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AP Euro Chapter 19: A Revolution in Politics: The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon
Terms in this set (51)
July 14, 1789
the day a Parisian mob of ~eight thousand people stormed the Bastille
French prison that became known as a symbol of the royal abuse of power; stormed in 1789, July, one of the first steps of revolt
July 4, 1776
the Second Continental Congress approved a declaration of independence written by Thomas Jefferson; declaration affirmed the Enlightenment's natural rights; declared the colonies to be "free and independent state absolved from all allegiance to the British crown"
"life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"
When the British army of General Cornwallis was forced to surrender to a combined American and French army and French fleet under Washington at Yorktown in 1781, the British government decided to call it quits. The Treaty of Paris (1783) recognized the independence of the American colonies and granted the Americans control of the western territory from the Appalachians to the Mississippi River
the Constitution of 1788
created a central government distinct from and superior to the governments of the individual states. The national government was given the power to levy taxes, raise a national army, regulate domestic and foreign trade, and create a national currency. The central/federal government was divided into three branches: the president, the Senate, and the House of Representatives
Bill of Rights
in March 1789, the new Congress proposed twelve amendments to the Constitution; the Bill of Rights. These guaranteed freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, and assembly, as well as the right to bear arms, protection against unreasonable searches and arrests, trial by jury, due process of law, and protection of property rights
the marquis de Lafayette
volunteered for service in America to "strike a blow against England", France's old enemy. Closely associated with GW, L returned to France with ideas of individual liberties and notions of republicanism and popular sovereignty. Became a member of the Society of Thirty, a club composed of people from the Paris salons. These "lovers of liberty" were influential in the early stages of the French Revolution
the First Estate
consisted of the clergy (inc archbishops, bishops, abbots, parish priests, monks, nuns) and numbered about 130,000 people (about 2% of the population); the church owned approximately 10 percent of the land. Clergy were radically divided, since the higher clergy, stemming from aristocratic families, shared the interests of the nobility while the parish priests were often poor commoners
the Second Estate
nobility, composed of no more than 350,000 who nevertheless owned about 25-30% of the land. Under Louis XV and XVI, the nobility continued to play an important and even crucial role in French society. Nobility was divided--nobility of the robe derived their status from officeholding, a pathway that had often enabled commoners to attain noble rank. Most hated enlightenment ideas bc they threatened their status. The Segur Law attempted to limit the sale of military officerships to fourth-generation nobles, thus excluding newly enrolled members of the nobility. Although there were many poor nobles, on the whole the fortunes of the wealthy aristocrats outstripped those of most others in French society. Common to all were tax exemptions, especially from the taille.
one of the taxes the Third Estate had to pay; a tax on agricultural goods such as produce. Clergy were exempt from the taille, although the church had agreed to pay a "voluntary" contribution every five years to the state
was 98% of France's population. The Third Estate contained three parts to it: 1) a city dwelling middle class called the bourgeoisie; 2) urban lower class; 3) peasants. The bourgeoisie was the fastest and richest growing part of the third estate. They staged the French Revolution
about 8 percent (2.3 million people) constituted the bourgeoisie or middle class, who owned about 20-5% of the land. Included the merchants, industrialists, and bankers who controlled the resources of trade, manufacturing, and finance and benefited from the economic prosperity after 1730. Also included professional people--lawyers, holders of public offices, doctors, and writers
Responsible for registering royal decrees, these thirteen law courts could block royal edicts by not registering them. Although Louis XIV had forced them into submission, the Parlements had gained new strength in the eighteenth century as they and their noble judges assumed the role of defenders of "liberty" against the arbitrary power of the monarchy. As noble defenders they often pushed their own interests as well, especially by blocking taxes
consisted of representatives from the three orders of French society. In the elections for the EG, the gov had ruled that the Third Estate should get double representation (as it constituted 97% of the population). Cons, while both the First and Second Estates had ab 300 delegates, the commoners had ~600 representatives. 2/3 of the latter were people with legal training, 3/4 from towns >2000 inhabitants, giving Third Estate a particularly strong legal & urban representation. Of 282 reps of nobility, ~90 were liberal minded, urban oriented, and interested in the enlightened ideas of the century; half under 40 yrs. The activists of the Third Estate and reform-minded individuals among the First and Second Estates had common ties in their youth, urban background, and hostility to privilege. The cahiers de doleances, or statements of local grievances, which were drafted throughout France during the elections to the EG, advocated a regular constitutional gov that would abolish the fiscal privileges of the church and nobility as the major way to regenerate the country
vote by order or by head?
The Estates-General opened at Versailles on May 5, 1789. It was divided from the start over the question of whether voting should be by order or by head (each delegate having one vote). The Parlement of Paris, consisting of nobles of the robe, had advocated voting by order according to the form used in 1614. Each order would vote separately; each would have veto power over the other two, thus guaranteeing aristocratic control over reforms
issued a pamphlet which asked: "What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been thus far in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something." This sentiment was no representative of the general feeling in 1789. Most delegates still wanted to make changes within a framework of respect for the authority of the king; revival or reform did not mean the overthrow of traditional institutions
the National Assembly
AKA the Constituent Assembly bc from 1789-91, it was writing a new constitution; made up of the Third Estate, or the lower class. When the Estates General first opened, the delegates of the Third Estate saw that they would always be beaten, as the clergy and nobility would usually vote together. This caused them to call themselves the National Assembly on June 17, 1789. The assembly was forced to disband after about a month, after Louis XVI wanted to re-establish absolutism. The National Assembly was recalled after the storming of the Bastille
the Tennis Court Oath
Due to being outnumbered, the Third Estate took a daring step and claimed to represent France, calling themselves the National Assembly. When they later convened, the meeting hall was locked, so they met on a nearby tennis court and swore to never separate and meet wherever the circumstances required
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves--Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
"We are bringing back the baker..." Oct 6
"We are bringing back the baker, the baker's wife, and the baker's boy"; thousands of Parisian women went to Versailles and asked the king for bread; Louis XVI promised them grain supplies, but immediately afterward the Paris National Guard under Lafayette followed the womens' lead and marched to Versailles. The crowd insisted that the royal family return to Paris. The king complied Oct 6, now accepted National Assembly's decrees; the king was virtually a prisoner in Paris, and the National Assembly, now meeting in Paris, would also feel the influence of Parisian insurrectionary politics
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
written by the National Assembly; subjected church to state control; declared that the Catholic Church in France is a national church independent of the Pope, and that the Catholic clergy in France are paid government officials to be elected by the people; condemned by the Pope and most of the French clergy (nonjuring clergy)
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794; first emerged as a gathering of more radical deputies at the beginning of the revolution, especially during the events of the night of Aug 4, 1789. After Oct 89, occupied the former Jacobin convent in Paris. J clubs almost formed in the provinces, where they served primarily as discussion groups. Evn joined in an extensive corr network, by 90 were seeking affiliation w the Parisian club. One year later, there were 900 J clubs in France associated with the Parisian center. Members usually the elite of their local societies, but also inc artisans and tradespeople
escape to Varennes
Upset with the turn of revolutionary events, Louis XVI sought to flee France in June 1791 and almost succeeded before being recognized, captured at Varennes, and brought back to Paris. Though radicals called for the king to be deposed, the members of the National Assembly, fearful of the popular forces in Paris calling for a republic, chose to ignore the king's flihgt and pretended that he had been kidnapped. With a discredited and seemingly disloyal monarch, the new Legislative Assembly held its first session in October 1791
Declaration of Pillnitz
On August 27, 1791, Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia; the king of Prussia's threat to intervene in France if necessary to protect the French monarchy which resulted in France declaring war on Austria, sparking the radical stage of the Revolution
September Massacre--the Paris Commune killed ~1200 people from the city jails because they were assumed to be conterrevolutionaries
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages, made up the Paris Commune, ordinary patriots without fine clothes
leader of the sans-culottes, was the former Minister for Justice and was killed during the Reign of Terror
governed by the French Republic from 1792-5, members were elected through universal male suffrage and became divided along political lines. Declared the end of the monarchy. Brought Louis XVI to trial and executed him and his wife.
Girondins and the Mountain
G: wanted a republic, wanted Louis XVI to have life in prison, get blamed for the war and are executed by the mountain for treason
M: This was a political party within the National Convention named because the people that made up this party sat on the highest benches in the assembly hall. These people were the activists within the Convention. The Mountain worried that the Girondists would become conservative because of their already moderate beliefs. Although they were in competition with each other, the Mountain eventually won due to their alliance with the Sans-Culottes, resulting in a more radical group of people. The mountains believed in equal outcome
The authority of the convention was repudiated in western France, particularly in the department of the Vendee, by peasants who revolted against the new military draft. The Vendean rebellion soon escalated into a full-blown counterrevolutionary appeal: "Long live the king and our good priests. We want our king, our priests and the old regime."
Committee of Public Safety
they ruled the government, started Reign of Terror, and eventually executed by their own death device: the guillotine; initially dominated by Danton
"the incorruptible"; the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue (also the founder of the Church of Reason)
Reign of Terror
began when Robespierre came into power. He was an enemy of the French Republic. During this time, Robespierre would accuse people of going against the government and he would daily execute them in the newly formed way of torture/killing, the guillotine
a revolutionary device for the quick and efficient separation of heads from bodies
Law of General Maximum
established price controls on goods declared of first necessity, ranging from food and drink to fuel and clothing. The controls failed to work very well because the government lacked the machinery to enforce them.
Temple of Reason
In Paris, the cathedral of Notre-Dame was designated the Temple of Reason. In November 1793, a public ceremony dedicated to the worship of reason was held in the former cathedral; as Robespierre came to realize, dechristianization backfired because France was still overwhelmingly Catholic. In fact, it created more enemies than friends
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French
named after the month of Thermidor, after the death of Robespierre on July 28, 1794 and revolutionary fervor began to ebb away. The National Convention curtailed the power of the Committee of Public Safety, shut down the Jacobin club, and attempted to provide better protection for its deputies against the Parisian mobs. Churches were allowed to reopen for public worship, and a decree of February 21, 1795, gave freedom of worship to all cults. Economic regulation was dropped in favor of laissez-faire policies, another clear indication that moderate forces were regaining control of the Revolution
established after the Reign of Terror/National Convention; a five man group as the executive branch of the country; incompetent and corrupt, only lasted for 4 years
raised the question "What is the French Revolution? AN open war between patricians and plebeians, between rich and poor." Babeuf was appalled at the misery of the common people and wanted to abolish private property and eliminate private enterprise
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Italian and Egyptian Campaigns
Throughout N's Italian campaigns, Napoleon won the confidence of his men by his energy, charm, and ability to comprehend complex issues quickly and make decisions rapidly. These, combined with his keen intelligence, ease with words, and supreme self-confidence enabled him to influence people and win their firm support
Believing that the French were unready to invade England, N proposed to strike indirectly at Britain by taking Egypt and threatening India, a major source of British wealth. But the British controlled the seas and by 1799 had cut off supplies from N's army in Egypt. N abandoned his army and returned to Paris, where he participated in the coup d'etat that ultimately led to his virtual dictatorship of France
First Consul and Emperor
Executive power in the new government was vested in the hands of three consuls, although, as Article 42 of the constitution said, "the decision of the First Consul shall suffice". As first consul, N directly controlled the entire executive authority of government.
(1801) Pope-gained right to depose French bishops; state retained right to nominate bishops; Catholic church permitted to hold processions again and reopen seminaries; pope acknowledged accomplishments of the Revolution and agreed to not question church lands confiscated; clergy paid by state
the Civil Code
Napoleon brought to work the completion in seven codes, the most important of which was the Civil Code (AKA the Code Napoleon). Preserved most of the revolutionary gains by recognizing the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law, the right of individuals to choose their professions, religious toleration, and the abolition of serfdom and feudalism. Property rights continued to be carefully protected, while the interests of employers were safeguarded by outlawing trade unions and strikes. Clearly reflected the rev aspirations for a uniform legal system, l equality, and protection of property and individuals. Control of fathers over families restored. Divorce allowed but more difficult for women to obtain. Women rights lowered
Madame de Stael
prominent writer who refused to accept N's growing despotism. Educated in Enlightenment ideas, wrote novels and political works that denounced N's rule as tyrannical. N banned her books in France and exiled her to the German states, where she continued to write
Austerlitz and Trafalgar
In a series of battles at Ulm, Austerlitz, Jena, and Eylau from 1805 to 1807, N's Grand Army defeated the Continental members of the coalition, giving him the opportunity to create a new European order
the Grand Army
In June 1812, Napoleon's Grand Army of more than 600,000 men entered Russia. Napoleon's hopes for victory depended on quickly meeting and defeating the Russian armies, but the Russian forces refused to give battle and retreated hundreds of miles while torching their own villages and countryside to prevent Napoleon's army from finding food and forage.
Elba and Saint Helena
Napoleon was allowed to play ruler on teh island of Elba, off the coast of Tuscany, while the Bourbon monarchy was restored to France inn the person of Louis XVIII, brother of the executed king. The new king had little support and, Napoleon, bored on Elba, slipped back into France. Raised another army and moved to attack the nearest allied forces stationed in Belgium. At Waterloo on June 18, Napoleon met a combined British and Prussian army under the duke of Wellington and suffered a defeat. The victors exiled him to Saint Helena, a small and forsaken island in the South Atlantic
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