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37 terms

Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

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Copernicus
Man who published the first idea of Heliocentric Theory
Francis Bacon
scientist who used animal and plant classification systems to place Imperial England around the world
Galileo
Scientist who withdrew his own view of the heliocentric theory
Johann Guttenberg
Inventor of the printing press
Issac Newton
Mathmatician who believed that god set everything in motion and explained the law of gravity
John Locke
Man who believed that all people could revolt if their leaders withheld natural rights
Montesquieu
French philosopher who believed that governments should be separated by a system of checks and balances
Rousseau
French philosopher who wrote about a social contract that would give up individual rights to the whole community. Not King
Thomas Hobbes
Author of Leviathan who wanted an absolute ruler in charge of the government
Martin Luther
Man who passionately believed that the sale of indulgences was immoral
Descartes
Skeptical about middle age scientist and urged science to use math to find truth
Scientific Method
Use of logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
John Locke's natural rights
Life liberty and property
Inductive Reasoning
reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
Deductive Reasoning
reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
Sale of Indulgences
This was the way that many people were granted salvation. This was a common method of the church to gain power and money. People would but "tickets to heaven", without having to go to church anymore
Salvation
The act of delivering from sin or saving from evil
Heresy
the crime of holding a belief that goes against established religion
Absolutism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator
Habeas Corpus
a person can't be held in prison without first being charged with a crime
Enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
English Bill of Rights
document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament
Niall Ferguson's 6 killer apps
1) Science
2) Consumerism
3) Competition
4) Technology
5) Work-Ethic
6) Democracy
Mercantilism
an economic system to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Quipa
the Incas created this device, a set of knotted strings that could be used to record data
Conquistadors
spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Monopoly
A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
Heliocentric Theory
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
Geocentric Theory
Earth is the center of the universe. Aristotelian.
Leviathan
Book written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
5 core beliefs of French Philosophers
1) Reason
2) Nature
3) Happiness
4) Progress
5) Liberty
95th thesis
A document Martin Luther wrote to condemn the Catholic church, the sale of indulgences and was a heresy
Aristotle
Scientist who believed that the Earth is the center of the universe
Pope Leo X
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
St. Peter's Basilica
Largest Christian church in the world. Located in the Vatican City in Italy. The dome was created by Michelangelo.
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
Great Divergence
income inequality increasing between industrialized and developing countries