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48 terms

A&P II ch 23 respiratory

final
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the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx constitute the ____ portion of the airway
conducting
the respiratory mucosa consists of
epithelium and underlying layer of areolar tissue
inhaling through the nostrils is preferred over the mouth because
it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air
Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and has severe breathing difficulties. his problems result from
thick secretions that are difficult to transport
a patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. over a period of time you would expect to observe
increased thickness of the right ventricular wall
the ____ is shared by the respiratory and digestive systems
pharynx
the common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the
pharynx
components of the upper respiratory system include all of the following, except the
lips
the right lung is to ____ as the left lung is to ____
three lobes; two lobes
blockage of pulmonary blood flow by a clot or similar obstruction is
pulmonary embolism
the process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
internal respiration
when there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
they are equal
external respiration involves the
diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood
which direction does carbon dioxide move during internal respiration
from the tissues cells into the blood
Boyles law states that the pressure of a gs is
inversely proportional to volume of its container
air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere
what is one atmosphere of pressure
760 mmHg
if the volume of the lungs increases, what happens to the air pressure inside the lungs
decreases
what occurs if intrapulmonic pressure is 763 mm Hg
exhalation
____ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle
tidal volume
____ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume
inspiratory reserve volume
pulmonary ventilation refers to the
movement of air into and out of the lungs
alveolar ventilation refers to the
movement of air into and out of the alveoli
the function of pulmonary ventilation is to
maintain adequate alveolar ventilation
if a patient inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
vital capacity
____ = respiratory rate x (tidal volume - anatomic dead space)
alveolar ventilation rate
Boyles law of gases states that
if the volume goes up, the pressure goes down
air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere
each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
diameter of the alveolus
Dalton's law of gases relates to
partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases
the chloride shift occurs in order to
transport bicarbonate ions into the blood plasma
about 70% of carbon dioxide is transported in deoxygenated blood
as bicarbonate ions in the blood plasma
carbon dioxide and water combine to form
carbonic acid
when does oxyhemoglobin form during respiration
during external respiration
at a pO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ____ percent saturated with oxygen
more than 90
most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
bound to hemoglobin
most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
bicarbonate ions
which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues
decreased pH
under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ____ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs
75 percent
for maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the
pCO2 should be low
carbonic anhydrase
-is in RBCs
-is an enzymle
-can increase the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma
-can decrease the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma
the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.6 is
greater than the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.2
low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low pO2. this increases the effectiveness of
internal respiration
the most important chemical regulator of respiration is
carbon dioxide
the term hypercapnia refers to
elevated pCO2
the Hering-Breuer reflex
protects the lungs from damage due to overinflation
in emphysema, which of these occur
-alveoli collapse
-compliance increases
-elevated pCO2 in the blood
-depressed pO2 in the blood
the obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called
emphysema