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all wkbk ?s combined just seperated into part a and b

For proper calibration what solution should be used to calibrate a refractometer?

distilled water

To separate serum, whole blood should be spun down in a centrifuge at

3500 rpm for 10 minutes

Prolonged exposure of serum to the blood cells before the serum is removed from the clot can result in

increased serum phosphorus

A toxic neutrophil can be identified by all of the following characteristics, except


A Dohle body is identified with the Diff-Quik stain (modified Wright=Giemsa stain) as

a small, bluish-gray inclusion in a neutrophil cytoplasm

A blast cell is not a characteristic of

an old, degenerative cell

A target cell is also called a/an


A crenated cell is also called a/an


Spherocytes may be seen on a blood smear from a dog suffering from


Acanthocytes are


A canine RBC is

a biconcave disk-shaped ceell

DIC is commonly represented by schistocytosis. The schistocytes are made when

fibrin strands cut the erythrocytes apart

Pyknosis is a term used to describe a

small, condensed, dark, fragmented nucleus

Basophilic stippling is often associated with

lead poisoning

A common finding on a stained blood smear from an animal with autoimmune hemolytic anemia is


Denatured hemoglobin found in erythrocytes is

a Heinz body

What appears as a blue spheric nuclear remnant seen in some Wright-stained erythrocytes?

Howell-Jolly body

A variation in erythrocyte size is known as


What is a non-nucleated, immature erythrocyte found in small numbers in the peripheral blood of dogs called?


What part of the CBC is the most accurate procedure?


What part of the CBC cannot be done manually with adequate accuracy?

erythrocyte count

Four purple-top tubes with blood samples from four different animals are left standing the laboratory. In what sample will the RBCs settle the fastest?

horse sample

What would you expect to see on a Diff-Quik stained blood smear from an animal with regerative anemia?


What cell is described as a central rounded area of hemoglobin surrounded by a clear zone, with a dense ring of hemoglobin around the periphery?

target cells

What causes plasma to appear red?


Reticulocytes are never found in the peripheral blood of


What cell is produced by megakaryocytes?


What species normally has the smallest erythrocytes?


What is the term used to describe the situation in which many of the erythrocytes stain varying shades of lavender?


Reticulocytes are reported as


Which of the following is a breakdown product of hemoglobin?


What measurement determines the average size of an erythrocyte?

mean corpuscular volume

What parasite resembles Howell-Jolly bodies?

Mycoplasma haemofelis (Haemobartonella sp.)

Basophilic stippling is seen in

erythrocyte cytoplasm

A canine erythrocyte that is smaller than normal, with no pale area in the center, is a


Rouleaux formation is most commonly seen on blood smears from


What animal has oval erythrocytes?

normal llama

What causes dark granules called Dohle bodies in the cytoplasm of canine neutrophils?


Which of these is an artifact?


Certain oxidant drugs can denature hemoglobin and cause production of round structures in erythrocytes called

Heinz bodies

What is the primary function of fibrinogen?


What nucleated erythrocyte is the first one you'll see in peripheral blood if an animal has used all of its reserves of mature erythrocytes in the bone marrow?


Which of these cells is the most immature?


Hemagglutination is

clumping of erythrocytes

If an erythrocyte loses part of its membrane but still remains intact, it will appear as a _____ on a stained peripheral blood smear.


An erythrocyte that does not contain its full amount of hemoglobin will appear as _____ on a stained peripheral blood smear.


Spherocytes are _____ when viewed on a peripheral blood smear.

microcytic erythrocytes

What kind of problem may cause you to find cellular casts containing WBCs in the urine sediment of a dog?

pyelonephritis (kidney infection)

Glycosuria exists

when blood glucose levels exceed the renal threshold for absorption of glucose

Urine that is a false positive for glucose may result from


When performing urinalysis testing, the sample should be analyzed within ____ minutes or refrigeration is required.


For cytologic evaluation of urine, which of the following conditions must be observed?

the specimen should be centrifuged as soon as possible

Brown urine likely contains


Normal voided urine is clear except in which of the following species?


The average urine specific gravity for a normal dog is


The average urine specific gravity for a normal cat is


Urine crystals are estimated as the average per

low power field

Epithelial cells in urine are estimated as the average number per

high power field

Hyaline casts

are clear and colorless

Calcium oxalate crystals

are seen in ethylene glycol toxicity

In a healthy animal, diminished water intake or loss of water would result in ____ urine specific gravity.


Which of the following urine sediments would be most significant? (sperm, fat droplets, squamous epithelial cells, blood cells)

blood cells

Struvites is another name for

calcium carbonate crystals

Crystals in urine sediment indicate

often nothing

Which of the following would not be on a urine dipstick? (glucose, blood, total protein, BUN)


WBCs in urine sediment may be confused with

renal epithelial cells

A drop of ____ added to the urine sediment lyses RBCs but not fat droplets.

dilute acetic acid

Bacteria in urine sediment may be confused with

amorphous phosphates or urates

Casts seen in urine sediment are

formed in the renal tubules

The presence of protein in the urine may indicate

kidney disease

Which of the following would not be associated with ketones in the urine? (diabetes mellitus, lactating cows, starvation, hemolysis)


Mucus is often seen in _____ urine.


Calcium oxalate crystals are

small squares containing an X

The best urine sample for culture is


Fat droplets are most commonly seen in


Normal numbers of erythrocytes and leukocytes in urine sediment should not exceed

3 to 5 per high power field

The largest of the epithelial cells found in urine are the

squamous epithelial cells

The most common uroliths of cats and dogs are


The best method of urine collection to assess the patency of the urethra is


Which of the following statements is false regarding casts?

casts dissolve while in acidic urine

Changes that occur in the urine sample over time include all of the following except (bacterial overgrowth, decrease in pH, cellular degeneration, cast degeneration)

decrease in pH

Puddin, a 2yr old M/C DSH, was missing for 5 days before coming home. His owners were very concerned that he appeared weak and tired, so brought him to the clinic. You find on initial PE that he is significantly dehydrated so that you are not at all surprised when you find that his urine specific gravity is


Lipuria is seen most commonly in which of the following species?


Bilirubinuria is considered a normal finding in which of the following species?


Sadie, a 17yr old F/S DSH, is in the final stages of chronic renal failure. On presentation, you find her urine specific gravity to be


Which of the following test is considered accurate when using colorimetric dip sticks fo rbiochemical testing? (leukocytes, specific gravity, pH, nitrates)


All of the following methods of urine sample collection may be associated with traumatic hematuria, except (catheterization, manuel expression, free catch, cystocentesis)

free catch

Casts that are smooth and refractile with squared ends, indicating chronic, severe degeneration of the renal tubules are


A horse would mose likely have a urine pH of


Sasha, an 11yr old F/S DSH, was hospitalized for IV fluids following an infection. The vet tech on duty not paying attention to her fluids and she was significantly over hydrated. You would most likely expect her urine specific gravity to be


Ketonuria is most commonly associate with which of the following conditions? (liver disease, urinary tract infection, renal failure, diabetes mellitus)

diabetes mellitus

Hoover was diagnosed with a urinary tract infection 2wks ago and was put on a course of amoxicillin. The vet has asked that he return for a recheck to ascertain that the infection has resolved. The collection method of choice in this pt would be? (catheterization, free catch, cystocentesis, manual expression)


The leukocyts and nitrate pads on urinary colorimetric stips give presumptive evidence that the pt may have

bacterial infection

Aged urine samples left at room temp and exposure to UV light may cause a false-negative result in which of the following biochemical tests? (ketones, protein, glucose, bilirubin)


The best sample to examine for specific gravity of urine is the

first a.m. sample

Mr. Downing has brough in a urine sample from Cleo, his 6yr old cocker spaniel. The color of urine appears red. On centrifugation of the sample, you find that the supernatant is now clear. You know that the original red color was due to


Struvite crystals are composed of


All of the following statements are true regarding collection of a urine sample via catheterization except

this is often better tolerated that cystocentesis

Urinary pH is not affected by the

presence of crystals in the urine

Squamous epithelial cells are not normally seen in urine samples obtained by


For determining specific gravity values, which is the order from most reliable to least reliable method?

refreactometer, urinometer, reagent test strip

Which of the following crystals is most likely to be found in the urine of an animal with ethylene glycol toxicity?

calcium oxalate

Pollakiuria is

urinating frequently, small volume voided

A cast is

glycoprotein mold of the renal tubules

The stain of choice for urine specimens is


Which of the following is a typical specific gravity for dilute canine urine? (0.010, 3.055, 1.035, 1.010)


In which species is ketonuria most commonly found?


Which is the smallest epithelial cell seen on a urine sediment examination?

renal cell

In order for a cast to form, what must be present in the filtrate?


Which is the most common crystal found in canine urinary sediment?


In order for glycosuria to occur which of the following must also be present? (uremia, hyperglycemia, ketonemia, azoturia)


Urine specific gravity is actually a measure of which of the following? (liver function, glomerular function, tubular function, bladder function)

tubular function

Which is becoming a common type of uroliths in cats?


Which test on the urine dipstick is the least useful in animals?


Which substance increases in the urine in glomerular disease?


Which breed of dog has the most problems with uric acid stones?


What uroliths has multiple points remembling a jack?


What is the main constituent of stuvite?

magnesium phosphate

Substances observed in casts originated in which part of the urinary tract?

renal glomerulus

Urine often has a sweet odor if which of the following is present?


Which type of cast is the most common one found in urine?


Fresh urine appears which color when myoglobinuria is present?


Which urinalysis finding is consistent with bacterial cystitis in the dog and cat?

alkaline pH

Isosthenuric urine would read ____ on a refractometer.


The correct medical term for a urinary bladder stone is


Urine specific gravity reading indicate

dissolved solids

Which of the following is an acceptable urine pH for a cat? (6.2, 6.0, 7.0, 7.5)


The presence of predominantly anuclear cornified epithelial cells indicates


Cells that line the pleural, peritoneal, and visceral surfaces are

mesothelial cells

A cytology sample containing 90% neutrophils is described as

granulomatous inflammation

A deformation of nuclei by other nuclei within the same cells or adjacent cells is referred to as

nuclear molding

Cattle and swine display what type of estrous cycle?


Dogs demonstate hwat type of esterous cycle?


What species is an induced ovulator?


In what stage of the estrous cycle does the corpus luteum develop?


The hormone produced by a developing ovarian follicle is


What hormone contracts the female reproductive tract to help move spermatozoa into the oviducts?


To achieve a normal pregnancy, the blastocyst attaches ot what structure?


Giving birth is known as


From the estrous cycle to parturition, in what order are the following hormones released

estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin

Which animal has a cotyledonary placenta?


In cotyledonary placentation the mother's side of the attachment is called the


A pregnant mare has what kind of placentation?


A pregnant bitch has what kind of placentation?


A pregnant rodent has what kind fo placentation?


A pregnant queen has what kind fo placentation?


The canine uterus is shaped like the letter


How many mammary gland are typically found on a bitch?


Ruminants have what type fo placentation?


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