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AP US History: Colonial america

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Iroquois Confederacy
Most important and powerful Native American political alliance; successfully ended generations of tribal warfare
Similarities between Native Americans and Settlers
Lived in village communities; shared a strong sense of spirituality; divided by gender; depended on agricultural economies
Differences between Native Americans and Settlers
Did not share the English concept of private property; Native American children often part of mother's clan
Virginia Company
Joint-stock company; primary goal was to make a profit
tobacco
crop that made the British colonies economically viable; most valuable cash crop in the South
indentured servants
played a key role in the growth of the tobacco plantation system in VA and MD; chief source of agricultural labor before 1675
"headright" system
program where those who paid the passage of a laborer would receive 50 acres of land
Bacon's Rebellion
1676; expressed tension between the former indentured servants and the gentry; led to planters turning to slaves as more reliable sources of labor
slavery
developed due to the cultivation to tobacco; legally established in all 13 colonies
rice
most important crop grown in South Carolina during the mid-18th century
Stono Rebellion
1739; early slave rebellion organized and led by slaves south of Charleston, South Carolina; tried to flee to Spanish Florida but failed
Puritans
came to New England in family groups in order to escape political repression, religious restrictions, and an economic recession; led by John Winthrop; typically lived in villages surrounded by farmland; characterized by close relationship between church and state
"A City Upon a Hill"
John Wintrop's call to the Puritans to build a model society; created a model Christian society with a strict code of moral conduct
Anne Hutchinson
Known for her struggle with the Massachusetts Bay authorities over religious doctrine and gender roles; challenged clerical authority and claimed to have revelations from God; killed by Indians in New York
Roger Williams
Founder of Rhode Island; advocated the cause of religious toleration and freedom of thought; believed the state was an improper and ineffectual agency in matters of spirit
New Light Ministers
Advocated an emotional approach to religious practice; promoted growth of institutions for higher learning; sparked renewed missionary spirit that led to conversion of many slaves; led to divisions within both the Presbyterian and Congregational churches; led to popularity of itinerant ministers; led to increase in the number of women in church congregations
Pennsylvania
colony founded by William Penn; included representative assembly elected by landowners; had freedom of religion
Quakers
Pacifists who refused to bear arms; advocated freedom of worship and accepted a greater role for women in church services; opposed slavery
Navigation Acts
Part of the British policy of mercantilism; listed colonial products that could only be shipped to England
Mercantilism
Led to subordination of the colonial economy to that of England; North American colonies took advantage of salutary neglect to work out trade with other countries
women
lost control of property when married; had no separate legal identity apart from husband; had the right to own property
Republicanism
Sovereignty comes from the people, representation should be based on population; small, limited government is better than a monarchy; widespread ownership of property; standing armies are dangerous; agrarian life is best
Anne Bradstreet
1st notable American poet and first woman to be published in colonial America
Phillis Wheatley
1st published African American poet; helped create genre of African American literature