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Chapter 12

On the eve of the Civil War, about ___ of white southern families owned at least one slave.


In the new industrial slums of the 1850's, most factory workers were able to survive because

their wives and children worked in the factories also.

The price of slaves rose dramatically from 1820.


The rapid growth of manufactoring from 1820 to 1850 was stimulated by many forces and had mixed results.


On the eve of the Civil War, the South produced about ___ of the total manufactured goods in the United States.


"Dear husband __.... the trader has been here three times to Look [sic] at me. I wish that you would try to see if you can get any one to buy me up there... give my love to them all.. give my love to your mother in particular, ..and to aunt Betsy and all the children... I wish to see you all, but I expect I never shall see you all never no more." This letter is an example of the

Strong emotional bonds in slave marriages.

In the early 19th century, the middle-class majority spearheaded numerous reforms to help the urban, unskilled poor.


By the 1850's the United States led the world in manufacturing

goods produced with precision instruments.

In the early 19th century southern planters experimented with fertilizer and crop rotation.


In describing antebellum plantation life, your text noted that

plantations produced most of their own clothing and food.

By the middle of the 19th century much of the South's cotton trade was controlled by

New York capitalists.

Manufacturing in the antebellum south was

developing on a small scale, but was discouraged by the temper of Southern society.

According to your text, most slave owners discouraged Christianity among slaves because they feared it would encourage slave rebellions.


Farmers of the upper Mississippi River Valley were first able to increase their production because of the development of the

steel plowshare.

The president of the Utica and Schenectady railroad who ran afoul of conflict of interest problems between railroad construction and his iron manufacturing business was

Erastus Corning.

The South was particularly backward in railroad construction because it

had a scattered population.

Before 1860, about three-fourths of all the money invested in railroads came from

private investors.

Most of the industrial workers in the mid-19th century

lived in the crowded, squalid slums springing up in major cities.

"The same man also purchased Randall. The little fellow was made to jump, and run across the floor, and perform many other feats, exhibiting his activity and condition. All the time the trade was going on, Eliza was crying loud and wringing her hands. She besought the man not to buy him unless he also bought herself and Emily." The author's topic was the

Domestic slave trade.

Accoring to your text, the fundamental cause of the South's lack of railroad construction was the

attitude of it's leaders who were not interested in investing in commerce or industry.

There was a tendency throughout the antebellum period for the ownership of slaves to become

more concentrated.

What was family life like for typical southern planters in the early 19th century?

Slaveholding families were unlike northern families with similar status.

According to the map, "Railroads, 1860," there was a relative lack of railroads

in the South.

Cyrus Hall McCormick played the leading role in perfecting the

mechanical reaper.

In Commonwealth v. Hunt, Massachusetts courts first established the legality of

labor unions.

Slavery warped southern whites by

causing basically decent people to commit countless petty cruelties.

The development of the rich anthracite coal fields in Pennsylvania allowed

greater flexibility in locating factories.

The most important Southern crop in the 1840's and 1850's was


Between the mid-1840's and the mid-1850's, the American economy

experienced one of the most remarkable periods of growth in the history of the world.

The city most dramatically affected by the railroad growth of the 1850's was Chicago.


According to "American Lives", the slave Isabella Van Wagnenan

became a leading anti-slavery feminist and changed her name to Sojourner Truth.

The former slave who preached resistance to slavery and planned a major slave uprising in Charleston was

Denmark Vesey.

An economic cause of increasing sectional conflict on the eve of the Civil War was the decreasing importance of the

Mississippi River.

"The second count..alleges that the defendants.. did assemble, conspire.. and agree.. not to work for any master.. who should employ any workman not being a member of.. the Boston Journeymen Bootmaker's Society.. It sets forth no illegal or criminal purpose to be accomplished, nor any illegal or criminal means to be adopted.." This statement is from

Commonwealth v. Hunt.

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