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31 terms

social psych Chapter 13 prejudice

STUDY
PLAY
Prejudice
A negative feeling toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in a particular group
Racism
Prejudiced attitudes toward a particular race
Aversive Racism
Simultaneously holding egalitarian values and negative feelings toward minorities
Discrimination
Unequal treatment of different people based on the groups or categories to with they belong
Stereotypes
Beliefs that associate groups of people with certain traits
Subtypes
Categories that people use for individuals who do not fit a general stereotype
Categorization
The natural tendency of humans to sort objects into groups
Social Categorization
The process of sorting people into groups on the basis of characteristics they have in common
Outgroup Members
People who belong to a different group or category than we do. we assume that these members are more similar than ingroup members are to each other.
Ingroup Members
People who belong to the same group or category as we do
Outgroup Homogeneity Bias
The assumption that outgroup members are more similar to one another than ingroup members are to one another. we do not have as much exposure to outgroup members as we do to ingroup
Stigma by Association
Rejection of those who associate with stigmatized others
Homophobia
Excessive fear of homosexuals or homosexual behavior
Stigmas
Characteristics of individuals that are considered socially unacceptable (overweight)
Ingroup Favoritism
Preferential treatment of or more favorable attitudes toward people in ones own group
Minimal Group Effect
The finding that people show favoritism toward in-group members even when group membership is randomly determined
Superordinate Goals
Goals that can be achieved only by cooperating and working with others
Realistic Conflict Theory
The idea that competition over scarce resources leads to intergroup hostility and conflict
Competition
Situation in which people can attain their goals only if others do not
Cooperation
Situation in which people must wok together with others to help achieve their goals
Discontinuity Effect
The finding that groups are more extreme and often more hostile than individuals
Contact Hypothesis
The idea that regular interaction between members of different groups reduces prejudices providing that it occurs under favorable conditions
Salience
Being obvious or not standing out
Scapegoat Theory
The idea that blaming problems and misfortunes on outgroups contributes to negative attitudes toward these outgroups
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency for people to take credit for success but refuse blame for problems and failures
Lexical Decision Task
Deciding as quickly as possible whether a string of letters is a real word or not
Confirmation bias
The tendency to focus more on evidence that supports ones expectations than on evidence that contradicts them
Jigsaw Classroom
A cooperative learning technique for reducing feelings of prejudice
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
A prediction that ensures the behavior it generates will come true. people would come to act like the stereotypes of other hold of them. have a baby face act innocent
Self-Defeating Prophecy
A prediction that ensures by the behavior it generates that it will not come true. have a baby face act aggressive more likely to steal.
Stereotype Threat
The fear that one might confirm the stereotypes that others hold