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Iroquois Confederacy

Most important and powerful Native American political alliance; successfully ended generations of tribal warfare

Similarities between Native Americans and Settlers

Lived in village communities; shared a strong sense of spirituality; divided by gender; depended on agricultural economies

Differences between Native Americans and Settlers

Did not share the English concept of private property; Native American children often part of mother's clan

Virginia Company

Joint-stock company; primary goal was to make a profit


crop that made the British colonies economically viable; most valuable cash crop in the South

indentured servants

played a key role in the growth of the tobacco plantation system in VA and MD; chief source of agricultural labor before 1675

"headright" system

program where those who paid the passage of a laborer would receive 50 acres of land

Bacon's Rebellion

1676; expressed tension between the former indentured servants and the gentry; led to planters turning to slaves as more reliable sources of labor


developed due to the cultivation to tobacco; legally established in all 13 colonies


most important crop grown in South Carolina during the mid-18th century

Stono Rebellion

1739; early slave rebellion organized and led by slaves south of Charleston, South Carolina; tried to flee to Spanish Florida but failed


came to New England in family groups in order to escape political repression, religious restrictions, and an economic recession; led by John Winthrop; typically lived in villages surrounded by farmland; characterized by close relationship between church and state

"A City Upon a Hill"

John Wintrop's call to the Puritans to build a model society; created a model Christian society with a strict code of moral conduct

Anne Hutchinson

Known for her struggle with the Massachusetts Bay authorities over religious doctrine and gender roles; challenged clerical authority and claimed to have revelations from God; killed by Indians in New York

Roger Williams

Founder of Rhode Island; advocated the cause of religious toleration and freedom of thought; believed the state was an improper and ineffectual agency in matters of spirit

New Light Ministers

Advocated an emotional approach to religious practice; promoted growth of institutions for higher learning; sparked renewed missionary spirit that led to conversion of many slaves; led to divisions within both the Presbyterian and Congregational churches; led to popularity of itinerant ministers; led to increase in the number of women in church congregations


colony founded by William Penn; included representative assembly elected by landowners; had freedom of religion


Pacifists who refused to bear arms; advocated freedom of worship and accepted a greater role for women in church services; opposed slavery

Navigation Acts

Part of the British policy of mercantilism; listed colonial products that could only be shipped to England


Led to subordination of the colonial economy to that of England; North American colonies took advantage of salutary neglect to work out trade with other countries


lost control of property when married; had no separate legal identity apart from husband; had the right to own property


Sovereignty comes from the people, representation should be based on population; small, limited government is better than a monarchy; widespread ownership of property; standing armies are dangerous; agrarian life is best

Anne Bradstreet

1st notable American poet and first woman to be published in colonial America

Phillis Wheatley

1st published African American poet; helped create genre of African American literature

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