what does a neural reflex consist of?
stimulus, receptor, sensory neurons, efferent neurons, effectors (muscles and glands) and response
what do somatic reflexes involve?
somatic motor neurons and skeletal muscles
what controls autonomic (visceral) reflexes involve?
where do spinal reflexes integrate?
where do cranial reflexes integrate?
how do reflexes come about?
they are innate or acquired through experience
what is the simplest reflex pathway?
a monosynaptic reflex with only two neurons
what are polysynaptic reflexes?
they have three or more neurons in the pathway
what is abnormal function of basal ganglia associated with?
what are some autonomic reflexes?
spinal reflexes that are modulated by input from the brain
where are reflexes needed to maintain homeostasis integrated?
in the brain, primarily in the hypothalamus, thalamus and brain stem
what are all autonomic reflexes?
what are many autonomic reflexes characterized by?
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