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The food flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate is believed by some scientists to promote a unique taste sensation known as?
What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?
Prevents the contents of the small intestine from backing up into the stomach
What structure controls the passage of material from the small intestine to the large intestine?
After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?
Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
Which of the following is a description of chyme?
A semiliquid mass of partially digested food released by the stomach into the small intestine
Which of the following is a feature of peristalsis?
It consists of wavelike muscular contractions resulting from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles
What structure controls the release of material from the stomach to the small intestine?
What is meant by the term "motility" in reference to the GI tract?
The ability of the GI tract muscles to move
During the process of digestion, at what point does the stomach begin to release chyme?
When the chyme is liquefied
Which of the following is a feature of the muscular actions of digestion?
Segmentation in the intestines allows periodic squeezing along its length, resulting in momentary reversal of the movement of intestinal contents
Which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles?
Control the passage of food through the GI tract
All of the following are characteristics of the process of digestion except
Saliva contains enzymes that digest sugars, fats, and proteins.
Why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach?
Salivary enzymes do not work in an acid environment
Important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption include all the following except?
It activates pancreatic lipase.
After chewing and swallowing a portion of food, what becomes of the salivary amylase in the stomach?
It is inactivated by gastric juice
After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the small intestine, which of the following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?
What is an important function of the intestinal villi crypts?
Secretion of juices into the small intestine
What are found on the microvilli and function to break apart small nutrients into the final products of digestion?
Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except?
Why is surface area an integral part of the absorption of nutrients?
Through the presence of the enormous number of villi and microvilli
To assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is usually best to?
Combine different types of food to enhance the absorption process
When nutrients are transported from intestinal epithelial cells to the vascular system, what organ is first to receive them?
Which of the following products of digestion is not normally released directly into the bloodstream?
Exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials takes place across the walls of small vessels called?
When alcohol and barbiturates are ingested, they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and transported first to the?
Which of the following is a feature of the lymphatic system?
It carries fats away from the intestines
Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat-soluble vitamins and large fats?
Microorganisms in food that are viable when consumed and that are beneficial to health are known as?
When consumed on a regular basis, which of the following foods promotes healthful changes of the microflora of the GI tract?
What is the primary role of the normal, thriving intestinal bacterial population?
Helps prevent infectious bacteria from attacking the system
The maintenance of the body's constant internal conditions is guided by the principle known as
Which of the following substances functions to control the release of hydrochloric acid to prevent excessive acidity?
Which of the following is a characteristic of pancreatic digestive enzyme function?
The pancreas can increase the activity of fat-degrading enzymes in response to more fat in the diet
The chief functions of cholecystokinin include all of the following except
Triggering release of gastrin
What are the usual consequences of removing a diseased gallbladder?
Delivery of bile directly to the duodenum
Jenny has just has undergone a cholecystectomy. After recovery, Jenny will no longer
Have an extra reservoir for bile
The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release?
Nancy is having difficulty digesting fatty foods. After seeing her doctor, who found no evidence of inflammation, she says that she must now see a specialist to determine why she is having trouble releasing bile from her gallbladder. What hormone is most likely functioning improperly for Nancy?
Which of the following is associated with the presence of fat in the GI tract?
Slowing of the process of absorption and digestion
The chief purpose of the gallbladder is to store a substance that is required for the assimilation of dietary?
What is the very first thing you should do if you suspect someone is choking on food?
Ask the person to make sounds from the throat
Which of the following is a feature of irritable bowel syndrome?
Effect treatment usually includes peppermint oil
A person on a low-fiber diet is at increased risk for experiencing elevated rectal vein pressure leading to formation of?
In general, which of the following is associated with the fewest adverse effects from the treatment of constipation in adults?
Ingestion of prunes
All of the following dietary measures are known to help relieve constipation except?
Eating less fat
Jim went for his annual medical check-up and was diagnosed with heartburn. Which of the following actions is most likely causing Jim's condition?
Defective lower esophageal sphincter activity
People who have frequent, regular bouts of heartburn and indigestion have a medical condition known as?
Which of the following nutrients is most associated with increased production of intestinal gas?
Untreated gastroesophageal reflux increases the risk for the more serious condition known as?
All of the following are features of stomach acid except?
Its potentially destructive action on stomach cells is prevented by the presence of bile
All of the following are important issues in the treatment or management of existing ulcers except?
Gastric acid release should be suppressed
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