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The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following except the

skeletal muscle in the rectus abdominis.

Autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following except

maintaining tonicity of the muscles of the neck.

Which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?

sensory receptor ---afferent nerve fiber ---interneuron--- efferent nerve fiber ---gland

Parasympathetic tone

might increase or decrease heart rate depending on the situation

Sympathetic nerve fibers are not associated with situations involving


___ is the background rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity.

Autonomic tone.

The neurotransmitter(s) associated with autonomic ganglia is(are)

acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE).

The effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is ___, and/whereas the effect of somatic fibers is ___.

excitatory or inhibitory; always excitatory

The motor pathway of the autonomic nervous system usually involves __ neurons


Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ____ and secrete ____.

myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh)

Somatic reflexes act faster than visceral reflexes. These are all reasons for this except

effector organs in the somatic reflex are closer to the spinal cord

Most fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system travel in

the vagus nerve.

Sympathetic fibers arise only from the ____ region(s) of the spinal cord.

thoracic and lumbar

These are all features of the sympathetic division except

it has long preganglionic fibers.

These are all characteristics of the parasympathetic division except

it has short preganglionic fibers.

The adrenal medulla secretesmostly

epinephrine (adrenaline).

The parasympathetic division arises from the ___ region(s) of the spinal cord

brain and sacral

Damage to the ___ may affect near vision accommodation.

oculomotor nerve (CN III)

___ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.

heart rate

A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ____ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter ____.

postganglionic; norepinephrine (NE)

The ___ is an especially important center of autonomic control


Which of the following is associated with the "flight or fight" reaction?

reduced urinary output

What structure is visible to the naked eye?

taste bud

The primary olfactory cortex is located in the

temporal lobe

___ is the only sense in which signals can reach the cerebral cortex without passing first through the thalamus.


Which structure allows upper respiratory infections to spread from the throat to the tympanic cavity?

the auditory (eustachian) tube

Stimuli produced by sound waves reach the brain following the pathway:

auditory canal-- tympanic membrane-- ossicles-- oval window --cochlear duct --spiral organ-- fibers of cochlear nerve

Which of these is most vulnerable to irreversible damage caused by a very loud noise?

cochlear hair cells

When you spin while sitting in a swivel chair with your eyes closed, you can sense this movement by means of

semicircular ducts.

When you travel in an elevator, the ___ senses when the elevator is moving.

inner hair cells of the basilar membrane

The crista ampullaris is associated with

dynamic equilibrium related to angular acceleration.

Nerve fibers from all regions of the retina converge on the ___ and exit the eye by way of the optic nerve

optic disc

___ are responsible for photopic (day) vision as well as trichromatic (color) vision.


___ are the only retinal cells that produce action potentials

ganglion cells

The first-order neurons in the visual pathway are

the ganglion cells

Half of the fibers of each optic nerve decussate at the ___.

optic chiasm

Endocrine gland(s)

release their secretions directly into the blood.

The nervous system reacts to stimuli _____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts _____ compared to the
endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine system.

quickly; quickly; specific

__ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their


What makes a cell responsive to a particular hormone?

the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone

The neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) secretes

oxytocin (OT).

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the

thyroid gland

The hypophyseal portal system connects

the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus

___ has more target cells in the body than any of the others.

Growth hormone (GH)

Target organs most often regulate the pituitary gland via

negative feedback inhibition.

The infundibulum is

a portal system between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

___ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas ___ secretion is controlled by negative feedback

Oxytocin (OT); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Negative feedback inhibition occurs when

thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary

The ___ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness , quickens reflexes, and
stimulates the fetal nervous system

thyroid gland

The ___ secrete(s) a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia

thyroid gland

The ___ secrete(s) ___, which promotes Na+ and water retention.

adrenal cortex; aldosterone

The zona fasciculata in the adrenal gland secretes


Many hours after a meal, alpha ( ) cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) secrete

glucagon, which raises blood glucose

T4 and T3 are _____ hormones that are mainly transported _____ in the blood.

monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)

___ enters a target cell's nucleus and acts directly on the genes


This is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger.

enzymes are activated or deactivated by the action of protein kinases

Neither follicle stimulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone alone can stimulate significant sperm production,
whereas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies

they synergistic effect

The initial response to stress is called ____ and is mediated mainly by ___.

the alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine

The buffy coat does not contain


_____________ is the most abundant protein in plasma.


Serum is essentially identical to plasma except for the absence of __________.


Erythrocytes transport oxygen and

transport some carbon dioxide.

Most oxygen is transported bound to

heme groups in hemoglobin.

The ABO blood group is determined by _____________ in the plasma membrane of RBCs.

gen-antibody complexes

Type A blood can safely donate RBCs to _____________ and can receive RBCs of type ___________.


Type AB blood has ____________ RBC antigen(s).

A and B

The universal donor of RBCs, but not necessarily plasma, is

O, Rh-negative

The main reason why an individual AB, Rh-negative cannot donate blood to an individual A, Rh-positive is because

anti-B antibodies in the recipient will agglutinate RBCs of the donor

A woman's first pregnancy is normal but her second pregnancy results in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN),
or erythroblastosis fetalis. The second child needed a transfusion to completely replace the agglutinating blood.
The mother is most likely type _____ and both children are most likely _____.

A, Rh-negative; B, Rh-positive

These are the least abundant formed elements


These are the most abundant agranulocytes.


The differential count of ______________ typically increases in response to bacterial infections


___________ aid in the body's defense processes by secreting histamine (vasodilator) and heparin


The cessation of bleeding is specifically called


______________ belong to the pulmonary circuit

Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins

_____________ is the most superficial layer enclosing the heart.


Pericardial fluid is found between

the parietal and visceral membranes

The ________________ performs the work of the heart


The tricuspid valve regulates the opening between

the right atrium and right ventricle.

Oxygen-poor blood passes through

the right AV (tricuspid) valve only.

Opening and closing of the heart valves is caused by

pressure gradients

Cardiac muscle shares this feature with skeletal muscle.

cardiac muscle fibers have striations

The ________________ is the pacemaker that initiates each heart beat.

sinoatrial (SA) node

This is the correct path of an electrical excitation from the pacemaker to a cardiocyte in the left ventricle (LV).

sinoatrial (SA) node --atrioventricular (AV) node --atrioventricular (AV) bundle --Purkinje fibers-- cardiocyte in

Atrial systole begins

immediately after the P wave

Atrial depolarization causes

the P wave

This is the correct sequence of events of the cardiac cycle

ventricular filling-- isovolumetric contraction --ventricular ejection --isovolumetric relaxation

Most of the ventricle filling occurs

during artial diastole

The volume of blood ejected by each ventricle in one minute is called

the cardiac output

Cardioinhibitory centers in the _____________ receive input from __________.

medulla oblongata; chemoreceptors in the aortic arch

Most blood is in the


These are all possible circulatory routes from the heart except

heart-- arteries --capillary bed-- vein --capillary bed-- arteries-- heart

All of these increase blood pressure except

atrial natriuretic peptide

________________ by the capillaries at their venous end.

waste products are taken up

The lungs receive a systemic blood supply by way of the

bronchial arteries

Lymph is similar to blood plasma, but very low in


Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ______________ that are not absorbed by the blood


The ______________ tonsils are the largest, and their surgical removal (tonsillectomy) used to be one of the most
common surgical procedures performed in children


_____________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the _______________.

collecting ducts; subclavian veins

Immune surveillance is a process in which ____________ nonspecifically detect and destroy foreign cells and
diseased host cells.

natural killer (NK) cells

This organ shows a remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age.


All these belong to the second line of defense except

the gastric juices

Complement fixation can lead to any of the following effects except

endogenous pyrexia

This is the first of a series of neutrophil behaviors in inflammation


_______________ is not a cardinal sign characteristic of inflammation

impaired use

Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called
_____ and a vasodilator called ____________.

heparin; histamine

All these cellular agents participate in inflammation except

cytotoxic T cells

These are a group of proteolytic enzymes secreted by natural killer (NK) cells


Complement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phagocytosis by ___________ in a process called

neutrophils and macrophages; opsonization

_________________ are antimicrobial proteins


One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that

immunity is directed against a particular pathogen

vaccination stimulates

artificial active immunity

Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity is effective against

cancer cells

A(n) ______________ is the region of the molecule that is recognized by antibodies.


The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulates

artificial passive immunity.

All of the following can act as antigen-presenting cells except

T cells

Helper T (TH) cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a(n)

major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein

Antigen-presenting cells usually display processed antigens to T cells in

lymph nodes

Helper T (TH) cells do not

secrete fever-producing chemicals.

_____________________ participate in both nonspecific resistance and immune response

Helper T (TH) cells

Cytotoxic T (TC) cells are like natural killer (NK) cells because they both

secrete granzymes and perforin

Memory T cells can live up to


Antibodies do not

link antigen molecules together

_________________ constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma


This is the class of immunoglobulin that provides passive immunity to the newborn


Before B cells secrete antibodies they differentiate into

plasma cells

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets mainly

helper T cells

The upper respiratory tract extends

from the nose through the pharynx

Each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by

the pulmonary artery

Which of the following does not have cilia?

respiratory bronchioles

Which of the following cartilages is largest?

the thyroid cartilage

Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except


Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to _____ oxygen molecules.


Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by ___ of the respiratory tract.

goblet cells

The blood transports more CO2 in the form of ___ than in any other form.

bicarbonate ions

The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called


These are all accessory organs of the digestive systemexcept


The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by

the mesentery

Chemical digestion breaks down ____________ into _____________.

amino acids; proteins

These are normally found in saliva except


The ______________ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the ______________ gland is an intrinsic
salivary gland.

sublingual; parotid

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is secreted by ____________ cells.


____________, which is secreted by ___________ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption

intrinsic factor; parietal

Pepsinogen is produced by ____________ and is activated by ___________.

chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by parietal cells

______________ is a hormone, whereas ________________ is an enzyme.

secretin; pepsin

The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is

the pancreas

Of the following components of bile, only _____________ has/have a digestive function

bile salts

The _______________ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing ____________________.

liver; cholesterol

Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone

cholecystokinin (CCK)

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