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156 terms

Anatomy 2 Final-5/5/12

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The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following except the
skeletal muscle in the rectus abdominis.
Autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following except
maintaining tonicity of the muscles of the neck.
Which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?
sensory receptor ---afferent nerve fiber ---interneuron--- efferent nerve fiber ---gland
Parasympathetic tone
might increase or decrease heart rate depending on the situation
Sympathetic nerve fibers are not associated with situations involving
digestion.
___ is the background rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity.
Autonomic tone.
The neurotransmitter(s) associated with autonomic ganglia is(are)
acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE).
The effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is ___, and/whereas the effect of somatic fibers is ___.
excitatory or inhibitory; always excitatory
The motor pathway of the autonomic nervous system usually involves __ neurons
two
Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ____ and secrete ____.
myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh)
Somatic reflexes act faster than visceral reflexes. These are all reasons for this except
effector organs in the somatic reflex are closer to the spinal cord
Most fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system travel in
the vagus nerve.
Sympathetic fibers arise only from the ____ region(s) of the spinal cord.
thoracic and lumbar
These are all features of the sympathetic division except
it has long preganglionic fibers.
These are all characteristics of the parasympathetic division except
it has short preganglionic fibers.
The adrenal medulla secretesmostly
epinephrine (adrenaline).
The parasympathetic division arises from the ___ region(s) of the spinal cord
brain and sacral
Damage to the ___ may affect near vision accommodation.
oculomotor nerve (CN III)
___ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.
heart rate
A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ____ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter ____.
postganglionic; norepinephrine (NE)
The ___ is an especially important center of autonomic control
hypothalamus
Which of the following is associated with the "flight or fight" reaction?
reduced urinary output
What structure is visible to the naked eye?
taste bud
The primary olfactory cortex is located in the
temporal lobe
___ is the only sense in which signals can reach the cerebral cortex without passing first through the thalamus.
taste
Which structure allows upper respiratory infections to spread from the throat to the tympanic cavity?
the auditory (eustachian) tube
Stimuli produced by sound waves reach the brain following the pathway:
auditory canal-- tympanic membrane-- ossicles-- oval window --cochlear duct --spiral organ-- fibers of cochlear nerve
Which of these is most vulnerable to irreversible damage caused by a very loud noise?
cochlear hair cells
When you spin while sitting in a swivel chair with your eyes closed, you can sense this movement by means of
your
semicircular ducts.
When you travel in an elevator, the ___ senses when the elevator is moving.
inner hair cells of the basilar membrane
The crista ampullaris is associated with
dynamic equilibrium related to angular acceleration.
Nerve fibers from all regions of the retina converge on the ___ and exit the eye by way of the optic nerve
optic disc
___ are responsible for photopic (day) vision as well as trichromatic (color) vision.
cones
___ are the only retinal cells that produce action potentials
ganglion cells
The first-order neurons in the visual pathway are
the ganglion cells
Half of the fibers of each optic nerve decussate at the ___.
optic chiasm
Endocrine gland(s)
release their secretions directly into the blood.
The nervous system reacts to stimuli _____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts _____ compared to the
endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine system.
quickly; quickly; specific
__ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their
hormones
What makes a cell responsive to a particular hormone?
the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone
The neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) secretes
oxytocin (OT).
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the
thyroid gland
The hypophyseal portal system connects
the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus
___ has more target cells in the body than any of the others.
Growth hormone (GH)
Target organs most often regulate the pituitary gland via
negative feedback inhibition.
The infundibulum is
a portal system between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
___ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas ___ secretion is controlled by negative feedback
mechanisms.
Oxytocin (OT); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Negative feedback inhibition occurs when
thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary
The ___ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness , quickens reflexes, and
stimulates the fetal nervous system
thyroid gland
The ___ secrete(s) a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia
thyroid gland
The ___ secrete(s) ___, which promotes Na+ and water retention.
adrenal cortex; aldosterone
The zona fasciculata in the adrenal gland secretes
cortisol
Many hours after a meal, alpha ( ) cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) secrete
glucagon, which raises blood glucose
T4 and T3 are _____ hormones that are mainly transported _____ in the blood.
monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)
___ enters a target cell's nucleus and acts directly on the genes
Estrogen
This is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger.
enzymes are activated or deactivated by the action of protein kinases
Neither follicle stimulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone alone can stimulate significant sperm production,
whereas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies
they synergistic effect
The initial response to stress is called ____ and is mediated mainly by ___.
the alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine
The buffy coat does not contain
erythrocytes
_____________ is the most abundant protein in plasma.
Albumin
Serum is essentially identical to plasma except for the absence of __________.
fibrinogen
Erythrocytes transport oxygen and
transport some carbon dioxide.
Most oxygen is transported bound to
heme groups in hemoglobin.
The ABO blood group is determined by _____________ in the plasma membrane of RBCs.
gen-antibody complexes
Type A blood can safely donate RBCs to _____________ and can receive RBCs of type ___________.
AB; O
Type AB blood has ____________ RBC antigen(s).
A and B
The universal donor of RBCs, but not necessarily plasma, is
O, Rh-negative
The main reason why an individual AB, Rh-negative cannot donate blood to an individual A, Rh-positive is because
anti-B antibodies in the recipient will agglutinate RBCs of the donor
A woman's first pregnancy is normal but her second pregnancy results in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN),
or erythroblastosis fetalis. The second child needed a transfusion to completely replace the agglutinating blood.
The mother is most likely type _____ and both children are most likely _____.
A, Rh-negative; B, Rh-positive
These are the least abundant formed elements
basophils
These are the most abundant agranulocytes.
lymphocytes
The differential count of ______________ typically increases in response to bacterial infections
neutrophils
___________ aid in the body's defense processes by secreting histamine (vasodilator) and heparin
basophils
The cessation of bleeding is specifically called
hemostasis
______________ belong to the pulmonary circuit
Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins
_____________ is the most superficial layer enclosing the heart.
Epicardium
Pericardial fluid is found between
the parietal and visceral membranes
The ________________ performs the work of the heart
myocardium
The tricuspid valve regulates the opening between
the right atrium and right ventricle.
Oxygen-poor blood passes through
the right AV (tricuspid) valve only.
Opening and closing of the heart valves is caused by
pressure gradients
Cardiac muscle shares this feature with skeletal muscle.
cardiac muscle fibers have striations
The ________________ is the pacemaker that initiates each heart beat.
sinoatrial (SA) node
This is the correct path of an electrical excitation from the pacemaker to a cardiocyte in the left ventricle (LV).
sinoatrial (SA) node --atrioventricular (AV) node --atrioventricular (AV) bundle --Purkinje fibers-- cardiocyte in
LV
Atrial systole begins
immediately after the P wave
Atrial depolarization causes
the P wave
This is the correct sequence of events of the cardiac cycle
ventricular filling-- isovolumetric contraction --ventricular ejection --isovolumetric relaxation
Most of the ventricle filling occurs
during artial diastole
The volume of blood ejected by each ventricle in one minute is called
the cardiac output
Cardioinhibitory centers in the _____________ receive input from __________.
medulla oblongata; chemoreceptors in the aortic arch
Most blood is in the
veins
These are all possible circulatory routes from the heart except
heart-- arteries --capillary bed-- vein --capillary bed-- arteries-- heart
All of these increase blood pressure except
atrial natriuretic peptide
________________ by the capillaries at their venous end.
waste products are taken up
The lungs receive a systemic blood supply by way of the
bronchial arteries
Lymph is similar to blood plasma, but very low in
protein
Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ______________ that are not absorbed by the blood
capillaries.
lipids
The ______________ tonsils are the largest, and their surgical removal (tonsillectomy) used to be one of the most
common surgical procedures performed in children
palatine
_____________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the _______________.
collecting ducts; subclavian veins
Immune surveillance is a process in which ____________ nonspecifically detect and destroy foreign cells and
diseased host cells.
natural killer (NK) cells
This organ shows a remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age.
thymus
All these belong to the second line of defense except
the gastric juices
Complement fixation can lead to any of the following effects except
endogenous pyrexia
This is the first of a series of neutrophil behaviors in inflammation
margination
_______________ is not a cardinal sign characteristic of inflammation
impaired use
Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called
_____ and a vasodilator called ____________.
heparin; histamine
All these cellular agents participate in inflammation except
cytotoxic T cells
These are a group of proteolytic enzymes secreted by natural killer (NK) cells
selectins
Complement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phagocytosis by ___________ in a process called
_____________.
neutrophils and macrophages; opsonization
_________________ are antimicrobial proteins
interferons
One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that
immunity is directed against a particular pathogen
vaccination stimulates
artificial active immunity
Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity is effective against
cancer cells
A(n) ______________ is the region of the molecule that is recognized by antibodies.
antigen
The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulates
artificial passive immunity.
All of the following can act as antigen-presenting cells except
T cells
Helper T (TH) cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a(n)
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein
Antigen-presenting cells usually display processed antigens to T cells in
lymph nodes
Helper T (TH) cells do not
secrete fever-producing chemicals.
_____________________ participate in both nonspecific resistance and immune response
Helper T (TH) cells
Cytotoxic T (TC) cells are like natural killer (NK) cells because they both
secrete granzymes and perforin
Memory T cells can live up to
decades
Antibodies do not
link antigen molecules together
_________________ constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma
IgG
This is the class of immunoglobulin that provides passive immunity to the newborn
IgA
Before B cells secrete antibodies they differentiate into
plasma cells
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets mainly
helper T cells
The upper respiratory tract extends
from the nose through the pharynx
Each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by
the pulmonary artery
Which of the following does not have cilia?
respiratory bronchioles
Which of the following cartilages is largest?
the thyroid cartilage
Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except
carbonate
Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to _____ oxygen molecules.
4
Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by ___ of the respiratory tract.
goblet cells
The blood transports more CO2 in the form of ___ than in any other form.
bicarbonate ions
The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called
mesenteries
These are all accessory organs of the digestive systemexcept
spleen
The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by
the mesentery
Chemical digestion breaks down ____________ into _____________.
amino acids; proteins
These are normally found in saliva except
protease
The ______________ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the ______________ gland is an intrinsic
salivary gland.
sublingual; parotid
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is secreted by ____________ cells.
parietal
____________, which is secreted by ___________ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption
intrinsic factor; parietal
Pepsinogen is produced by ____________ and is activated by ___________.
chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by parietal cells
______________ is a hormone, whereas ________________ is an enzyme.
secretin; pepsin
The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is
the pancreas
Of the following components of bile, only _____________ has/have a digestive function
bile salts
The _______________ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing ____________________.
liver; cholesterol
Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone
cholecystokinin (CCK)
Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?
triglycerides
Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?
pepsin
The ______________ of the small intestine is/are similar to the _________________ of the stomach.
intestinal crypts; gastric pits
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ______________, whereas protein digestion begins in the
______________.
mouth; stomach
_____________ break(s) down _______________.
Peptidase; proteins
____________ transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into
_________________
Micelles; chylomicrons
Defecation is stimulated by
stretching of the rectum