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47 terms

LC Biology 3.2a Heart

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Closed circulatory system
A method of transport where the blood remains in a continuous system of blood vessels
Open circulatory system
A method of transport where the heart pumps blood into vessels that are open ended
Systemic circulation
Supplies blood to the body
Pulmonary circulation
Supplies blood to the lungs
Coronary circulation
Supplies blood to the cardiac muscle
Coronary artery
Supplies blood to the heart, exits aorta just above the semi-lunar valves
Renal circulation
Supplies blood to the kidneys
Hepatic circulation
Supplies blood to the liver
Hepatic portal vein
Carries blood from the intestines to the liver
Portal system
A blood pathway that begins and ends in capillaries
Heart
Organ containing four chambers which pump blood around the body
Cardiac muscle
Involuntary heart muscle that doesn't tire
Right atrium
A heart chamber that receives blood from the body
Right ventricle
A heart chamber that pumps blood to the lungs
Left atrium
A heart chamber that receives blood from the lungs
Left ventricle
A heart chamber that pumps blood to the body
Septum
A wall that separates the left and the right side of the heart
Pericardial fluid
A Substance that reduces friction between the cardiac muscle and the pericardium
Tricuspid valve
Prevents back-flow of blood from the right ventricle into the right atrium - 3 flaps
Bicuspid valve
Prevents back-flow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium - 2 flaps
Semi-lunar valves
Prevent back-flow of blood from the aorta or pulmonary artery into the ventricles - 3 flaps
Diastole
Relaxation of the heart chambers
Systole
Contraction of the heart chambers
Sino-atrial node
A small bundle of specialised tissue that causes the atria to contract, located in the right atrium (SA node)
Pacemaker
Another name for the sino-atrial node
Atrio-ventricular node
Similar to the Pacemaker but it causes the ventricles to contract (AV node)
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
A record of the electrical activity of the heart
Heart murmur
An abnormal sound associated with heartbeat
Vena cava
Carries de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart
Inferior vena cava
Carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower parts of the body to the heart
Superior vena cava
Carries de-oxygenated blood from the upper parts of the body to the heart
Pulmonary artery
A blood vessel that carries de-oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
Pulmonary veins
Carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
Aorta
Carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body
Arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart and have a thick wall and narrow lumen
Arterioles
Blood vessels that connect arteries and capillaries
Capillaries
Tiny vessels that exchange substances with the body cells
Veins
Blood vessels that carry blood to the heart and have a relatively thin wall, a wide lumen and valves
Venules
Blood vessels that connect capillaries and veins
Valves
Prevent back-flow of blood
Inelastic collagen
Tough outer layer of arteries and veins, which prevents the walls from over-expansion
Involuntary muscle and elastic fibres
Middle layer of arteries and veins, which adjusts their size
Endothelium
Inner single layer of living cells, which surrounds the lumen
Pulse
The alternate expansion and contraction of the arteries
Blood pressure
The force that the blood exerts against the wall of a blood vessel
Hypertension
High blood pressure
Sphygmomanometer
A device with which human blood pressure is measured