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the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations (expresses a relationship between two variables)
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
aims to explain some phenomenon and allows researchers to generate testable hypotheses with the hope of collecting data that support the theory
clear, precise definitions and instructions about how to observe and measure concepts and variables
the mass from which the sample will be selected from; includes anyone or anything that could possibly be selected to be in the sample
every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected: increases the likelihood that the sample represents the population and that one can generalize the findings tot he larger population
process that allows a researcher to ensure that the sample represents the population on some criteria (example proportion group sizes)
are conducted in a lab, a highly controlled environment (can control variables)
means that each participant has an equal chance of being placed into any group (limits the effect of participant relevant confounding variables)
Participant-relevant confounding variables
the differences amongst participants; random assignment avoids this
is the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis
occurs when neither the participants nor the researcher are able to affect the outcome of the research
occurs when only the participants do not know to which group they have been assigned (strategy minimizes the effect of demand characteristics, response, or participant bias)
Response or subject bias
is the tendency for subjects to behave in certain ways (Example: social desirability)
The effect that merely selecting a group of people on whom to experiment has been determine to affect the performance of that group
Method of control that allows researchers to separate the physiological effects of the drug from the psychological effects of people thinking they took the drug. (some people will receive the drug, others will receive placebos)
A procedure that uses participants as their own control group, Alternating the order in which participants perform in different conditions of an experiment. For example, group 1 does 'A' then 'B', group 2 does 'B' then 'A' this is to eliminate order effects.
changes in a subjects performance resulting from the position in which a condition appears in an experiment
Ex post facto study
to seek to control all other aspects of the research process because the assignment of the independent variable has been predetermined
involves asking people to fill out surveys, can be used to investigate whether there is a relationship between the two variables
unobtrusive observation: goal is to get a realistic and rich picture of the participants' behavior
Case study method
used to get a full, detailed picture of one participant or a small group of participants
a distribution of observed frequencies of occurrence of the values of a variable
add up all the scores in the distribution and divid by the number of scores, the average (measure of central tendency)
the number that occurs the most often, distribution may have more than one mode (a distribution is bimodal)
extreme scores (outliers)
the number that is out of place, often distorts the accuracy of the central tendency
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