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what does a neural reflex consist of?

stimulus, receptor, sensory neurons, efferent neurons, effectors (muscles and glands) and response

what do somatic reflexes involve?

somatic motor neurons and skeletal muscles

what controls autonomic (visceral) reflexes involve?

autonomic neurons

where do spinal reflexes integrate?

spinal cord

where do cranial reflexes integrate?


how do reflexes come about?

they are innate or acquired through experience

what is the simplest reflex pathway?

a monosynaptic reflex with only two neurons

what are polysynaptic reflexes?

they have three or more neurons in the pathway

what is abnormal function of basal ganglia associated with?

Parkinson's disease

what are some autonomic reflexes?

spinal reflexes that are modulated by input from the brain

where are reflexes needed to maintain homeostasis integrated?

in the brain, primarily in the hypothalamus, thalamus and brain stem

what are all autonomic reflexes?


what are many autonomic reflexes characterized by?

tonic activity

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