APES Laws and Treaties

study supplement
Antarctic Treaty
An international agreement that prohibits all military activity on the Antarctic continent and allows for inspection of all nations' facilities there. It also nullifies allterritorial claims to Antarctic land and pledges the signatories to peaceful cooperation in exploration and research.
Atomic Energy Act
federal law that a commission to oversee nuclear weapons and to promote peacetime uses of atomic energy
Clean Air Act
Set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants
Clean Water Acts
established in 1972 and it set national water quality goals and created pollutant discharge permits
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation Liability Act
Superfund, designed to identify and clean up abandoned hazardous waste dump sites
Consumer Product Safety Act
encourage safety in product design and better quality control
Convention of Ozone Depletion and the Montreal Protocol
international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
Controls the exploitation of endangered species through international legislation. Bans hunting, capturing and selling of threatened species and bans the import of ivory.
Declaration of the Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Declaration)
The meeting agreed upon a Declaration containing 26 principles concerning the environment and development; an Action Plan with 109 recommendations, and a Resolution
Endangered Species Act
Protects species that are considered to be threatened or endangered. Includes migratory birds and their habitats.
Energy Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
Requires reporting of toxic releases: the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI); Encourages response for chemical releases
Energy Policy Act
Authorizes the president to draw from the petroleum reserve as well as established a permanent home-heating oil reserve in the Northeast. Clarifies when the president can draw from these resources.
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
Assures the safety, wholesomeness, efficacy, and truthful packaging and labeling of food, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
provide federal control of pesticide distribution, sale, and use. All pesticides used in the United States must be registered (licensed) by EPA. Registration assures that pesticides will be properly labeled and that, if used in accordance with specifications, they will not cause unreasonable harm to the environment.
Food Quality Protection Act
Set pesticide limits in food, & all active and inactive ingredients must be screened for estrogenic/endocrine effects
Lacey Act
A conservation law prohibiting the transportation of illegally captured or prohibited animals across state lines. It was the first federal law protecting wildlife, and is still in effect, though it has been revised several times. Today the law is primarily used to prevent the importation or spread of potentially dangerous non-native species.
Convention of Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol
The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
Law of the Sea Convention
sets rules for the use of the world's oceans
Madrid Protocol
Moratorium on mineral exploration for 50 yrs in Antarctica
Magratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act
requires purchase of a stamp by waterfowl hunters. Revenue generated by is used to acquire wetlands. Has protected approx. 4.5 million acres of waterfowl habitat
National Wildlife Refuge System Act
provides guidlines for administration and management of all areas in the system including wildlife refuges, areas for the protection and conservation of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction
National Environmental Policy Act
directs federal agencies to take environmental consequences into account in decision making. EIP statements required for every major project
Nuclear Waste Policy Act
Established a site to identify for and construct an underground repository for spent nuclear reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste
Occupational Safety and Health Act
created to protect worker and health. Provide environment free from dangers to their safety and health
Ocean Dumping Ban Act
makes it unlawful for any person to dump or transport for the purpose of dumping sewage, sludge, or industrial waste into waters
Oil Pollution Act
companies must have a detailed containment and clean up plan in case of an oil spill in order to ship oil into the US
Pollution Prevention Act
requires facilities to reduce pollution as its source. Reduction can be in volume or toxicity
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
management of non hazardous and hazardous solid wastes including landfills and storage tanks. Set minimum standards for all waste disposal facilities and for hazardous wastes.
Safe Drinking Water Act
EPA sets standards for drinking water quality and eversees all of the states, localities, and water suppliers who implement these standards
Soil Conservation Act
established the soil conservation service, which deals with soil erosion problems, carries out soil surveys, and does research on soil salinity
Solid Waste Disposal Act
to find better and more efficient ways to dispose of solid waste (shredding, burning)
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
requires restoration of abandoned mines
Taylor Grazing Act
regulates grazing on federal public land
Toxic Substance Control Act
EPA controls the 75,000 industrial chemicals produced or imported into the US. Bans the manufacture and import of those that pose an unreasonable risk
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
selected rivers in the US are preserved for possessing outstandingly, remarkable scenic, recreational, cultural (etc.) values
Wilderness Act
allowed congress to set aside federally owned land for preservation