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the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx constitute the ____ portion of the airway


the respiratory mucosa consists of

epithelium and underlying layer of areolar tissue

inhaling through the nostrils is preferred over the mouth because

it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air

Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and has severe breathing difficulties. his problems result from

thick secretions that are difficult to transport

a patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. over a period of time you would expect to observe

increased thickness of the right ventricular wall

the ____ is shared by the respiratory and digestive systems


the common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the


components of the upper respiratory system include all of the following, except the


the right lung is to ____ as the left lung is to ____

three lobes; two lobes

blockage of pulmonary blood flow by a clot or similar obstruction is

pulmonary embolism

the process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is

internal respiration

when there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that

they are equal

external respiration involves the

diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood

which direction does carbon dioxide move during internal respiration

from the tissues cells into the blood

Boyles law states that the pressure of a gs is

inversely proportional to volume of its container

air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

what is one atmosphere of pressure

760 mmHg

if the volume of the lungs increases, what happens to the air pressure inside the lungs


what occurs if intrapulmonic pressure is 763 mm Hg


____ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle

tidal volume

____ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume

inspiratory reserve volume

pulmonary ventilation refers to the

movement of air into and out of the lungs

alveolar ventilation refers to the

movement of air into and out of the alveoli

the function of pulmonary ventilation is to

maintain adequate alveolar ventilation

if a patient inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's

vital capacity

____ = respiratory rate x (tidal volume - anatomic dead space)

alveolar ventilation rate

Boyles law of gases states that

if the volume goes up, the pressure goes down

air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the

diameter of the alveolus

Dalton's law of gases relates to

partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases

the chloride shift occurs in order to

transport bicarbonate ions into the blood plasma

about 70% of carbon dioxide is transported in deoxygenated blood

as bicarbonate ions in the blood plasma

carbon dioxide and water combine to form

carbonic acid

when does oxyhemoglobin form during respiration

during external respiration

at a pO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ____ percent saturated with oxygen

more than 90

most of the oxygen transported by the blood is

bound to hemoglobin

most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as

bicarbonate ions

which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues

decreased pH

under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ____ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs

75 percent

for maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the

pCO2 should be low

carbonic anhydrase

-is in RBCs
-is an enzymle
-can increase the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma
-can decrease the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma

the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.6 is

greater than the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.2

low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low pO2. this increases the effectiveness of

internal respiration

the most important chemical regulator of respiration is

carbon dioxide

the term hypercapnia refers to

elevated pCO2

the Hering-Breuer reflex

protects the lungs from damage due to overinflation

in emphysema, which of these occur

-alveoli collapse
-compliance increases
-elevated pCO2 in the blood
-depressed pO2 in the blood

the obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called


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