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A negative feeling toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in a particular group


Prejudiced attitudes toward a particular race

Aversive Racism

Simultaneously holding egalitarian values and negative feelings toward minorities


Unequal treatment of different people based on the groups or categories to with they belong


Beliefs that associate groups of people with certain traits


Categories that people use for individuals who do not fit a general stereotype


The natural tendency of humans to sort objects into groups

Social Categorization

The process of sorting people into groups on the basis of characteristics they have in common

Outgroup Members

People who belong to a different group or category than we do. we assume that these members are more similar than ingroup members are to each other.

Ingroup Members

People who belong to the same group or category as we do

Outgroup Homogeneity Bias

The assumption that outgroup members are more similar to one another than ingroup members are to one another. we do not have as much exposure to outgroup members as we do to ingroup

Stigma by Association

Rejection of those who associate with stigmatized others


Excessive fear of homosexuals or homosexual behavior


Characteristics of individuals that are considered socially unacceptable (overweight)

Ingroup Favoritism

Preferential treatment of or more favorable attitudes toward people in ones own group

Minimal Group Effect

The finding that people show favoritism toward in-group members even when group membership is randomly determined

Superordinate Goals

Goals that can be achieved only by cooperating and working with others

Realistic Conflict Theory

The idea that competition over scarce resources leads to intergroup hostility and conflict


Situation in which people can attain their goals only if others do not


Situation in which people must wok together with others to help achieve their goals

Discontinuity Effect

The finding that groups are more extreme and often more hostile than individuals

Contact Hypothesis

The idea that regular interaction between members of different groups reduces prejudices providing that it occurs under favorable conditions


Being obvious or not standing out

Scapegoat Theory

The idea that blaming problems and misfortunes on outgroups contributes to negative attitudes toward these outgroups

Self-Serving Bias

The tendency for people to take credit for success but refuse blame for problems and failures

Lexical Decision Task

Deciding as quickly as possible whether a string of letters is a real word or not

Confirmation bias

The tendency to focus more on evidence that supports ones expectations than on evidence that contradicts them

Jigsaw Classroom

A cooperative learning technique for reducing feelings of prejudice

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

A prediction that ensures the behavior it generates will come true. people would come to act like the stereotypes of other hold of them. have a baby face act innocent

Self-Defeating Prophecy

A prediction that ensures by the behavior it generates that it will not come true. have a baby face act aggressive more likely to steal.

Stereotype Threat

The fear that one might confirm the stereotypes that others hold

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