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LD Chapter 1
Terms in this set (41)
the process of sharing information among individuals. Communication can involve only language, or language, hearing, and speech (spoken conversation).
communication problems that occur when receivers do not provide appropriate types or amounts of feedback or when senders do not attend to the feedback. Fixed by Conversational repair.
aka semantics. The meaning of language. The words used and the meaning behind them. What kind of words they use, how often, how complex. One of the three language domains.
How words, sentences, and sounds are organized and arranged to convey content- like clauses, parts of speech, noun and verb structure. One of the three language domains.
aka iconic communication. Communication that is relatively more precise in intent than symbolic communication, but unlike symbolic communication, the relationship between the communicative behavior and its referent is nor arbitrary. Rather, it relies on the shared spatial position among the sender, the recipient, and the referent. The relationship between the message and its referent is transparent (ie chimpanzee points to a banana).
A cognitive science theory about how the human mind is organized within the brain structures. It contends that the human brain contains a set of highly specific modules--or regions developed to process specific types of information.
the smallest units of language that carry meaning. They are combined to create words. (ie pre+school+s= preschools)
the smallest unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning. in the production of syllables and words, a series of phonemes are strung together (is m+a=ma).
The neuromuscular process by which humans turn language into a sound signal that is transmitted through the air ( or other medium such as a telephone line) to a receiver.
How the brain processes speech and language. The ability to understand the sounds and words of a native language. Studies of speech perception help researchers learn about the kinds of language abilities infants have when they are born and how children use their speech perception to learn language.
aka pragmatics. How language is used in interactions with other people to express personal and social needs. The intentions for using certain words... like Halliday's seven communication functions (p.20). One of the three domains of language.
a system of conventional spoken or written symbols used by people in a shared culture to communicate with one another.
Four Characteristics of Language
1. Language is a system of symbols (morphemes).
2. Language is shared.
3. The Language system is conventional.
4. Language is a tool for human communication.
the sensory system that allows speech to enter into and be processed by the human brain.
The Four Systems of Speech
respiration- breathing in and out
phonation- vibrations formed in trachea and creates one's voice.
resonation- breath of air that resonates in oral and nasal cavity
articulation- vibrations manipulated by tongue, teeth, and jaw to come out as speech sounds that are combined into words.
T/F- Language depends on speech but speech does not depend on language.
False- Speech depends on language but language does not depend on speech.
has language and cognitive skills but is unable to perform voluntary movement (ie has complete paralysis)- can use eye movements.
Four Steps to Acoustics/Sound
1. Creation of Sound Source.
2. Vibration of Air particles.
3. Reception by the Ear.
4. Comprehension by the Brain.
overlapping phonemes (sounds) when humans produce phonemes. (ie shape of mouth changes and say "k" sound at the same time).
Four processes of Communication
formulation- gathering your thoughts
transmission- conveying ideas by speaking, signing, gestures...
reception-receiving the information from another person
comprehension- making sense of the message
aka referential communication- occurs when an individual communicates about a specific entity and relationship between entity and its referent is arbitrary (ie chid says bottle to mean he is thirsty).
Communication in which other people assume the relationship between a communicative behavior and its referent (baby cries- could mean hungry, or i am hot)- the meaning must be inferred by the receiver.
Four Types of Communication
intentional communication-aka iconic
iconic communication-aka intentional
info from the receiver to the sender-essential to an active and dynamic communication.
Three Types of Feedback
1. Linguistic Feedback- speaking (yeah, mmhm)
2. Nonlinguistic/Extralinguistic Feedback-uses eye contact, facial expressions, posture, proximity)
3. Paralinguistic Feedback-use of pitch, loudness, and pausing.
Three Domains of Langauge
Halliday's Seven Purposes of Communication
1. Instrumental- to ask for something
2. Regulatory-give directions
3. Interactional- be social
4. Personal- express feelings
5. Heuristic-to inquire
6. Imaginative-tell stories
7. Informative- describe an event
The Five Components of Three Domains of Language
(form)- the rules of language governing the sounds used to make syllables and words- we have 39 phonemes.
the subtle variations of phonemes that occur as a result of contextual influences on how phonemes are produced in different words. P is pronounced differently in "pop"- first p you make a breath, but second one you don't.
(form)- the rules of language governing the internal organization of Words. (ie- prefixes can be added to words to change their meaning).
(form) the rules of language governing the internal organization of Sentences. (ie- can link simple sentences to make complex ones, add new words to change meaning of sentence).
(content)- refers to the rules of language governing the meaning of individual words and word combinations. (ie- stapler has one meaning, run- has many meanings- figurative and literal).
(use)- the rules governing how language is used for social purposes. (ie- word choice, posture, gesture, pitch, loudness, pauses...).
T/F- Language is strictly a human capacity.
True. (nonhuman communication is mostly iconic, but not human communication).
The combination of a small number of units into a seemingly infinite number of creations ( can make new words, sentences).
the variability among language users (ie two 5 yr olds may have different numbers of words they understand)
the natural variations of a language that evolve within specific cultural or geographic boundaries- they affect form, content, and use.
Compare Language impairment likelihood in different Genders
Boys- higher chance of language impairment than girls. 2/3 boys to 1 girl lang. impairment ratio.
genetically created language problems- use twin studies to find genetic likelihood of disorder.
Language Impairment Causes
brain trauma- hit on head
environment- responsiveness of partner to child.
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