils system." Drafted during the Chester A. Arthur administration, the Pendleton Act served as a response to President James Garfield's assassination by Charles J. Guiteau (a "disappointed office seeker").
Tenancy
An ownership interest in land in which a lessee or a tenant holds real property by some form of title from a lesser or landlord. Many Americans lived with this system in place (agriculturally). Many farmers became bankrupt under Tenancy.
Crop-lien system
Not having any money, they [Farming new freemen] could not buy land but instead worked a small portion of a large parcel owned by a single person. Many former slaves were tenants of the same landowner and each had their own section of farm to work on independently, hence the term "sharecropper." Sharecropping and over speculation were causes of the great depression and led to many farmers moving to California in hopes of finding a job
Deflation
a decrease in the general price level, over a period of time. Helped America after the Civil War and helped America back on its feet after the Great Depression
Oliver H. Kelley
considered the "Father" of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry He built new foundation for American agriculture through the organization of the Grange.
The Grange
It was a farmers' movement involving the affiliation of local farmers into area "granges" to work for their political and economic advantages. The official name of the National Grange is the Patrons of Husbandry the Granger movement was successful in regulating the railroads and grain warehouses
Farmer's Alliance
Was an organized agrarian economic movement among U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s Despite its failure, it is regarded as the precursor to the United States Populist Party, which grew out of the ashes of the Alliance in 1889.
Colored Farmer's Alliance
Excluded on the basis of race from membership in the Southern Farmers' Alliance, the blacks formed a separate organization in Texas in 1886. The Colored Farmers' Alliance comprised both black farmers and farm workers. They were active in the publication of a weekly newspaper and a variety of educational programs. In 1891, a strike of cotton pickers was called, but coordination was poor and the strike failed. Also lost support when the populist party arose.
Munn v. Illinois, 1877
A United States Supreme Court case dealing with corporate rates and agriculture. allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads
Wabash case, 1886
was a United States Supreme Court case that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce. It led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Limited States' rights
James Weaver
United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. He ran for President two times on third party tickets in the late 19th century. An opponent of the gold standard and national banks, he is most famous as the presidential nominee of the Populist Party in the 1892 election His close race for presidency showed the rise of a third party.
Populist Party, 1892
The "People's Party," it flourished particularly among western farmers, based largely on its opposition to the gold standard. A Third party that had not existed for decades
Bimetallism
Is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit can be expressed either with a certain amount of gold or with a certain amount of silver. The ratio between the two metals is fixed by law Helped McKinley win the presidency thanks to the gold standard.
Bland-Allison Act, 1878
A United States federal law enacted in response to the Fourth Coinage Act that demonetizing silver. It was an attempt to bring back silver because gold was the only metallic standard before this act
Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 1890
Was enacted in 1890 as a United States federal law. While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month It backfired because people exchanged their silver notes for gold dollars, depleting the governments gold reserves. Led to the panic of 1893
McKinley Tariff, 1890
Raised imports to 48.4% The tariff was detrimental to the American farmers who were already greatly in debt. This is because if America raises the tariff on foreign imports, so will foreign countries raise their tariffs on American goods. Due to the fact that most American Agricultural products are for exports, by increasing the tariff, the farmer's market for their goods become smaller, forcing them to sell their products at bankruptcy prices at home.
Wilson-Gorman Tariff, 1894
It lowered the McKinley Tariff Led to income tax
Jacob Coxey
A socialist American politician, who ran for elective office several times in Ohio. Supported and helped establish paper moneylead protest of unemployment from Panic of 1893
William Jennings Bryan
An American lawyer, statesman, and politician. He was a three-time Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States. Greatly supported and led the progressive movement and helped to enact the 18th amendment (prohibition).
Wright Brothers
Orville Wright credited with the design and construction of the first practical airplane. They made the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones, also showing the beginning of the individual progressive spirit.
Frederick Taylor
an engineer who first integrated scientific management with business. He became foreman of the Midvale Steel Company. He used mathematics to determine maximum industrial productivity, using time and motion studies to find what each worker should for the highest efficiency.
DuPont
Large company that produced explosive materials such as gunpowder and dynamite.
Eastman Kodak
Large company that produced photographic materials and equipment.
Jacob Riis
Reporter for the New York Sun who wrote How the Other Half Lives. Revealed the darkness of the slum areas, and influenced others to promote improvements and reform.
Theodore Dreiser
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
Jane Addams
Prominent social reformer who was responsible for creating the Hull House. She helped other women join the fight for reform, as well as influencing the creation of other settlement houses.
Hull House
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
McClure's, Cosmopolitan, Collier's
Cheap 15 cent magazines that most people could obtain. They helped reveal the dirt about trusts, corruption, and other evils.
Muckrakers
Reporters who wrote articles for magazines such as cosmopolitan. They helped reveal the dirt about trusts, corruption, and other evils.
Lincoln Steffens
A writer for McClure's who wrote a series of articles titled The Same of the Cities. He unmasked in his article the alliance between big business and municipal government.
Ida Tarbell
A female reporter who published an expose on Standard Oil. Revealed the evils of Standard Oil Company.
Upton Sinclair
Writer who wrote The Jungle. While intending to reveal the plight of the worker, he revealed the unsanitary conditions where meat was created, which prompting Roosevelt to pass the Meat Inspection Act.
Initiative
Political power that would give the people (majority) to propose legislations. means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance. This would give more power to the people, rather than letting them be at the mercy at the "boss bought legislatures"
Referendum
Political power that would give the people (majority) to pass any law they pleased. This would bypass the boss bought state legislature completely.
Recall
Political power that would give the people (majority) to remove any elected official. This would enable the people to remove corrupted/bribed officials.
Australian Ballot
A new secret ballot that replaced the pre-printed ones. This made the voter's vote known only to him, and countered voting on account of bribes or intimidation.
Robert LaFollette
Governor of Wisconsin who was a militant progressive. He wrestled control out of the hands of corrupt corporations and perfected a way for regulating public utilities. helped found the National Progressive Republican League, which intended to unseat Taft
Uncle Joe Cannon
Republican who served as Speaker of the House from 1903 to 1911 who opposed progressive reforms. and wilson
16th Amendment
Authorized the collection of income tax. This made the rich pay their fair share to the government as well as allowing the Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 to lower many tariffs
17th Amendment
Established that senators were to be elected directly. This law was intended to create a more democratic, fair society.
18th Amendment
Prohibited the non-medical sale of alcohol This amendment is the midpoint of a growing drive towards women's rights as well as showing the moral attitude of the era.
19th Amendment
Established that no citizen can be denied the right to vote on account of sex. Granted women the ability to vote.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
A militant female anti-alcohol organization. Helped influence the passing of the 18th amendment.
Square Deal
Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
Elkins Act
Fined Railroads who gave rebates and shippers who accepted them. It gave more power than the ICC to regulate the monopolistic railroads.
Hepburn Act
Prohibited free passes. Gave ICC enough power to regulate the economy. It allowed it to set freight rates and required a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies.
Northern Securities Case
Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.
Philander C. Knox
Secretary of State under Taft who proposed that bankers buy the Manchurian railroads and give them to China. His idea was rejected by Japan and Russia, and showered Taft with ridicule.
Meat Inspection Act; 1906
Made it so that meat would be inspected by the government from coral to can. It began a quality rating system as well as increased the sanitation requirements for meat producers.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and drugs. It gave consumers protection from dangerous and impure foods
Newlands Reclamation Act
Authorized the government to collect money from the sale of public land in the west to fund irrigation projects. It gave western lands better soil and insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts.
John Muir
A naturalist and conservationist. Founded the Sierra Club.
*Sierra Club
American environmental organization. Helped promote the protection of the environment and nature.
* Hetch Hetchy
a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in California.
Nelson W. Aldrich
Senator who led the reactionaries against the lowering of tariffs. Tacked on many upward tariff revisions on the Payne-Aldrich bill making Taft betray his low tariff promise.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
Initially a tariff lowering tariff, but became a protective measure when compromises were made in the Senate. Harmed Taft's reputation (broke campaign promise of lower tariffs) and the unity of the Republicans.
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
Affair where Ballinger opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to corporate development and was criticized by Pinchot. Prompted Rooseveltians to protests, splitting Taft and Roosevelt, and the party.
John Mitchell
Famous United States labor leader, and was president of the United Mine Workers from 1898 to 1908. Helped incorporate ethnic workers into the UMW and got an 8 hour day and minimum wage for miners.
Tom Johnson
Progressive who reformed the political process. Reformed public ownership of utilities in Chicago.
Underwood-Simmons tariff
Tariff reduced the tariffs from the Payne-Aldrich Tariff to about 29% and included a graduated income tax. It was a milestone in tax legislation since it enacted a graduated income tax.
Federal Reserve Act
Legislation designed to stabilize the currency in the US. It split the US into 12 regions with one Federal bank in each region that could issue money under the authority of the Federal Reserve Board. It gave the government the ability to quickly increase the amount of money in circulation when needed.
Louis D. Brandeis
Jewish Supreme Court judge nominated by Wilson. Showed that Wilson was a progressive man.
Pujo Committee
It researched and later reported on the concentration of money and credit over the general populace, which was in the hands of rich capitalists. This committee's findings later led to the creation of the Federal Reserve Banking system.
Clayton Act
Lengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act's list of practices that were objectionable and exempted labor unions from being called trusts Displayed the changing attitude towards labor unions.
Federal Trade Commission
Investigated the activities of trusts and stop unfair trade practices. Enabled the government to more easily kill monopolies.
Booker T. Washington
African American political leader, educator and author. Helped promote the need for blacks to economically better themselves.
W.E.B. DuBois
African American civil rights activist Created the NAACP.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court case where Homer Plessy sued Louisiana which arrested him since he sat in a whites only section and he was 1/8th black. Officially declared segregation constitutional.
Birth of a Nation
Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK.
Treaty of Wanghia
The first diplomatic agreement between China and America in history, signed on July 3, 1844. Since America signed as a nation interested in trade instead of colonization, it was rewarded with extraordinary amount of trading power.
Charles Francis Adams
An American diplomat who, as ambassador during the Civil War. He helped to keep the British from recognizing the Confederacy. In the Trent affair, he was instrumental in averting hostilities between the two nations.
William Seward
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
Albert J. Beveridge
A historian and United States Senator from Indiana who also was a skilled orator. One of his speeches justified the annexation of the Philippines, thus promoting a growth of American imperialism.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
American Naval officer and historian. He is most famous for his book "The Influence of Sea Power on History" which defined Naval strategy. His philosophies had a major influence on the Navies of many nations resulting in a igniting of naval races between countries.
James G. Blaine
Republican Congressman who developed the "Big Sister" Policy. His policy pushed for more involved U.S.
"Big Sister" Policy
A policy that was aimed to rally the Latin American nations under the U.S. It helped open the Latin American countries to the U.S., giving the country even more power and influence.
Monroe Doctrine
Doctrine developed by president James Monroe in the early 1800s that declared that the Americas should be free from European influence. This policy justified U.S. involvement to "save" the Latin American countries from European greed.
White Man's Burden
A poem by British poet Rudyard Kipling commenting on American imperialism. It created a phrase used by imperialists to justify the imperialistic actions the U.S. took.
Queen Liliukalani
A queen of Hawaii who was opposed to the continuing American attempts to seize control of Hawaii. She posed a problem to American settlers who desired to control the islands.
General Valeriano Weyler
A Spanish general who was sent to crush the Cuban revolt. By using "brutal" methods, he caused uproar in the United States, who called for immediate action to help the Cubans.
Joseph Pulitzer
An American publisher. He helped established "yellow journalism."
William Randolph Hearst
An American newspaper magnate. He helped established "yellow journalism" as well as being part of the de Lome letter incident.
U.S.S Maine
An American battleship sent to Cuba in order to evacuate any American in case of another flare-up. The ship spontaneously exploded in Havana harbor, and the cause was put on Spain's shoulders, thus starting the Spanish-American War.
Dupuy de Lome
He was a Spanish minister in Washington who wrote a private letter to a friend concerning President McKinley and how he lacked good faith. The discovery of his letter strained Spanish-American relations, which helped initiate the Spanish-American War.
Teller Amendment
Act of Congress in 1898 that stated that when the United States had rid Cuba of Spanish rule, Cuba would be granted its freedom It prevented Cuba from turning hostile towards the U.S., as well as gaining a somewhat kind of "smile" from Europe.
Rough Riders
They were a group of American volunteers that formed to fight the Spanish. They helped defeat the Spanish at San Juan Hill.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty that concluded the Spanish American War From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philippines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
Foraker Act
It gave Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular government, and in 1917, Congress granted Puerto Ricans full American citizenship. It was an example of the growing imperialistic powers of the U.S.
DeLima v. Bidwell
The was one of a group of the first Insular Cases decided by the United States Supreme Court where DeLima Sugar Company sued a NYC customs official for collecting duties on sugar. The decision left it up to the United States Congress to govern territories since only residents in territories fully incorporated by Congress were protected by the constitution.
Platt Amendment
A constitution written by the Cubans for themselves. This said that the U.S. could intervene and restore order in case of anarchy, that the U.S. could trade freely with Cuba, and that the U.S. could get two bays for naval bases.
Emilio Aguinaldo
He was the leader of the Philippine insurgents. He helped American defeat Spain in the Philippines, and also took part in resisting American rule.
Matthew Perry
A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.
Open Door Policy
A policy that asked powerful and influential countries to respect Chinese rights and promote fair trade with low tariffs. This policy was accepted by other countries and prevented any country from creating a monopoly on Chinese trade.
Boxer Rebellion
An anti-foreigner rebellion started by patriotic Chinese called the Boxers (Society of Harmonious Fists). The rebellion was put down by a foreign coalition which included the U.S., Germany, France, Britain, Russia, and Japan. It put the U.S. on the international scene with the big players.
Theodore Roosevelt
American president notorious for his impulsiveness and radical behavior. As an ardent imperialist, he developed the "Big Stick" policy with regards to diplomacy.
Big Stick diplomacy
Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
This treaty from 1850 between the British and the U.S stated that any canal project on the isthmus of Panama would be a joint effort by the two countries The treaty prevented the U.S. from building the Panama Canal or any canal in Central America.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
An agreement in which the U.S would receive exclusive rights to construct and control a canal in Central America. It nullified the 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, thus allowing the Panama Canal to be built.
Phillipe Bunau-Varilla
A representative of the French Canal Company who offered to sell the Panama canal to the U.S. He allowed the U.S. the choice of the Panama route rather than the Nicaraguan one, which would have been a disaster due to Mount Pelee.
Hay-Bunau-Varillia Treaty
The treaty signed in 1903 with Panama. The United States leased the 10-mile wide canal zone with a down payment of $10 million and an annual payment of $250,000 for ninety-nine years. This enabled the U.S. to build the Panama canal.
Hay-Herran Treaty
A treaty proposed in 1903 between the United States and Colombia over Panama. It was rejected by the Colombian Senate and caused the U.S. to support a bid for the independence for Panama, so that they could build the canal.
Roosevelt Corollary
As a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, the U.S. would use the military to intervene in Latin American affairs if necessary or intervene economically if needed. It kept Europe out of central American, thus making the U.S. the only boss in the region.
Venezuelan Crises
Latin American nations were having a hard time paying their debts to their European debtors, so Britain and Germany decided to use force to collect payment. This caused a great fear of the possibilities of a European presence in the region, and it made Roosevelt developed a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine for the situation.
Portsmouth Peace
The meeting between Japan, Russia, and the U.S. that ended the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 The negotiations gained the Peace Prize for Roosevelt, but it also damaged Russian and Japanese relations with the U.S.
Taft-Katsura Agreement
An agreement where the U.S. recognized Japan's sphere of influence in Korea, and Japan recognized the United State's sphere of influence in the Philippines. The Taft-Katsura Agreement was an initial step that paved the way for the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth in September 1905.
Gentlemen's Agreement
An agreement with Japan where Japan agreed to limit immigration, and Roosevelt agreed to discuss with the San Francisco School Board that segregation of Japanese children in school would be illegal
stopped.
The agreement prevented a war that would have been caused by California, who was in Japan's eyes, oppressing their children.
Root-Takahira Agreement
Contract between the U.S. and Japan in which both countries acknowledged Asia's status, their international policies, their respective territorial possessions in the Pacific, and Open Door trade policy. It maintained the status quo and averted armed conflict between the two nations.
Lansing-Ishii Agreement
Japan respected Open Door policy in China, while the U.S. acknowledged that Japan had special interests in China. It somewhat eased Japanese-American relations, which at that point, were strained.
Jones Act
Act that replaced the Foraker Act. It gave Puerto Ricans full citizenship, as well as a government that was similar to a state government.
Dollar diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the U.S. to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power. It protected American investments in Latin America and Asia and encouraged more stable governments.
Insular Cases
These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos.
Victoriano Huerta
He was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico who was also leader of the violent revolution that took place in 1913. His rise to power caused many Mexicans to cross the border as well as angering the United States who saw him as a dictator.
Francisco Villa
was a Mexican "Robin Hood" who hated the United States. His followers killed a total of 35 American citizens, angering the United States who sent a force to attempt to capture him.
Charles Evans Hughes
He was a Republican governor of New York who was a reformer. He was later a supreme court justice who ran for President against Woodrow Wilson in 1916.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.
Schlieffen Plan
was a German war plan developed by Afred Graf von Schlieffen to be used if Germany faced a two front war. After declaring war on Russia due to Austria-Hungary, the adoption of the plan caused Germany to also declare war on France.
Lusitania
a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
Zimmerman Note
Secret note written by Arthur Zimmerman that proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The discovery of the note ultimately gave Wilson and Congress into declaring war against Germany and the Central powers.
Fourteen Points
Wilson's peace plan designed to end the war without much discontent from all countries. It helped create the League of Nations, as well as inspired the allies, demoralized the enemy, and gave promises out to dissatisfied minorities.
Committee on Public Information
was a propaganda committee that built support for the war effort in Europe among Americans. It depicted Germans and other enemies on bad terms, and served to censor the press. The committee helped spur up the anti-German feeling in America as well as motivated Americans to support war against Germany once declared.
George Creel
a journalists who was the head of the Committee of Public Information. He helped the anti-German movement as well as inspired patriotism in America during the war.
Espionage Act
enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements, inciting rebellion, or obstructing recruitment or the draft. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U.S. postal service. It showed American fears/paranoia about Germans and other perceived threats.
Sedition Act
Act of 1918 made illegal any criticism of the government. It showed American fears/paranoia about Germans and other perceived threats.
Bernard Baruch
a Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board. He helped the U.S. Manage war production.
War Industries Board
Created in July 1917, the War Industries Board controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations It was intended to restore economic order and to make sure the United States was producing enough at home and abroad.
National War Labor Board
The board was a composition of representatives from business and labor designed to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers. It settled any possible labor difficulties that might hamper the war efforts.
Food Administration
It was a government organization created to stir up a patriotic spirit which encouraged people to voluntarily sacrifice some of their own goods for the war. It helped the war effort by helping create a food surplus to feed America and its allies.
Herbert Hoover
He was the head of the Food Administration who also led a charity drive to feed Belgians. He ensured the success of the Food Administration and created a surplus of food through volunteer actions.
Fuel Administration
Like the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration encouraged Americans to save fuel with "heatless Mondays" and "gasless Sundays." The actions helped create a sum of $21 billion to pay for the war.
Alexander Kerensky
He was a Russian revolutionary leader during the 1917 revolution. He was instrumental in toppling the Romanovs in 1917, thus ending the Russian monarchy.
David Lloyd George
He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Georges Clemenceau
He was the French representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Vittorio Orlando
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Robert Lansing
was Secretary of State during the First World War. He helped negotiate the Lansing-Ishii treaty with Japan.
Henry Cabot Lodge
an outspoken senator from Massachusetts. He was the leader of the Irreconcilables who hampered the passing of the League of Nations.
Irreconcilables
These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass.
Reservationists
These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations unless there were some changes. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass.
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be unamerican and socialistic He helped to increase the Red Scare
Red Scare
was a nationwide crusade against the leftists in America as a wake of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. It cut back on free speech for a period and helped businessman to stop labor strikes, since the hysteria caused many people to want to eliminate any Communists.
Sacco-Vanzetti case
Nicola Sacco and Bartholomeo Vanzetti killed a clerk and stole money from a shoe factory in Massachusetts. Both were charged with the robbery and murder. The ruling reflected the anti-redism and anti-foreignism in the country since the two were Italian, atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers.
Ku Klux Klan
A revival of the KKK that was anti-foreign, anti-Catholic, anti-black, anti-Jewish, anti-pacifist, anti-Communist, anti-internationalist, anti-revolutionist, anti-bootlegger, anti-gambling, anti-adultery, and anti-birth control. They reflected the extreme end of right-wing politics.
Emergency Quota Act
A government legislation that limited the number of immigrants from Europe which was set at 3% of the nationality currently in the U.S. It greatly limited the number of immigrants who could move to the U.S. And it reflected the isolationist and anti-foreign feeling in America as well as the departure from traditional American ideals.
National Origins Act
A government legislation that cut down the percent of the Emergency Quota Act from 3% to 2%, and it changed the census used from the 1910 one to that of the 1890 one. It greatly limited the number of immigrants who could move to the U.S. And it reflected the isolationist and anti-foreign feeling in America as well as the departure from traditional American ideals.
Volstead Act
AKA the 18th Amendment, which prohibited the sale of alcohol in America. It enforced the 18th amendment, effectively banning alcohol in respect to its legality.
Marcus Garvey
was a black nationalist leader He helped create the "Back to Africa" movement in the United States.
Harlem Renaissance
refers to the black cultural development during the 1920s. It showed that blacks had much to offer to American culture and saw the development of "real" American culture (ex. Jazz).
Al Capone
a mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.
John T. Scopes
An educator in Tennessee who was arrested for teaching evolution. This trial represented the Fundamentalist vs the Modernist. The trial placed a negative image on fundamentalists, and it showed a changing America.
Henry Ford
a factory owner famous for his Model T. He developed the assembly line, which quickened production in factories, as well as the Model T.
Model T
A cheap and simple car designed by Ford. It allowed for more Americans to own a car.
Babe Ruth
He was a famous baseball player who played for the Yankees. He helped developed a rising popularity for professional sports.
Charles Lindbergh
an American aviator, engineer , and Pulitzer Prize winner. He was famous for flying solo across the Atlantic, paving the way for future aviational development.
The Jazz Singer
A movie, made in 1927, that started a demand for dancers who could fulfill the expectations of the 1920s. It encouraged the "flappers" and the sexual attitude of the period.
Flappers
A term used to describe women who were now more sexually active on the outside and inside. It was an example of how America was changing in the 1920s.
Margaret Sanger
She led an organized birth control movement that openly championed the use of contraceptives. She helped started the birth control movement, thus showing how women were changing.
Albert Fall
Anti-conservationist senator from New Mexico appointed to the department. He represented the incompetent wing of the new administration.
Harry Daugherty
The attorney general who was also a crook. He represented the incompetent wing of the new administration.
Laissez-Faire
An economic philosophy developed by Adam Smith that promoted a hands off government. It prevented the government from taking serious action against the depression.
Teapot Dome
Albert B. Fall leased oil rich land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny, but not until Fall had received a "loan" of $100,000 form Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair. The scandal greatly affected the public view of the government in a negative way.
Dawes Plan
Plan which rescheduled Germany's payment so that they could take more loans. It created a "merry-go-round" of payments since Germany borrowed to pay the allies who would use that money to pay the U.S. An anti-American sentiment was created after this.
Herbert Hoover
He was the Republican president when the depression hit. He advocated a "self-responsibility" role to end the depression since it was a routine event in a solid economy.
Andrew Mellon
the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics and encouraged "buying on margin."
Alfred E. Smith
He was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 1928 election. He was the first Catholic to be elected as a candidate.
American Plan
Term that some U.S. employers in the 1920s used to describe their policy of refusing to negotiate with unions. Demonstrated laissez-faire economics.
Norman Thomas
A leading American socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff
This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. This prevented foreign trade, which hampered the economy since Europe could not pay its debts if it could not trade.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff
also rose protective tariffs on the United States. It pushed rates on imported goods to the highest point they've ever been. Intended to help farmers, it stead restricted more trade, angering everybody, and worsened the depression.
Bonus Army
A group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given a "bonus" from the government for their services. In 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters, and because they were veterans and heroes of this country, Hoover's popularity plummeted because of it.
Causes of the Depression
The causes of the depression were a series of flaws, such as the unregulated stock market and bad farming, in the structure of the U.S economy. It resulted in the creation of many agencies that helped workers and attempted to prevent another depression by highlighting the problems with the economic structure of the U.S.
Relief, Recovery, Reform
These were the categories into which the New Deal was split. Relief defined by the acts implemented in the area of aid to the unemployment. Recovery put forth measures that would help aid in the speedy recovery of areas hit hardest by the depression. Reform tried to recreate areas that seemed faulty
Fireside Chats
The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.
Emergency Banking Act
A government legislation passed during the depression that dealt with the bank problem. The act allowed a plan which would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive.
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
Government legislation that made 750 million dollars that had once been kept in the governments gold reserves now able to be used in the creation of loans. This allowed the banks to reopen and it gave the president the power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange. It also took the U.S off the gold standard and introduced FDIC.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
An independent federal agency created by Glass-Steagall Reform Act. It insures up to $100,000 for bank deposits, thus helping put faith back into the banks.
Securities and Exchange Commission
Government agency having primary responsibility for enforcing the Federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry. It protected investors, listened to complaints, issued licenses and penalized fraud.
Civilian Conservation Corps
The CCC was a New Deal program created by the Unemployment Relief Act. It provided employment in government camps for 3 million men. The work they were involved in included reforestation, fire fighting, flood control, and swamp drainage.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Government agency that was a part of the New Deal. It allocated $500 million to relieve cities and states. To help with the unemployment problem.
Harry Hopkins
The head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and a friend of FDR. He was very involved in reforms in the Great Depression and in the 30's and 40's in such issues as unemployment and mortgages.
Home Owners Loan Corporation
As part of the Hundred Days that understood the nation's tragedy of foreclosed mortgages, the HOLC refinanced American home mortgages. This effort allowed one-fifth of all U.S. mortgages to become refinanced which would prevent another Great Depression
Dust Bowl
A series of dust storms in the Central U.S caused by many years of bad farming techniques. It caused many farmers to move west as well as remove the top soil.
McNary-Haugen Farm Bill
A proposed law to limit agricultural sales within the United States, and either store them or export them. It was an attempt to prevent an agricultural inflation and to keep prices normal.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
It was a governmental legislation that restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area. The Act created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies to alleviate the problems with farms out west.
United States v. Butler
This was a Supreme Court case during the New Deal. The case ruled the AAA unconstitutional because it taxed one group to pay another.
Second Agricultural Adjustment Act
Same as the first AAA but funded from general taxation, and therefore acceptable to the Supreme Court. The Act created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies to alleviate the problems with farms out west.
Resettlement Administration
Another New Deal program that dealt with the farm-problems of the depression. This agency created loans for small farmers and sharecroppers to buy their own farms, solving the government's sharecropper-problem.
Indian Reorganization Act
Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.
National Recovery Administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States
This case took place in May 1935 when a New York company was charged with a violation of an NRA poultry code which dealt with wage-fixing and pricess. It resulted in the Supreme Court declaring the NRA unconstitutional by stating that the NRA was regulating interstate commerce a violation of federal regulation.
Tennessee Valley Authority
A New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs.
National Industrial Recovery Act
A New Deal legislation that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The NIRA pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the NRA.
Francis Townsend
Townshend was a retired physician who developed a plan in which the government would give monetary resources to senior citizens ages sixty and over He and other demagogues pushed FDR to move the New Deal to help people directly and laid the foundations of the creation of Social Security.
Charles Coughlin
A radio priest who was anti-Semetic and anti-New Deal. He catered away some support from FDR.
Huey P. Long
A presidential candidate in the 1936 election known for his Share the Wealth program. He and other demagogues pushed FDR to move the New Deal to help people directly.
Social Security Act
A governmental legislation created to give money to those in need. It created a federal insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout people's working careers.
Works Progress Administration
New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.
Wagner Act
A New Deal legislation that was supported by R. F. Wagner. It established defined unjust labor practices, secured workers the right to bargain collectively, and established the National Labor Relations Board.
NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation
Court case where Jones & Laughlin was accused with discriminating against workers who wanted a union. It declared that the National Labor Relations Act (commonly known as the Wagner Act) was constitutional.
Norris-LaGuardia Act
This was a government legislation that dealt with workers and unions. It forbade "yellow dog contracts" as well as ensuring the freedom to from unions by withdrawing federal power to issue injunctions and prevent employer interference.
Congress of Industrial Organization
A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.
John L. Lewis
He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Walsh Healy Act
A government legislation that dealt with worker condition, hours, and wages. It stated that workers must be paid a minimum wage; it restricted regular work hours to eight hours a day and 40 hours a week, prohibited the employment of convicts and children under 18, and established sanitation and safety standards.
Fair Labor Standards Act
A government legislation that dealt with wages and child labor. It established a minimum wage and prohibited child labor in harsh and dangerous conditions.
National Industrial Recovery Act
an American statute which authorized the President of the United States to regulate industry and permit cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery; which established a national public works program BUT it failed and was ruled unconstitutional in 1935
Washington Conference
first international conference held in the United States and the first disarmament conference in history.showed US isolationism under Harding
Kellog-Briand Pact
legal bases establishing the international norm that the use of military force is presumptively unlawful.
Stimson Doctrine
notes to China and Japan that incorporated a diplomatic approach used by earlier secretaries facing crises in the Far East
Isolationism
A national policy of abstaining from political or economic relations with other countries.US foreign policy prior to WWI
Charles A. Lindbergh
Celebrity hero who was the first to fly solo across the Atlantic in a small single engine plane. He success gripped the public's imagination.
America First Committee
foremost pressure group for the US not to enter WWII showed Americans not wanting to get involved in WWII
Johnson Act
forbade any countries that still owed the U.S. money from borrowing any more cash.
Tydings-McDuffie Act
for the independence of the Philippines. let Phillipines become free after 12 year transition time
Reciprocal Trade Agreements
The Act was designed to raise American exports and was aimed at both relief and recovery. it helped reverse the high-tariff policy
Neutrality Acts
The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent. This displayed that America was not willing to go to war and desired to remain neutral and isolationist.
Buenos Aires Conference
(1936) The U.S. government agreed to submit all disputes from the Americas to arbitration
Quarantine Speech
The speech was an act of condemnation of Japan's invasion of China in 1937 and called for Japan to be quarantined. FDR backed off the aggressive stance after criticism, but it showed that he was moving the country slowly out of isolationism.
Panay Incident
The Panay incident was when Japan bombed a American gunboat that was trying to help Americans overseas. This greatly strained U.S-Japanese relations and pushed the U.S further away from isolationism even though Japan apologized.
Maginot Line
The line was a series of fortifications on the Franco-German border designed to defense France in case of another German attack. This showed that France was reluctant to go to war and was relying on defense and not offense.
German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
The non-aggression pact was an agreement between Hitler and Stalin not to attack each other. This allowed for German victories in the west without worries of the east.
Four Freedoms Speech
A speech by FDR that outlined the four principles of freedom (speech, religion, from want, and from fear) This helped inspire Americans into patriotism.
Robin Moor and Reuben James
a merchant steamship and a Navy Destroyer that sailed under the American flag from 1919 until May 1941. German submarines sank these ships; This sinking of a neutral nation's ships in an area considered until then to be relatively safe from U-boats, and the plight of her crew and passengers, created an international uproar.
Lend-Lease Act
A government legislation that authorized the lending of arms and supplies to countries. It was a sign that the U.S was clearly no longer isolationist, and brought it closer to war.
Atlantic Charter
A secret meeting between FDR and Winston Churchill that discussed the war. Their public statement expressed their ideas of a postwar world, and frowned upon aggression, affirmed national self-determination, and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament.
Pearl Harbor
A naval base in Hawaii that was attacked by the Japanese. The attack forced the U.S to go to war.
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
War Production Board
Board that allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civil goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers. It provided the needed raw materials for the war effort.
Office of Price Administration
Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.
A. Phillip Randolph
He was the black leader of The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. He demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and armed forces during WWII. He helped encourage the end of segregation in the military, although that happened after the war.
Fair Employment Practices Commission
FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.
Casablanca Conference
A wartime conference held at Casablanca, Morocco that was attended by de Gaulle, Churchill, and FDR. The Allies demanded the unconditional surrender of the axis, agreed to aid the Soviets, agreed on the invasion Italy, and the joint leadership of the Free French by De Gaulle and Giraud.
Cairo Conference
A war time conference held at Cairo, Egypt that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-shek. It addressed the Allied position against Japan during WWII and made decisions about postwar Asia.
Tehran Conference
A war time conference held at Tehran, Iran that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and Stalin. It was the first meeting of the "Big Three" and it agreed on an opening of a second front (Overlord), and that the Soviet Union should enter the war against Japan after the end of the war in Europe.
Potsdam Conference
A war time conference held at Potsdam, Germany that was attended by Truman, Attlee, and Stalin. It agreed on the establishment of the Oder-Neisse line as the border of areas administrated by government of Poland, the expulsion of the German populations remaining beyond the borders of Germany, war reparations, reversion of all German annexations in Europe after 1937, statement of aims and means of the occupation of Germany, and the prosecution of Nazi war criminals. In addition, the Allies issued the Potsdam Declaration which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan.
Yalta Conference
A war time conference held at Yalta, USSR, that was attended by FDR, Churchill, Stalin. It agreed on the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany and it's occupation, status of Poland , citizens of the Soviet Union and of Yugoslavia were to be handed over to their respective countries, regardless of their consent, the United Nations once it was agreed that each of the five permanent members of the Security Council would have veto power, and Stalin's entry against Japan.
Quebec Conference
A war time conference held at Quebec,Canada that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and King and discussed war strategies. It agreed to increase the bombing offensive against Germany and continue the buildup of American forces in Britain resolved to remove Italy, operations in the Balkans should be limited to supplying guerrillas, to exhaust Japanese resources, cut their communications lines and secure forward bases from which the Japanese mainland could be attacked.
Manhattan Project
The Manhattan project was a secret research and development project of the U.S to develop the atomic bomb. Its success granted the U.S the bombs that ended the war with Japan as well as ushering the country into the atomic era.
Robert Oppenheimer
He a physicist who was the director of the Manhattan. Project. He helped to ensure the development of the atomic bomb before the axis.
Containment
A foreign policy developed by diplomat George Kennan that claimed that the only way to stop Russia's expansionist ways was to contain it. It was the basis of US foreign policy after WWII designed to stop the spread of communism.
Iron Curtain
A term made famous by Winston Churchill about Cold War tensions. It described the political and idealogical boundaries that divided Europe after WWII.
Berlin Blockade
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
George Kennan
He was a young U.S. diplomat. and responsible for developing the policy of "containment"
Truman Doctrine
A doctrine developed by Truman in accordance with the containment policy that promised economic aid to those fighting communists. The doctrine would later drag the U.S into more conflicts such as Vietnam and Korea.
Marshall Plan
A U.S developed plan designed to revive the economies of Europe after the war. It proved vital for the Europeans since it allowed them to rejuvenate their economies.
National Securities Act
As a response to the threat of the Soviets, in order to improve the defense of America. The act created the Department of Defense and the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency.
CIA
was/is a agency designed to gather facts about possible threats to the U.S. It provided America with information about the Soviets and other communist nations.
NATO
was a military alliance formed by the U.S, Canada, and several Western European nations. It was designed to protect Europe against a possible invasion from Russia.
Chiang Kai-shek
was the leader of the nationalists (KMT) in China during its civil war. He was the leader of the forces opposing communism in China.
Mao Tse-tung
was the leader of the communists (CCP) in China during the civil war. He helped established communist rule in China, causing a defeat for the U.S.
NSC-68
A document that pushed for a large build up of the U.S military. It allowed the U.S to quickly build up its military for the Korean conflict.
Servicemen's Readjustment Act
A government legislation designed to solve the problem of what the 15 million soldiers would do once they got back home. It allowed all servicemen to have free college education once they returned from the war, and it created the Veterans' Administration allowing them to take out loans.
Taft-Hartley Act
It outlawed the "closed" shop, made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdictional disputes among themselves, and required union leaders to take a non-Communist oath. The act greatly weakened the power of unions and displayed the worried nature about the communists.
William Levitt
was an American real estate dealer. His innovations of providing affordable housing popularized the type of planned community building later known as suburbia.
Fair Deal
An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
Thomas E. Dewey
was the Republican candidate in the 1948 presidential election. He was an opponent of Truman during the election.
J. StromThurmond
The Southern Democrat who ran on the States' Rights ticket who supported the segregation policies He showed that the Democrats were sourly divided due to the issue of blacks and civil rights.
Dixiecrats
Southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
Henry Wallace
A former Democratic who ran on the New Progressive Party due to his disagreement on Truman's policy with the Soviets. He caused the Democratic party to split even more during the election season.
Dean Acheson
He was Secretary of State under Harry Truman. It is said that he was more responsible for the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine than those that the two were named for.
Alger Hiss
was a State Department official accused of spying for the Soviets. The issues he caused reflected the opinions of the Cold War. War Hawks believed that he and communists were infiltrating the country while Peace Doves believed that his conviction was an act against a loyal servant.
Joseph McCarthy
A Republican Senator known for his blatant accusations of people for being suspected communists creating a "witch-hunt" for communists. He reflected a time where there was a great fear or the Soviets and communism. In addition, he ruined the lives of many innocent Americans.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
These two were Soviet spies sent to steal information and technology. They helped the Soviets developed the atomic bomb, and their executions drew sympathy from those tired of the "red-hunts"
Hollywood Ten
These 10 people from the entertainment industry called before the House Un-American Activities Committee as "unfriendly" witnesses in It was another example of the communist fear growing in the U.S.
Waldorf Statement
It was a two-page press release issued by Eric Johnson as a response to the Contempt of Congress charges against the Hollywood Ten. This marked the beginning of the Hollywood Blacklist.
McCarren Internal Security Act
A congressional legislation that would authorize the president to arrest and detain suspected persons in an internal security crisis. It was a reflection of the fear during the period of anti-communists like McCarthy.
Dennis v. United States
This was a Supreme Court case involving Eugene Dennis, chairman of the Communist Party where in the end, he was convicted. This was another example of the growing fear of the communists in the U.S.
National Highway Defense Act
A government legislation that authorized the construction of 42,000 miles of interstate highways. It allowed for suburban growth, the decay of central cities, and increased America's reliance on cars as well as created jobs.
National Defense Education Act
As a result of Sputnik, the U.S passed this act to financially help students for college and schools in math and science. It showed the uncertainty that Americans felt with comparison to the Soviets in respect to education.
Sputnik
was a Russian satellite sent up to space in 1957. The breakthrough of the Soviets destroyed the self-confidence of Americans and initiated the Space Race.
Kitchen Debate
was a famous discussion between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev. It signaled that the U.S acknowledged their setback in technology since Nixon focused on technological luxuries.
Jimmy Hoffa
was president of the International Brotherhood of Teamseters. He was charged and indicted with fraudulent use of the union pension fund by jury tampering. The case showed the worried nature of the United States.
Panmunjom
The site where the armistice was signed during the Korean War. It ended hostilities of the Korean conflict.
John Foster Dulles
He was Secretary of State during the 1950s. He was responsible for developing the policy of Massive Retaliation.
Massive Retaliation
A foreign policy that called for a build-up of nuclear weapons and means of delivering the,.. This allowed the U.S to keep a strong military while being able to cut funds since nukes need not be paid.
Nikita Khrushchev
was the Soviet Premier from 1953-1964. He dealt with the U.S during the 1950s and early 1960s.
Ho Chi Min
was a Vietnamese communists that pushed for an independent Vietnam. He helped rid his country of the French, drawing the U.S into the conflict.
Gamel Abdel Nasser
He was president of Egypt from 1956-1970. During the Suez Crisis, he nationalized the canal, causing a dispute between him and Israel, France and Britain.
New Look
A term used to describe the shift in foreign policy from containment to massive retaliation. This was the new way to look at foreign policy and aimed to roll back communism.
Fulgencio Batista
He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.
Fidel Castro
He was (is) the communist leader of Cuba after the overthrow of Batista. He befriended Khrushchev which made the Cuban situation much more complex since Khrushchev promised to help if attacked.
Bay of Pigs
The Bay of Pigs was an American attempt to overthrow the newly established communist government in Cuba by training and sending Cuban rebels. The coup ended up in a disaster due to the lack of support by the Americans. The incident was an embarrassment for the U.S. and ultimately led to Castro pleading for Soviet aid (Cuban Missile Crisis)
Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall was a fortified wall made up of concrete and barbed wire made to prevent East Germans escaping to West Berlin. It was one of the most visible signs of the Cold War and the Iron Curtain.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban Missile Crisis was an incident where Soviet missiles were placed in Cuba as a response for help. The event greatly increased tensions between the Soviets and the Americans. As a result, a hotline was established between the two nations to avoid any accidents.
Robert Kennedy
He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. He was ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Oswald was JFK's assassin. The death of JFK led to Johnson's presidency.
Warren Commission
The U.S. commission in charge with investigating the assassination of JFK. It came to the conclusion that Oswald was alone in his actions and advised to reform presidential security measures.
Brown v. Board of Education
A famous court case where Oliver Brown sued on the grounds that the segregation of schools was unequal. The unanimous decision by the Supreme Court reversed the policy of segregation, declaring it unconstitutional, thus allowing the desegregation of all public facilities.
Southern Manifesto
The manifesto was a document written by legislators opposed to integration. Most of the signatures came from Southern Democrats, showing that they would stand in the way of integration, leading to another split/shift in the Democratic Party.
Rosa Parks
Parks was a southern black woman who refused to give up her seat on a bus. Her actions led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, and it was the first milestone in the Civil Rights Movement.
Little Rock
Little Rock was the site of the forced integration of a public school in 1956. The use of the 101st showed that the federal government was upholding and will continue to uphold the decision of Brown v. Board.
Orval Faubus
He was the governor of Arkansas during the time of the Little Rock Crisis. He attempted to block the integration of the school by using the national guard, leading to a confrontation with the Eisenhower and ultimately integration of the school.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was a civil rights leader from Alabama. He was important in getting the government to pass civil rights legislation.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
The SCLC was a civil rights organization that supported peaceful demonstration (i.e. Montgomery Boycott) The organization helped influenced the government to pass civil right legislation.
James Meredith
He was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.
George Wallace
Wallace was the governor of Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement and a staunch segregationist. He was a popular figure among segregationists becoming a rallying point.
Bull Connor
He was the chief of police of Birmingham, Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement. His use of excessive force against the peaceful marchers on television brought attention to the issue, and helped gain support for civil right legislation.
March on Washington
The march was a huge civil rights protest. It was here when King made his "I have a dream" speech. The march also pressured the government to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
SNCC was a student based civil rights organization. Their actions, such as sit-ins, helped pass civil right laws.
Congress of Racial Equality
CORE was a civil rights organization. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.
Malcolm X
Malcolm X was an advocate of black power and was the figurehead of the Nation of Islam for some time. He was greatly influential in getting people to believe in black power and self-defense, as opposed to King's peace.
Stokeley Carmichael
He was a black activist as member of CORE. As the movement progressed, he started to become more militant creating the cry of black power.
H. Rap Brown
He was a black activist as a member of SNCC. Compared to others, he was very militant strongly advocating black power.
Black Panthers
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
Eldridge Cleaver
He was a black activist who wrote Soul on Ice. He was an influential black power advocate.
Civil Rights Act
A civil rights legislation passed by Johnson in 1964. The act outlawed segregation in public areas and granted the federal government power to fight black disfranchisement. The act also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Voting Rights Act
A civil rights legislation passed by Johnson in 1965. It prohibited the use of literacy tests as a part of the voter registration process.
Watts
A district in Los Angeles where a six day race riot occurred. The riot showed that many blacks were becoming disillusioned with peaceful means.
Rachel Carson
Rachel Carson was a marine biologist that wrote and published Silent Spring. Her book addressed her concerns on the environmental hazards of pesticides, bringing attention to the environment.
Betty Friedan
She was an American feminist who wrote The Feminine Mystique. Her book brought attention to the feminist movement and, she founded the National Organization for Women.
Barry Goldwater
An American senator for Arizona who ran against Johnson for president. His extreme conservatism scared many into voting for Johnson.
Great Society
The name given to Johnson's plan for American society that aimed for the lessening poverty, cleaning the environment, funding public education, and other leftist ideals. It expanded the American welfare and social insurance system gave the government new responsibilities as well as securing Johnson votes from the left.
Economic Opportunity Act
An economic legislation that was part of the Great Society. It created many social programs to help the poor.
Volunteer in Service to America
An organization created by the EOA that acted as the domestic version of the Peace Core. This increased employment opportunities for conscientious people who felt they could contribute
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
The Act is an extensive statute which funds primary and secondary education. This allowed the government to help those who cannot achieve a good education.
Medicare
A program part of the Great Society that provided medicine for the elderly. It made a significant step for social legislation and helped establish the growing population of the elderly as a pressure group.
Medicaid
A program that provides health care insurance to low-income or disabled persons. It helped those who were disadvantaged economically.
Ralph Nader
A leftist American politician who promotes the environment, fair consumerism, and social welfare programs. His book Unsafe at Any Speed brought attention to the lack of safety in American automobiles.
National Organization for Women
A major feminist organization founded in the 1960s. The organization marked the coming of the feminists, calling for an end to sexual discrimination.
Phyllis Schlafly
A conservative female political activist. She stopped the ERA from being passed, seeing that it would hinder women more than it would help them.
Equal Rights Amendment
A proposed amendment that would ban any discrimination based on sex. Although defeated, the popularity of the amendment showed how far the feminists had come.
Roe v. Wade
This was a court case where Norma McGorvey sued the state for the right for an abortion. The decision declared that a pregnant woman is entitled to have an abortion up until the end of the first tri-semester.
Gideon v. Wainwright
This was a court case where Gideon claimed in a state court he had a right to be represented by a counsel. The decision established that a defendant has a right to counsel in state trials.
Escobedo v. Illinois
A court case that dealt with the rights of the accused. It affirmed the "right to remain silent" and to have an attorney present during police questioning.
Miranda v. Arizona
This was a court case about criminal procedure where Miranda was convicted based on only his confession. The decision declared a set of specific rights for criminal defendants.
Milton Friedman
He was a famous American economist. He strongly promoted the idea of free trade and condemned government regulation and socialism.
Nikita Khrushchev
He was the Soviet premier after the death of Stalin in 1953 until the end of the Cuban Missile Crisis. His position as the head of the U.S.S.R. played a major part in defining Anglo-Soviet relations.
Dean Rusk
American Secretary of State from 1961-1969. Rusk was very militant, advocating military force in combating communism.
Robert McNamara
American Secretary of Defense from 1961-1968. He oversaw the general strategy of the military.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Government legislation passed after the attack on the U.S. destroyer in the Gulf of Tonkin. The resolution granted the president the use of whatever forced needed to help any member of SEATO without an official declaration of war.
Nguyen Van Thieu
He was a military commander and the president of South Vietnam. He was a corrupt as the leader of South Vietnam.
Vietcong
These were South Vietnamese communist revolutionaries. They took part in insurgent attacks against the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces, helping unify the nation.
Tet Offensive
The Tet Offensive was a military offensive launched by the Vietcong and the NVA. Although defeated, it showed that the NVA and Vietcong would continue to fight. Their attack caused many to doubt final victory in Vietnam.
Hubert Humphrey
He was Johnson's vice president. He was Nixon's opponent in 1968.
Andy Warhol
An American commercial illustrator and artist famous for his Campbell's soup painting. He was the founder of the pop-art movement, which like all other art movements in history reflected something back on the present society.
Earl Warren
A supreme court justice. He was in charge of the Warren Commission. In addition, he was very influential in getting the court to vote on liberal ideas.
New Federalism
A term that refers to the transfer of certain powers from the federal government to the state governments. It helped revive the state's autonomy and power which it had lost with the New Deal.
Vietnamization
Term that is used to describe the transfer of responsibility of the Vietnam War from the U.S. to South Vietnam. It helped the U.S. pull out of Vietnam quicker.
Kent State University
Kent State was the location of one of the many college student protests against the Vietnam War. The protest ended with a clash against the police and the death of several students. The incident greatly decreased the support for U.S. involvement in Vietnam and caused even more protest and resentment.
Détente
This was a type of foreign policy adopted both by the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. which focused on easing relations between the two and dropping the confrontational rivalry for the time being. This new policy allowed for tensions between the two powers to ease and paved the way for such talks such as SALT I & II.
SALT I
SALT I was a series of negotiations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. on the issue of nuclear arms reduction. The talks helped lower the total number of missiles each side would have and eased the tension between the two.
Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger was Richard Nixon's National Security Advisor and then Secretary of State. He helped to develop ties with China and eased tensions with the Soviets, which both would later help get the U.S. out of Vietnam.
Le Duc Tho
He was a North Vietnamese political leader. He, along with Kissinger, negotiated a ceasefire during the Vietnam war, letting the U.S. to be able to leave.
Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai was a prominent and influential member of the Chinese Communist Party during the time of Mao. He played a large role in China's reestablishing ties with the West.
War Powers Act
This government legislation was designed to root out traitors in the U.S. It defined, regulated, and punished the enemy who was anyone that traded with the main enemy.
George McGovern
McGovern was a senator from South Dakota during the Cold War; he also ran for president against Nixon in 1972. His defeat signaled that America was in the mood for change from the Democrats.
Southern Strategy
The Southern Strategy was a term that described the Republicans' move to campaign in the south after it had broken with the Democrats over civil rights. This was the beginning of the Republican domination of the south American sees today in national politics.
Pentagon Papers
These papers were a government study of U.S. involvement in South East Asia, or more specifically Vietnam commissioned during Johnson's presidency. Their exposure caused a panic in the government and for Nixon to become more paranoid with the upcoming reelection.
Daniel Ellsberg
He was a political activist who was responsible for publishing the Pentagon Papers to the New York Times, letting America know about the government's actions. His actions in publishing the papers greatly eroded American faith in the government and their already little support for the war.
Watergate
Watergate is a name given to the scandal the Nixon administration committed during the '72 presidential election where hired "goons" broke into Democrat HQ at Watergate hotel for any dirt. This scandal revealed several other dirty plays Nixon's administration did the years leading up to the election and forced him to resign and killed the faith the public had in the government.
H.R. Haldeman
Haldeman was Nixon's Chief of Staff and was also involved in the Watergate scandal. He was deeply involved with Nixon's scandals since he and Erhlichman were Nixon's most trusted aids, doing whatever they felt necessary to protect Nixon.
John Ehrlichman
Ehrlichman, along with Haldeman, was one of Nixon's most trusted aids. He was deeply involved with Nixon's scandals since he and Haldeman were Nixon's most trusted aids, doing whatever they felt necessary to protect Nixon.
Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein
These two men were reporters for the Washington Times during the 70s. The two are credited with uncovering the Watergate scandal.
John Sirica
Sirica was the chief judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. He was the judge of the Watergate break-in case and later demanded Nixon's tapes during the whole fiasco.
Sam Ervin
Sam Ervin was a senator from North Carolina. He was chairman of the Senate Select Committee to Investigate Presidential Campaign Practices during the Watergate scandal.
John Dean
John Dean was Nixon's legal counsel during and prior to the Watergate scandal. He is best known for coming out on Nixon, bringing light to the investigation.
Archibald Cox
A professor of Harvard law school who also worked with the Department of Labor. He was the appointed Special Prosecutor over the Watergate case.
Leon Jaworski
He was the next Special Prosecutor of the Watergate case after Cox was fired. J aworski was responsible for bringing to light many damaging facts of the Watergate break-in and subsequent cover-up.
Spiro T. Agnew
Agnew was Nixon's vice-president but ultimately resigned due to financial charges. He helped Nixon gain votes from his moderate, immigrant, and Democratic state background.
Sandra Day O'Connor
She was a laywer and later Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. She was the first woman to be a justice on the Supreme Court.
Walter Cronkite
Walter Cronkite was a reporter for CBS news.
Cesar Chavez
Chavez was a union organizer and social activist of the 1960s. He led a five-year nonviolent boycott against California grape growers, protesting poor working conditions and the use of pesticides harmful to farm workers. The boycott became a cause celebre and was finally successful in winning new rights for workers.
SALT II
SALT II was a second series of negotiations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. about nuclear arms reduction. The talks, though never ratified by the Senate due to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, both sides agreed to limit strategic launchers and weapons.
OPEC
OPEC, or the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is an organization that owns much of the world's oil. Their boycott of the U.S. due to its support of Israel caused an energy crisis in the country, showing how dependent the country was on oil.
Salvador Allende
Chilean politician who as president was considered the first democratically elected Marxist head of government but later killed in a coup d'état. He was an example of a democratically elected leader unsupported by the U.S. due to Marxism.
Yom Kippur War
This was a war fought by Israel and neighboring Arab nations where the Arabs launched a surprise attack during Yom Kippur. U.S. support for Israel during the war led to OPEC boycotting the U.S., creating an energy crisis.
Reza Pahlavi
He was the pro-U.S. shah of Iran who was unpopular with the people of Iran. The granting of his asylum in the U.S. caused even more anti-American resentment in Iran and resulted in a hostage crisis.
Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping was China's next major leader after the death of Mao in 1976. He promoted more ties with the west and the slow movement towards capitalism in China.
Reaganomics
Reaganomics is a term that refers to the economic policies adopted by Reagan. They were based on tax-cuts, budget-cuts, and the belief of trickle down economics. This economic policy caused a great deal of discontent, but after he left office, the country was no longer troubled by high inflation and unemployment.
Moral Majority
Moral Majority was a political group made up of fundamentalist Christians. Although not it did not accomplish much, it did show that Americans were starting to worry about the moral fabric of society.
Strategic Defense Initiative
SDI was a ballistic missile defense system designed to protect the U.S. from any Soviet missile launch. It was a demonstration of America's determination to win by technology, and to some, SDI hurried the fall of the Soviet Union.
Grenada
Grenada was a small Latin country where a communist government had taken power. Reagan invaded the country in protest of communist expansion, showing that he was not pursuing détente.
Camp David Accords
The Camp David Accords were the peace accords signed by Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat to finally end the Israeli-Egyptian disputes. The achievement by Carter is considered his greatest achievement in office.
Realignment
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Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act
This was a government legislation that dealt with the budget problems faced during Reagan's administration, which saw huge deficits. The law provided for automatic spending cuts to take effect if the president and Congress failed to reach established targets in order to keep out of the deficit range.
Manuel Noriega
A former CIA agent, Noriega was the de facto leader of Panama during the '80s until 1992. His government/soldiers continually harassed U.S. soldiers and civilians, drawing American into armed conflict.
Mu'ammar al-Qaddafi
He was a Libyan leader who seized power from the Libyan monarchy and imposed Islamic rule on Libya. His government had supported many terrorist organizations that had been responsible for the incidents of the '70s and '80s.
Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein was the leader of Iraq during the middle of the Cold War. Although initially supported by the U.S. to fight Iran, his invasion of Kuwait made him a prime enemy of America.
Desert Storm
Desert Storm was the name given to the operation to liberate Kuwait. The operation was a success, Kuwait was liberated and Iraq defeated.
Berlin Wall (1989)
In 1989, the Berlin Wall came down. The fall of the wall marked an end to Soviet influence in the country and allowed for Germany to become reunited.
Tiananmen Incident
The Tiananmen Square incident was a suppression of Chinese democrats by the PLA. It caused much condemning from western nations including the U.S.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Gorbachev was the leader of the U.S.S.R. during the '80s. He introduced some reforms in the Soviet Union as well as freed some satellite states. These reforms caused the fall of the Soviet Union.
Education 2000
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Clean Air Act
It describes one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of smog and air pollution in general. The legislation forced the country to enforce clean air standards to improve health and showed that American was moving towards certain environmentalist measures.
Americans With Disabilities Act
A civil rights legislation that forbids discrimination of various sorts against persons with physical or mental handicaps. This moved American more towards the left in social politics. The legislation also helped many disabled people.
Colin Powell
Colin Powell was an American military general and leader during the Persian Gulf War. He played a crucial role in planning and attaining America's victory in the Persian Gulf and Panama.. He was also the first black four star general and chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff.
Family and Medical Leave Act
This was a labor legislation that allowed employees to take unpaid leaves if a family member was ill or if he was ill himself. This was a fulfillment of a campaign promise, which brought Clinton much popularity and improved worker rights.
Albert Gore
Al Gore was Clinton's vice-president and a candidate for the 2000 presidential election. His running caused on of the closest elections in history and a fiasco with the voting system.
Newt Gingrich
Gingrich was the Republican speaker in the House. He pushed for more conservative legislation during Clinton's presidency.
Bush v. Gore
This case was during the 2000 presidential election between Bush and Gore over Florida's 25 electoral votes. The decision made George W. Bush the new president of the United States, and the fiasco made people question the need for the electoral college.
Patriot Act
After September 11, congress passed a security legislation in order to make the country safer. The Patriot Act gives the authorities enhanced powers, such as looking up library records, to protect the country.