27 terms

french grammar

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Pronouns: Object Pronouns
me, te, le, la, l', nous, vous, les
Rule: Y
à + thing; preposition of location and object
Rule: En
de+ object (thing); introduced by number or quantity expression (an, one, beaucoup de, assez de.....) expression of quantity stays
Rule: Disjunctive Pronouns
de+ person (position in sentence stays the same) person replaced by pronoun; with prepositions: keep prep. and replace noun w/pronoun
Pronouns: disjunctive
moi, toi, lui/elle, nous, vous, eux/elles
Rule: Pronoun orders
(me, te, se, nous, vous), (le, la, l', les), (lui, leur), y, en
Rule: O.Pronouns w/ imperatives
pronouns following verb have hyphens, me/te>moi/toi when last/only pronouns;
Pronouns: Possessive Pronouns
la mienne, le tien, les siens, les nôtres, la vôtre, les leurs
Demonstrative Pronouns
this one, these, those, etc. celui, ceux, celle, celles, -la, -ci
Forming Subjunctive
ils form -ent; e, es, e, ions, iez, ent
Rules for subjunctive
DIVORCE; Doute, impersonal, volonte, opinion, relatif indefini, conjonctions, emotion, superlatif
subjunctive: doute
its possible, its probable, it seems; NOT SUB.= its likely/certain, when used negatively, it seems TO ME
Subjunctive: impersonal
its necessary/ important, vital, better, crucial, etc. NOT SUB= its clear/evident/ true/certain
Subjunctive: volonte
vouloir, desirer, preferer, souhaiter NOT SUB= demander à qq'un,
Subjunctive: opinion
criore, pense, esperer> only when they are questions or negative.
Subjunctive: relatif indefini
not sure of its existence; quoi que, qui que, où que (wherever, whoever, whatever);
Subjunctive: conjonctions
1. avant, moins, afin, de peur (que+sub. or de/d'+inf if same subject) 2. pour, sans (que+sub. or - + inf if no change) 3. bien que, quoi que, pourvu que, jusqu'a ce-que= always sub. 4. apres que, pendant, aussitot/dés que, parce que= never sub.
Subjunctive: emotion
je suis heureux que....... que+sub if change, de+inf. if no subject change
Subjunctive: superlatif
not subjunctive if its a fact. (c'est la plus grand maison qui a été construit.)
present participle
nous form with ant 1) avoir>ayant 2)etre-etant 3) savoir> sachant
relative pronouns
use connects two thoughts by relating one clause to another with a single word or concept; if no subject, add ce
realtive pronoun: subject
qui replaces the subject of the sentence (person or things); replaces: je, tu, il/elle, etc.
relative pronouns: Direct object
que replaces the object of the verb (people and things) (replaces: me, te, le, la, nous, vous, les)
relative pronouns: à indirect object
1) people: à qui (replaces me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur, à moi, à toi, à lui/elle, à nous, à vous à eux/elles) 2) things: auquel, à laquelle, auxquels, auxquelles
relative pronouns: de indirect objects
dont for people and things
relative pronouns: where and time
relative pronouns: object de prepositions
person: preposition + qui
thing: preposition + lequel, laquelles, lesquels, lesquelles,