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The process by which food is broken down into absorbable components


What is mastication

The act of chewing

What is the lumen of the GI tract

The inner space

In what organ does the digestion process begin?


What is umami?

The flavor of monosodium glutamate

About how many more times sensitive is the sense of smell compared with the sense of taste?


What is not considered a basic taste sensation?


The food flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate is believed by some scientists to promote a unique taste sensation known as?


What describes the anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract?

A flexible muscular tube

What is not a sphincter muscle?


Where is the epiglottis located


What part of the GI tract prevents a person from choking while swallowing?


Which of the following is a characteristic of the appendix?

It stores lymph cells

What is a bolus?

Portion of food swallowed at one time

A bolus is conducted past the diaphragm through the?


What structure functions to prevent entrance of food into the trachea?


What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?

Prevents the contents of the small intestine from backing up into the stomach

What structure controls the passage of material from the small intestine to the large intestine?

Illeocecal valve

Into what region of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty?


After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?

Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon

Which of the following is a description of chyme?

A semiliquid mass of partially digested food released by the stomach into the small intestine

What is the primary function of the rectum?

Stores waste material prior to evacuation

What is the name given to partially digested food in the stomach?


What structure separates the colon from the small intestine?

Ileocecal valve

Which of the following is a feature of peristalsis?

It consists of wavelike muscular contractions resulting from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles

What structure controls the release of material from the stomach to the small intestine?

Pyloric sphincter

What is meant by the term "motility" in reference to the GI tract?

The ability of the GI tract muscles to move

During the process of digestion, at what point does the stomach begin to release chyme?

When the chyme is liquefied

Among the GI tract organs, which has the strongest muscles?


Which of the following is a feature of the muscular actions of digestion?

Segmentation in the intestines allows periodic squeezing along its length, resulting in momentary reversal of the movement of intestinal contents

Which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles?

Control the passage of food through the GI tract

The lower esophageal sphincter is also known as the?

Cardiac sphincter

What is reflux?

Backward flow of chyme

What types of enzymes are responsible for hydrolyzing the proteins in foods?


All of the following are characteristics of the process of digestion except

Saliva contains enzymes that digest sugars, fats, and proteins.

What is the function of mucus in the stomach?

Protects stomach cells from gastric juices

What is a function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?

Creates an optimum acidity

Which of the following best describes the normal pH of the stomach?

Very acidic

Why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach?

Salivary enzymes do not work in an acid environment

What is the fate of any enzymes that are present in the foods we eat?

Hydrolyzed in the GI tract

What substance protects the stomach lining from damage due to digestive juices?


Important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption include all the following except?

It activates pancreatic lipase.

Which part of the GI tract contains highly acidic digestive juices?


The usual pH of gastric juice is approximately


What is an important function of mucus?

Protects the stomach walls from digestion

After chewing and swallowing a portion of food, what becomes of the salivary amylase in the stomach?

It is inactivated by gastric juice

Enzymes are...

Are proteins and proteins are destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract.

Which of the following body organs does not secrete digestive enzymes?


The process by which bile acts on fat so enzymes can attack the fat is known as?


A solution with a pH of 7 is how many times more alkaline than one with a pH of 6?


The purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to?

Raise the pH of chyme

After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the small intestine, which of the following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?

Approximately neutral

What would not be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?


What is not a component of pancreatic juice?


The colonic fermentation of certain fibers produces all of the following except?


What is one function of the gallbladder?

Stores bile

An example of an important function of the colon would be its absorption of


Which of the following is not a typical component of stools?


What class of nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?


What nutrient requires the least amount of digestion?


What is a significant property of dietary fiber?

Promotes water retention of stools

What is generally not digested but does stimulate intestinal muscle contractions?


What is the function of bile?

Emulsifies fats

What is an important function of the intestinal villi crypts?

Secretion of juices into the small intestine

What is the name of the projections on the inner surface of the small intestine?


What is a function of the intestinal microvilli?

Transport of nutrient molecules

What is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?


What are found on the microvilli and function to break apart small nutrients into the final products of digestion?


Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except?


Why is surface area an integral part of the absorption of nutrients?

Through the presence of the enormous number of villi and microvilli

To assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is usually best to?

Combine different types of food to enhance the absorption process

When nutrients are transported from intestinal epithelial cells to the vascular system, what organ is first to receive them?


Which of the following products of digestion is not normally released directly into the bloodstream?


What is the first vessel to receive absorbed water-soluble vitamins?

Hepatic portal vein

What vessel carries blood from the liver to the heart?

Hepatic vein

The hepatic portal vein empties into the?


Exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials takes place across the walls of small vessels called?


When alcohol and barbiturates are ingested, they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and transported first to the?


Which of the following conducts lymph into the vascular system?

Subclavian vein

Which of the following is a feature of the lymphatic system?

It carries fats away from the intestines

What is the first major organ to receive nutrients that are absorbed into the lymph?


What are lacteals?

Intestinal lymphatic vessels

Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat-soluble vitamins and large fats?


The living bacteria found in yogurt are known as?


Microorganisms in food that are viable when consumed and that are beneficial to health are known as?


When consumed on a regular basis, which of the following foods promotes healthful changes of the microflora of the GI tract?


The intestinal flora are comprised primarily of?


What is the primary role of the normal, thriving intestinal bacterial population?

Helps prevent infectious bacteria from attacking the system

Which of the following is known to be produced by small intestinal bacteria?


The maintenance of the body's constant internal conditions is guided by the principle known as


What two systems coordinate all digestive/absorptive processes?

Nervous and endocrine

What is the normal pH of stomach juice?


Which of the following regulates the pH of the stomach?


Which of the following substances functions to control the release of hydrochloric acid to prevent excessive acidity?


Which of the following stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice?


Which of the following is a characteristic of pancreatic digestive enzyme function?

The pancreas can increase the activity of fat-degrading enzymes in response to more fat in the diet

What nutrient requires the greatest time for digestion?


What is/are the primary target organ(s) for the action of cholecystokinin?

Gallbladder and Pancreas

The chief functions of cholecystokinin include all of the following except

Triggering release of gastrin

What are the usual consequences of removing a diseased gallbladder?

Delivery of bile directly to the duodenum

Jenny has just has undergone a cholecystectomy. After recovery, Jenny will no longer

Have an extra reservoir for bile

The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release?


Nancy is having difficulty digesting fatty foods. After seeing her doctor, who found no evidence of inflammation, she says that she must now see a specialist to determine why she is having trouble releasing bile from her gallbladder. What hormone is most likely functioning improperly for Nancy?


What substance controls the release of bile into the small intestines?


What is a zymogen?

An inactive enzyme precursor

Which of the following is associated with the presence of fat in the GI tract?

Slowing of the process of absorption and digestion

The chief purpose of the gallbladder is to store a substance that is required for the assimilation of dietary?

Fat only

All of the following are important enterogastrone hormones except?


A decrease in the flow of blood to the intestines is known as?

Intestinal ischemia

Which of the following results from reverse peristalsis?


What is the very first thing you should do if you suspect someone is choking on food?

Ask the person to make sounds from the throat

Choking occurs when a piece of food becomes firmly lodged in the?


The Heimlich maneuver may be helpful in conditions associated with?


A person with chronic diarrhea is at risk for which of the following?


Inflammation of the large intestine is known as?


What organ is affected by colitis?

Large intestine

Which of the following is a feature of irritable bowel syndrome?

Effect treatment usually includes peppermint oil

A person on a low-fiber diet is at increased risk for experiencing elevated rectal vein pressure leading to formation of?


One of the signs of constipation is?

Fewer than 3 bowel movements per week.

People are said to be constipated when they experience?

Painful or difficult bowel movements

Colonic irrigation is a popular practice for treatment of?


Therapy for constipation would include all of the following except?

Decreasing fiber intake

Which of the following is most likely to result from insufficient intake of fiber?


In general, which of the following is associated with the fewest adverse effects from the treatment of constipation in adults?

Ingestion of prunes

Which of the following is a common cause of constipation?

Lack of physical activity

All of the following dietary measures are known to help relieve constipation except?

Eating less fat

What is the primary cause for belching?

Swallowing air

All of the following are common causes of heartburn except?

Eating too slowly

Jim went for his annual medical check-up and was diagnosed with heartburn. Which of the following actions is most likely causing Jim's condition?

Defective lower esophageal sphincter activity

Holding the breath for as long as possible is considered an effective treatment for?


People who have frequent, regular bouts of heartburn and indigestion have a medical condition known as?

Gasteroesophogeal reflux

Which of the following is a prominent feature of the expulsion of gas from the anus?

It is normal

Antacids were originally developed to treat?

Active ulcers in the stomach

Which of the following nutrients is most associated with increased production of intestinal gas?


Untreated gastroesophageal reflux increases the risk for the more serious condition known as?

Barrett's esophagus

The primary treatment for ulcer caused by the presence of H. pylori is?


All of the following are features of stomach acid except?

Its potentially destructive action on stomach cells is prevented by the presence of bile

All of the following are important issues in the treatment or management of existing ulcers except?

Gastric acid release should be suppressed

A peptic ulcer resides in the?

Stomach or duodenum only

All of the following are the chief causes of ulcers except?

Excessive caffeine consumption

A person with chronic GI bleeding is at risk for deficiency of?


All of the following are major causes of ulcer formation except?

Excessive use of antacids

Which of the following is least likely to aggravate an existing ulcer?

Raw carrots

The organism H. pylori has been identified as one of the major causes of?

Gastric ulcers

The most common cause for the development of ulcers is?

Infection from H. pylori

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