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The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following except the
skeletal muscle in the rectus abdominis.
Autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following except
maintaining tonicity of the muscles of the neck.
Which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?
sensory receptor ---afferent nerve fiber ---interneuron--- efferent nerve fiber ---gland
The neurotransmitter(s) associated with autonomic ganglia is(are)
acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE).
The effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is ___, and/whereas the effect of somatic fibers is ___.
excitatory or inhibitory; always excitatory
Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ____ and secrete ____.
myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh)
Somatic reflexes act faster than visceral reflexes. These are all reasons for this except
effector organs in the somatic reflex are closer to the spinal cord
These are all characteristics of the parasympathetic division except
it has short preganglionic fibers.
___ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.
A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ____ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter ____.
postganglionic; norepinephrine (NE)
___ is the only sense in which signals can reach the cerebral cortex without passing first through the thalamus.
Which structure allows upper respiratory infections to spread from the throat to the tympanic cavity?
the auditory (eustachian) tube
Stimuli produced by sound waves reach the brain following the pathway:
auditory canal-- tympanic membrane-- ossicles-- oval window --cochlear duct --spiral organ-- fibers of cochlear nerve
Which of these is most vulnerable to irreversible damage caused by a very loud noise?
cochlear hair cells
When you spin while sitting in a swivel chair with your eyes closed, you can sense this movement by means of
When you travel in an elevator, the ___ senses when the elevator is moving.
inner hair cells of the basilar membrane
Nerve fibers from all regions of the retina converge on the ___ and exit the eye by way of the optic nerve
The nervous system reacts to stimuli _____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts _____ compared to the
endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine system.
quickly; quickly; specific
__ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their
What makes a cell responsive to a particular hormone?
the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone
The hypophyseal portal system connects
the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus
___ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas ___ secretion is controlled by negative feedback
Oxytocin (OT); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
The ___ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness , quickens reflexes, and
stimulates the fetal nervous system
Many hours after a meal, alpha ( ) cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) secrete
glucagon, which raises blood glucose
T4 and T3 are _____ hormones that are mainly transported _____ in the blood.
monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)
This is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger.
enzymes are activated or deactivated by the action of protein kinases
Neither follicle stimulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone alone can stimulate significant sperm production,
whereas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies
they synergistic effect
The initial response to stress is called ____ and is mediated mainly by ___.
the alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine
The ABO blood group is determined by _____________ in the plasma membrane of RBCs.
Type A blood can safely donate RBCs to _____________ and can receive RBCs of type ___________.
The main reason why an individual AB, Rh-negative cannot donate blood to an individual A, Rh-positive is because
anti-B antibodies in the recipient will agglutinate RBCs of the donor
A woman's first pregnancy is normal but her second pregnancy results in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN),
or erythroblastosis fetalis. The second child needed a transfusion to completely replace the agglutinating blood.
The mother is most likely type _____ and both children are most likely _____.
A, Rh-negative; B, Rh-positive
The differential count of ______________ typically increases in response to bacterial infections
___________ aid in the body's defense processes by secreting histamine (vasodilator) and heparin
This is the correct path of an electrical excitation from the pacemaker to a cardiocyte in the left ventricle (LV).
sinoatrial (SA) node --atrioventricular (AV) node --atrioventricular (AV) bundle --Purkinje fibers-- cardiocyte in
This is the correct sequence of events of the cardiac cycle
ventricular filling-- isovolumetric contraction --ventricular ejection --isovolumetric relaxation
Cardioinhibitory centers in the _____________ receive input from __________.
medulla oblongata; chemoreceptors in the aortic arch
These are all possible circulatory routes from the heart except
heart-- arteries --capillary bed-- vein --capillary bed-- arteries-- heart
Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ______________ that are not absorbed by the blood
The ______________ tonsils are the largest, and their surgical removal (tonsillectomy) used to be one of the most
common surgical procedures performed in children
_____________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the _______________.
collecting ducts; subclavian veins
Immune surveillance is a process in which ____________ nonspecifically detect and destroy foreign cells and
diseased host cells.
natural killer (NK) cells
Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called
_____ and a vasodilator called ____________.
Complement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phagocytosis by ___________ in a process called
neutrophils and macrophages; opsonization
One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that
immunity is directed against a particular pathogen
Helper T (TH) cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a(n)
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein
_____________________ participate in both nonspecific resistance and immune response
Helper T (TH) cells
Cytotoxic T (TC) cells are like natural killer (NK) cells because they both
secrete granzymes and perforin
Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by ___ of the respiratory tract.
The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called
The ______________ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the ______________ gland is an intrinsic
____________, which is secreted by ___________ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption
intrinsic factor; parietal
Pepsinogen is produced by ____________ and is activated by ___________.
chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by parietal cells
The ______________ of the small intestine is/are similar to the _________________ of the stomach.
intestinal crypts; gastric pits
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ______________, whereas protein digestion begins in the
____________ transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into
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