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381 terms

Praxis ii Math

STUDY
PLAY
Units of Length
Inches, Feet, Yards, Miles 1 Foot = 12 in. 1 yard = 36 in. or 3 feet, 1 mile = 5,280 feet or 1,760 yd. (Metric system - Meters)
Units of Weight
Ounces, Pounds, Ton 1 (lb.) = 16 (oz.) 1 ton (T.) = 2,000 (lbs.)
Volume
Is measured in cubes and is the amount of cubes that is required to fill the object completely.
Volume of Rectangle
lwh (length width height)
Volume of Cube
a(3)
Volume of Prism
bh (Base Height)
Volume of Pyramid
1/3b*h
Volume of Cylinder
π r^2h (3.14 or 22/7 radius squared * height)
Volume of Cone
1/3πr^2h (3.14 radius squared * height all over 3 or divided by 3)
Volume of spere
4/3π r^3 (4/3 3.14*radius cubed)
Area Rectangle
lw (length*width)
Area Triangle
1/2 bh (base*height divided by 2)
Area Square
s^2 (side squared)
Area Circle
(π )r^2
Angle
consists of two rays. The two rays are the sides of the angle. Angles are measured in degrees
Acute Angle
Any angle that is less than 90 degrees but greater than zero degrees
Obtuse Angle
Any angle that is greater than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees
Right Angle
Any angle measuring exactly 90 degrees. Two lines that meet at a right angle are said to be perpendicular.
Complimentary Angle
When two angles are measured, the sum of their degrees is equal to 90 degrees. (ex. 30 degree angle and 60 degree angle = 90 degrees)
Supplementary Angle
When two angles are measured, the sum of their degrees is equal to 180 degrees (straight line). (ex. two perpendicular right angles 90 degrees and 90 degrees)
Units of Time
Seconds, Minutes, House, Days, Weeks, Months, Years. 1 min = 60 seconds. 1 hr = 60 minutes 1 day = 24 hours 1 wk. = 7 days 1 year = 52 weeks or 12 months or 365 days
Rates & Distance
Rate explains a relationship btw pair of #'s. To find the rate = distance/time.
time = distance/rate
distance = rate*time
Metric Unit Prefixes
King Henry Doesn't Usually Drink Chocolate Milke
Kilo-(0.001 largest), Hecto-(0.01), Deka-(0.1) Unit (Base or 1), Deci-(10), Centi (100), and Milli-(1000)
Converting metric units
Convert 68.94 cm to kilometers (there are 5 units between cm to km) move decimal point 5 spaces to the left = 0.0006894km
Metric units
Grams (weight), Meters (length or distance), Liters (volume/capacity)
Informal Geometry
provides students with the concepts and skills necessary for: finding the perimeter, area, surface area and volume of common geometric figures; graphing equations on the coordinate system and deriving the equation for the third line from a pair of points: using the Pythagorean Theorem to solve problems involving right triangles; determining if triangles are similar and finding an unknown side in similar triangles; and determining unknown angles in figures by calculating the sum of the interior angles.
Coordinate Geometry
Determine the distance between them
Find the midpoint, slope and equation of a line segment. Determine if lines are parallel or perpendicular. Find the area and perimeter of a polygon defined by the points.Transform a shape by moving, rotating and reflecting it.Define the equations of curves, circles and ellipses.
Horizontal Axis
x-axis
Vertical Axis
y-axis
Origin of coordinate graph
where the x & y axis intersect on the perpendicular lines
Coordinate grid
uses numbers to locate points. Each point is identified by an ordered pair of numbers: x and y coordinates. The x coordinate is ALWAYS written first and then the y coordinate (x,y).
Parts of two-dimensional figures
Edges - sides or arcs of figure that are one-dimensional. Vertices - end points or corners of figure which are zero dimensional. Angles - when two sides meet at a vertex measured in degrees.
Two-dimensional Figures
Also called plane figures, is a set of lined segments (sides) and/or curved segments (arcs) lying within a single plane.
What shaped are two-dimensional figures?
Triangle (equilateral, isosceles, right, scalene), Rhombus, Square, Rectangle, Trapezoid, Kite, Chevron, Ellipse, Circle, Parallelogram, polygons
Three-dimensional figures are?
Sphere, ovoid, cylinder, cone, pyramid, prism, ellipsoid, polyhedrons
Polygon
2 dimensional figure where all edges are segments, every vertex is the end point of two or more edges, no two sides cross each other. They are named and classified according to the number of sides they possess (= vertices). Can be both regular (all sides and angles equal) or irregular (unequal sides and angles)
Common Polygons
Triangle (3 sides), Quadrilateral (4), Pentagon (5), Hexagon (6), Heptagon (7), Octagon (8), Nonagon (9), Decagon (10)
Polyhedrons
3 dimensional figures in which all faces are plane regions, every edge is the edge of two faces, every vertex is the vertex of three or more faces, no two faces cross each other. Classified by faces.
Common Polyhedrons
Tetrahedron (4 faces), Cube (6), Octahedron (8), Dodecahedron (12), Icosahedron (18)
Pythagorean Theorem
Used to explain the lengths of the sides of a RIGHT Triangle. Two legs (a and b) squared yield the length of the hypotenuse (c) given any two values of the the three, the third can be found. a^2+b^2=c^2
Equalities
Equations that are the same on both sides without having to solve either side. 6 properties of equalities.
Properties of equalities
1.) Reflexive property - Any number is equal to itself (x=x) 2.) Symmetric property - If one number is equal to another number, then vice versa (If x=y, then y=x) 3.) Transitive property - If one number is equal to another number that number is equal to a third number, then the first and third numbers are equal (If x=y and y=z then x=z) 4.) Substitution property - If two numbers are equal, then they are interchangable in any situation (x=y so x may be replaced by y or x=y+z so x may be replaced with y+z) 5.) Addition & Subtraction property - If two numbers are equal, then they will remain equal if the same value is added to or subtracted from them (If x=y, then x+z=y+z or x-z=y-z) 6.) Multiplication and division property - If two numbers are equal, then they will remain equal if they are multiplied or divided by the same number (If x=y, then xz=yz or x/z=y/z)
Inequalities
Any math problem containing <, ≤, >, ≥ is called an inequality. Solutions to inequalities are any numbers that make the inequalities true.
Addition Principle for Inequalities
When the same quality is added or subtracted to both sides of an inequality, the truth of the inequality does not change. If a>b, then a+c is > b+c
Multiplication principle for inequalities
If a>b and c is positive, then ac>bc.
If a>b, and c is negative, then ac<bc.
Additive Inverse
the opposite number or the number that when added to (n) results in a sum of zero. (Ex. addictive inverse of x is -x; Additive inverse of 0.13 is -0.13) To calculate the additive inverse of a number, multiply the number by -1. (n*-1=-n).
Multiplicative Inverse
is the reciprocal or a number that when multiplied by n results in the product of 1. (Ex. Multi. inverse of x is 1/x or x^-1. Multi inverse of 6 is 1/6 or 6^-1 (because 61/6=1). Multi inverse of 0.25 is 4 (because .254=1)).
Energy
is necessary to do work. There are two types: 1.) Potential Energy - which could do work if released. (Ex. A ball resting at the top of a steep hill) 2.) Kinetic Energy - Is doing work or is occurring. (Ex. Ball rolling down the hill)
Work
when an object is moved through a distance in response to some force; energy is transferred from one object to another. W=fr (Work= force x distance)
Power
The rate of doing work
Force & motion
Forces that cause change in motion of objects (newton's first law) are gravity, friction, air resistance, pushing, pulling, and throwing.
Gravity
Acceleration of objects toward the center of the earth (force that causes change to motion of objects)
Inertia
is the resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or rest, or the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion. (force that causes change to motion of objects)
Friction
The force between any two objects that come into contact with one another. Friction cannot be eliminated. (Ex. parachute in air) (force that causes change to motion of objects)
Categories of Energy
Heat, Sound, Light, Magnetism, Mechanical, Electric, Chemical, Nuclear. All of these forms can be changed into another form without the loss of ANY energy.
Heat
Can be produced in many ways, all of which cause an increase in the motion of particules of a substance
Types of Heat Movement
Conduction, convection, and radiation
Conduction
Heat moves from warmer areas to cooler areas along materials that conduct heat (ex. wire and rod)
Convection
Heat is transfered through collisions of molecules and occurs ONLY in liquids and gases as they circulate.
Radiation
Heat is transmitted in the form of infrared radiation and occurs ONLY in gases and empty space.
Sound
is controlled by vibrations. The speed of sound depend on the space between the molecules. It travels quickest through solids and slowest through gases.
Rules of Sounds
The more rapid the vibration, the higher the pitch. Sound travels through solids, liquids, and gases. Objects produce sound by causing a series of compressions and rare fractions (wave) of molecules.
Wave
Longitudinal movement in which the compressions and rare fractions travel spherically outward from the source.
Wavelength
The distance between two successive compressions or two successive rare fractions.
Pitch
How high or low the sound which is caused by the rate of the vibration
Amplitude
Loudness or volume of sound caused by force use to create the sound (the greater the force, the louder the sound)
Quality
A distinctive timbre caused the source of the sound
Light
Travels through anything that is transparent or translucent
Rules of light
Travels in rays (straight lines). The more dense the object or medium, the slower the light travels. Travels in transverse ways. Is an electromagnetic wave that is created by causing the electron to move rapidly and emit energy.
Transverse Wave
Has a series of crests and troughs (ex. dropping pebble in water)
Wavelength
The distance between the crest or the distance between the troughs.
Reflection
Caused by light rays bouncing off of a surface
Refraction
Caused by the bending of light rays as they passed from one medium to another.
Magnetism
Involves magnets, which have two poles (north, south). The rules are similar poles (N-N, S-S) repel and opposite poles (N-S, S-N) attract
Electricity
Is a kind of energy that can produce heat, light, motion, and magnetic force. Electricity flows through a conductor as current. Like charges repel (++. --) opposite charges attract (+-, -+)
Electric Current
contains an electrical energy and a conductor
Conductor
is a material that allows electric current to flow through it (ex. copper, gold, aluminum, silver)
Insulators
Material that does not allow electric current to flow through it (ex. wood, rubber, plastic)
Voltage
the amount of force of the current
Amperage
amount of electricity that flows through a conductor.
Resistance
causes electron flow to do the work and decreases flow of amperage in a circuit.
Circuit
the path that an electric current flows.
Types of circuits
Series - The resistances are connected to one another, one following another. If one resistance is disconnected, the circuit fails to work. Parallel - Ea. resistance is connected to the main circuit with its own connections. If one is disconnected the others still work.
Guided Discovery
(suggested use in Math and Science and social studies) The student recieves problems to solve, but the teacher provides hints and directions about how to solve the problemto keep the student on track. Guided discovery both encourages learners to search actively for how to apply rules and makes sure that the learner comes into contact with the rule to be learned.
Authentic Assessments
Alternatives to traditional exams. Performance tasks, observation, journal writing, and portfolios (daily use and non-threatening to children)
Performance Tasks
Require that students complete a problem or project, which includes an explanation for the answer and addresses a particular skill. (assessment - authentic)
Observation
A simple method of assessment to identify the performance of students completing various activities and tasks, using anecdotal records, and checklists for recording documentaries.
Journal Writing
Written reflections allow teachers to informally gauge student learning through their thinking processes, formation of ideas, and development of skills in creative and factual writing.
Portfolios
A collection of completed student work selected by student and teacher to demonstrate strengths, progress, and skills.
Traditional Assessment
Paper and pencil tasks such exams
Achievement test
Formal tool used to measure student proficiency of a subject area already learned. Under No Child Left Behind, achievement tests have taken on an additional role of assessing proficiency of students. Proficiency is defined as the amount of grade-appropriate knowledge and skills a student has acquired up to the point of testing. Better teaching practices are expected to increase the amount learned in a school year, and therefore to increase achievement scores, and yield more "proficient" students than before.
Anecdotal record
Informal measurement based on observation of student work or performance
Aptitude test
Formal measurement of standardized or norm-referenced tests to evaluate student ability to acquire skills or gain knowledge. An aptitude test is a test which is designed to predict the test-taker's future success. Rather than testing knowledge, aptitude tests are designed to test innate skills and the capacity for learning and acquiring new skills.
Criterion-referenced test
Formal measure that evaluates a student on certain subject area information by answering specific questions while not comparing one student to another. The objective is simply to see whether the student has learned the material. (Ex. High School Graduation Exam, Licensure for profession exams)
Norm-referenced test
Formal standardized evaluation used to compare a student to other peers in the same age group and aids in developing curriculum options. (Ex. SAT, GRE)
Rubric
A set standard rating scale used to determine performance abilities on a single task (1=weak connection 2=some known information 3= etc)
Retellings
Assessment (comprehension reading)
Retelling is a comprehension strategy that allows students to process important story elements. Focus lessons in this unit of study familiarize students with sequencing story events and identifying important story Components. Students retelling story orally or in writing, oral especially useful with emergent readers. They retell story in their own words. Afterwards the teacher prompts them by asking ?'s.
Spelling tests
Assessment (phonics) not used as commonly for assessment. I read that some schools don't even give spelling test anymore. Instead, most use spelling inventories tests, administered in the same way but students do not study their spelling words ahead of time and they are not graded. Used as an assessment of students' spelling development.
Non-sense word fluency
Assessment (phonics) The DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) measure is a standardized, individually administered test of the alphabetic principle - including letter-sound correspondence in which letters represent their most common sounds and of the ability to blend letters into words in which letters represent their most common sounds (Kaminski & Good, 1996). The student is presented an 8.5" x 11" sheet of paper with randomly ordered VC and CVC nonsense words (e.g., sig, rav, ov) and asked to produce verbally the individual letter sound of each letter or verbally produce, or read, the whole nonsense word. For example, if the stimulus word is "vaj" the student could say /v/ /a/ /j/ or say the word /vaj/ to obtain a total of three letter-sounds correct. The student is allowed 1 minute to produce as many letter-sounds as he/she can, and the final score is the number of letter-sounds produced correctly in one minute. Because the measure is fluency based, students should receive a higher score if they are phonologically recoding the word, as they will be more efficiently producing the letter sounds, and receive a lower score if they are providing letter sounds in isolation. The intent of this measure is that students are able to read unfamiliar words as whole words, not just name letter sounds as fast as they can.
Running Records
Assessment (Phonics, Fluency) A running record allows you to assess a student's reading performance as she/he reads from a benchmark book. Benchmark books are books selected for running record assessment purposes. A running record form, with text from the book printed on the form, accompanies each of the benchmark books. Only the first 100 -150 words of the longer benchmark books are used for the upper level running records. A blank running record form is supplied for teachers who wish to perform running records on books other than the benchmark books or for additional text from the upper level benchmark books.
Informal Reading Inventories
Assessment (phonics, comprehension)
Oral reading fluency
Assessment (fluency) An Oral Fluency Assessment, or OFA, measures the number of words correct per minute (WCPM) that students read. You can compare your students' WCPM score with an overall average of students' WCPM scores at their grade level to see if their fluency levels are above, below, or on grade level. This assessment involves taking one-minute samples of students' oral reading of three brief grade-level passages (200-word minimum). These passages should include fiction and nonfiction. An OFA should be administered one-on-one, three times a year with grade-level passages. The passages need to be chosen for reliability. You'll find an appropriate passage for your grade level in "Your Turn." Print out a copy of each passage for your student and for yourself.
1.Tell your student to read the passage aloud. Begin timing when they begin reading.
2.As your student reads, mark words that are read incorrectly on your copy of the passage. For a word to be read correctly, it should be read correctly in context. Self-corrections within three seconds are counted as correct. If the student has not attempted the word within three seconds, say the word for him or her and count the word as incorrect. Mispronunciations, substitutions, and omissions are counted as incorrect.
3.At the end of one minute, make a vertical line after the last word read.
4.Repeat with the other two passages.
5.For each passage, count the number of words read correctly (WCPM).
6.Take the median, or middle, of the three scores. For example, if your student's scores are 98, 101, and 104, the median score is 101. This will determine whether your student is reading above, below, or on grade level.
Miscue Analysis
Assessment (fluency) Miscue analysis focuses specifically on "cueing systems" used by the reader. The three cueing systsms used in miscue analysis are the same as those used to describe work done by readers in running records. The cueing systems are labeled slightly differently, as the graphophonic system (visual cues in running records), the syntactic system (syntax or structure cues in running records), and the semantic system (meaning cues in running records).

Miscue analysis vs. running records

Running records are a useful tool for determining text level, observing cueing systems in use, and identifying individual teaching points for students. Running records determine text level by the number of errors made during reading. Miscue analysis is less concerned with the number of miscues than with the type of miscues. Good readers don't necessarily transact with text in a word-by word manner. Many good readers skip words, substitute words, mis-call words and still gain a high level of meaning from a text. Miscue analysis honors the reasons behind miscues and the information documented is used to further the reading success of the given student.3

With whom to use miscue analysis

Students eligible for this procedure are independent readers. Most studies conducted using miscue analysis use readers in third grade or higher, but there is no formula to tell exactly when a student is ready to engage in this assessment or intervention. Sandra Wilde suggests that a student is ready to participate when he or she can read unfamiliar material without teacher support.4 Certainly miscues may happen at an earlier stage, but without the foundational knowledge of reading, miscue analysis does not provide window into the choices a student is making while reading.
Informal Writing & Speaking Samples
Assessment (vocab.)
Word Sorts
Assessment (vocab.)
Cloze Activities
Assessment (vocab.) Cloze procedure is a technique in which words are deleted from a passage according to a word-count formula or various other criteria. The passage is presented to students, who insert words as they read to complete and construct meaning from the text. (Ex. Supply choices for the blanks.
Just as ____________have fur, birds have ____________.

(coats, animals) (feathers, wings))
Student Presentations
Assessment for speaking, listening, and viewing
Laboratory Approach
teaching method
Activating Learning
teaching method in social studies
Retelling steps
1.) prepare with a story retelling guide 2.) read the story 3.) retell the story (using puppets, objects related, story boards, or one copy of the book) 4.) help students retell the story with prompts. 5.) mark the retelling guide which should be arranged beginning, middle, and end of story.
Giving Running Record
Running records are taken most often at the earlier stages of reading. Students who are not progressing at the expected rate should be assessed even more frequently than the schedule suggested below.
•Early Emergent readers (Levels aa - C): every 2 to 4 weeks
•Emergent readers (Levels D - J): every 4 to 6 weeks
•Early fluent readers (Levels K - P): every 6 to 8 weeks
•Fluent readers (Levels Q - Z): every 8 to 10 weeks

Running Record Form.
1.Select a book that approximates the student's reading level. Explain that she/he will read out loud as you observe and record her/his reading skills.
2.With the running record form in hand, sit next to the student so that you can see the text and the student's finger and eye movements as she/he reads the text.
3.As the student reads, mark each work on the running record form by using the appropriate Running Record Symbols and Marking Conventions shown below. Place a checkmark above each work that is read correctly.
4.If the student reads incorrectly, record above the word what the student reads.
5.If the student is reading too fast for you to record the running record, ask her/him to pause until you catch up.
6.Be sure to pay attention to the reader's behavior. Is the student using meaning (M), structural (S), and visual (V) cues to read words and gather meaning?
7.Intervene as little as possible while the student is reading.
8.If the student is stuck and unable to continue, wait 5 to 10 seconds, then tell her/him the word. If the student seems confused, provide an explanation to clear up the confusion and say, "Try again."
Running Records Scoring
•Errors (E)--Errors are tallied during the reading whenever a child does any of the following:


--Substitutes another word for a word in the text
--Omits a word
--Inserts a word
--Has to be told a word
•Self-correction (SC)--Self-correction occurs when a child realizes her or his error and corrects it. When a child makes a self-correction, the previous substitution is not scored as an error.


•Meaning (M)--Meaning is part of the cueing system in which the child takes her or his cue to make sense of text by thinking about the story background, information from pictures, or the meaning of a sentence. These cues assist in the reading of a word or phrase.


•Structure (S)--Structure refers to the structure of language and is often referred to as syntax. Implicit knowledge of structure helps the reader know if what she or he reads sounds correct.


•Visual (V)--Visual information is related to the look of the letters in a word and the word itself. A reader uses visual information when she or he studies the beginning sound, word length, familiar word chunks, and so forth.
Running Record Scoring Formula
Error Rate
Error rate is expressed as a ratio and is calculated by using the following formula:

Total words / Total errors = Error rate

Example:
99 / 8 = 12.38, or 12 rounded to nearest whole number
The ratio is expressed as 1:12.
This means that for each error made, the student read approximately 12 words correctly.

Accuracy Rate
Accuracy rate is expressed as a percentage. You can calculate the accuracy rate using the following formula:
(Total words read - Total errors) / Total words read x 100 = Accuracy rate

Example:
(99 - 8) / 99 x 100 = Accuracy rate
91/99 x 100 = Accuracy rate
.919 x 100 = 91.9%, or 92% rounded to the nearest whole number

You can use accuracy rate to determine whether the text read is easy enough for independent reading, appropriate to use without frustration during reading instruction purposes instruction, or too difficult for the reader. The breakdown of these three categories is as follows:

Easy enough for independent reading = 95 - 100%
Instructional level for use in leveled reading session = 90 - 94%
Too difficult and will frustrate the reader = 89% and below


Self-Correction Rate
Self-correction rate is expressed as a ratio and is calculated by using the following formula:

(Number of errors + Number of self corrections) / Number of self corrections = Self-correction rate

Example:
(8 + 3) / 3 = Self-correction rate
11 / 3 = 3.666, or 4 rounded to the nearest whole number

The self-correction rate is expressed as 1:4. This means that the student corrects approximately 1 out of every 4 errors.
What do miscues tell us?
Correction:
This is good! We want readers to self-correct. However is the reader reading too fast? Is the reader mis-correcting accurate reading? If so, the reader often doesn't see himself as a 'good' reader.

Insertion
Does the inserted word detract from meaning? If not, it may just mean the reader is making sense but also inserts. The reader may also be reading too fast. If the insertion is something like using finished for finish, this should be addressed.

Omission:
When words are omitted, it may mean weaker visual tracking. Determine if the meaning of the passage is affected or not. If not, omissions can also be the result of not focusing or reading too fast. It may also mean the sight vocabulary is weaker.

Repetition
Lots of repetition may mean that the text level is too difficult. Sometimes readers repeat when they're uncertain and will repeat the word(s) to make sense of the passage.

Reversal:
Watch for altered meaning. Many reversals happen with young readers with high frequency words - of for for etc.

Substitutions:
Sometimes a child will use a substitution because they don't understand the word being read. Does the substitution make sense in the passage, is it a logical substitution?
Formative Assessment
the collection of data through on-going daily lessons or units of study in which provide educators with valuable info.
Summative Assessment
The collection of date at a specific completion point in order to identify needs and make decisions to support student learning. Used most ofter at the end of a unit of study to analyze a particular concept or skill.
Planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (under debate) - Each planet revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit at varying speeds. Each planet also has its own moon(s) that revolve around the planets' caught in the planets gravitational pull.
Meteroid
A stony or metallic particle that revolves around the sun.
Meteor
is created when meterites are burning throught the Earth's atmosphere.
Comet
revolves around the sun and possesses a tail and a nucleus. The tail always points away from the sun due to the solar wind.
Constellations
A type of boundary system astronomers use for organizing the night sky. There are 88 constellational regions. Each region is named for a group of stars found within it.
Earth within the Universe
20 Billion years ago the universe originated from a catastrophic explosion, which spread outward in all directions. Galaxies were formed into galactic clusters. The milky way galaxy is where Earth is located. Earth is almost 5 billion years old. Earth has one moon.
Moon Phases
Lunar monnth is 28 days in which the moon revolves around the Earth. It reflects light from the sun's light. It rotates upon an axis like Earth at exactly the same period and speed. Therefore the same side of the moon is seen at all times. The moon phases are caused by the position of the moon relative to the sun. 5 phases: New moon, crescent moon, quarter moon, gibbous moon, full moon.
Lunar Eclipse
The moon is blocked by Earth's shadow.
Solar Eclipse
The moon casts a shadow upon the Earth.
Life Cycle
Every living organism moves through these stages:
1.) Come into being (sometimes a larvae state)
2.) Grow
3.) Metamorphosis - a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation
4.) Mature
5.) Reproduce
6.) Die
Some lower species exhibit additional juvenile and larvae stages. (Ex. Frog, Butterfly)
Kingdom
Living things are categorized according to kingdoms. There are five:
1.) Montera - Single-celled organism without nuclei (bacteria)
2.) Protista - Single-celled organism with nuclei (algae, protozoans)
3.) Fungi - Single-celled AND multi-celled organisms (mushrooms, mold, yeast, lichen)
4.) Plantae - Multi-cellular plant organisms (moss, fern, pine, flowering)
5.) Animalia - Multi-cellular animals
Linnean Classification System
Kids Playing Chicken On Freeways Get Smashed
Kingdom breaks down into
Phylum - contains organisms that are genetically related through common ancestry. Broken down into
Class - Group shares a common attribute, characteristic, or trait. Breaks down into
Order - broken down into
Family - multiple traits in common. Broken down into
Genus - broken down into
Species - organisms can intervreed and produce offspring that can propagate the species
Structure & Function of Living Systems
Made of protoplasm (living contents of a cell), organized into cells, use energy, capable of growth, have definite life spans, reproduce, afffected by environment, and adapt and respond to environment
Water Cycle
1.) Condensation - Opposite of evaporation. Occurs when gas is changed into a liquid
2.) Precipitation -
When the temperature and atmospheric pressure are right, the small droplets of water in clouds form larger droplets and precipitation occurs. The raindrops fall to Earth.
3.) Runoff - Much of the water that returns to Earth as precipitation runs off the surface of the land, and flows down hill into streams, rivers, ponds and lakes.
4.) Infiltration - Infiltration is an important process where rain water soaks into the ground, through the soil and underlying rock layers.
5.) Evaporation - Changes from liquid to gas
6.) Transpiration - As plants absorb water from the soil, the water moves from the roots through the stems to the leaves. Once the water reaches the leaves, some of it evaporates from the leaves, adding to the amount of water vapor in the air. This process of evaporation through plant leaves is called transpiration.
Layers of the Earth
Crust - 5-30 miles think, not fixed, a mosaic of moving plates, OUTER SHELL
Mantle - 1,800 miles thick, plasticity (ability of solid to flow), circulating currents, causing the plates to move
Outer core - 1,300 miles thick, viscous liquid, the Earth's magnetic field originates here
Inner core - 800 milse to the center of the earth, solid
Plate Tectonics
Earth's crust is divided into about 20 plates. Each plate varies in size and thickness. Plates continually drift and shift. They are found under continents and beneath the ocean.
Plate Boundaries
Convergent (collison) - results in mountains, volcanoes, ridges, recycling of crust
Transform (rubbing) - results in earthquakes
Divergent (seperating) - results in new crust, rivers, oceans, lakes
Heat Sources
Influencese Earth more than any other process in the universe. Two sources: Solar Energy and Radioactivity
Solar Energy
The sun - Earth is on an axis, and the sun hits the surface at varying angles causing the major climates of the planet. Influences the typre of life in various regions.
Radioactivity
Earth's core. Is responsible for plate tectonics, most volcanoes, and earthquakes, which are located near plate boundaries. Radioactivity makes mountains, valleys, ocean basins, lake beds, islands, trenches, and most other forms.
Erosion
The process of moving the weathered materials (rivers, winds)
Rock cycle
All rocks come from the mantle (except limestone). Rock cycle never stops. Three stages - Forms from magma to igneaous rock - forms when magma cools. Sedimentary - Forms when layers of sediments are compressed (sandstone, coal, shale) and Metamorphic - Forms through the transformation of ignenous and sedimentary rocks through heat and pressure (marble, slate, quartzite).
Instruction for Comprehension
Grand Conversations, Think-Alouds, Graphic Organizers, Story Structure, Genre, Predict and Confirm, literature circles and book clubs
Grand Conversations
Discussions held by the entire class. Teacher is not the director but the facilitator. Student-directed conversation. Children critique and debate. Focus on literary elements.
Think-Alouds
Allows teacher to model how a good reader THINKS while reading. Teacher reads aloud, stopping periodically to make predictions, clarify meaning, decode words, make personal connections, question the author, and summarize what's been read.
Process Writing
Prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing
Prewriting
Students chose a topic and recognize a purpose and audience. They generate, select, & organize ideas & details to develop their topic. Students maintain a writers notebook where they can express their ideas, write words they find interesting and respond to what they have read or heard. The teacher supports this process through the introduction and modeling of strategies using a variety of graphic organizers and such like listing, note taking, outlining, and webbing.
Drafting
Students use their planning tools to begin to compose sentences quickly & freely. Students take responsibility to write their ideas down and write as much as possible knowing that they will rework the initial draft again and again as they are apprenticed to writing in a specific genre & for a specific purpose.
Revising
Students seek responses to what they have written from the teacher during individual conferences. They receive feedback from peers in response groups & when presenting their work from the author & chair. Feedback from these sources supports student's revising of their own work & self-management of the development of the select pieces of writing as well as writers. Individual conferences enable instruction & assessment to be tailored to individual student needs. This part of the process focuses on improving elements of the 1st draft, including its clarity, organization, coherence, & fluency. Students are expected to raise questions and set goals for improving their writing. Students make an active use of prior knowledge & learning, additional transitional words, concrete language, sensory details, delete extraneous & repetitive details and make new word choices. Response Groups - give students the opportunity to meet with a small group or a partner to revise a draft. Students engage in accountable talk using the language of standards and criteria in writing rubrics as a basis for providing responses. Is an ongoing process, therefore there might be a 1st draft, 2nd draft etc. until both writer and partner are satisfied.
Editing
Focuses on mechanics (ie grammer, spelling, & punctuation). The writer works with peers & confers with the teacher during a writing conference at this stage.
Publishing
Students produce an appropriately formated document to audience, consider audience regarding the appearance of work.
Author's Chair
A moral formal event in which students schedule their turn at "taking the chair" to gain feedback for further revision of their work in progress.
Instruction of writing
Shared writing, interactive writing, and guided writing
Shared writing
Students contribute ideas while teacher scribes. As they write, teachers demonstrate how expert writers write while children observe. Written text is created for the class that students could not write independently.
Interactive writing
When teacher and student share the pen to write and create text. She guides and focuses their attention on concepts of print and sounds of words, students take turns writing the text word by word on chart paper or board. Completed charts are posted to support students shared and independent writing.
Guided Writing
Provides an opportunity for teachers to work with groups of students or an individual student on effective writing strategies that are determined to be important through observation of student behavior or work.
Traits of writing
Ideas, voice, conventions, organization, word choice, sentence fluency, audience, tone, and purpose
Ideas
The message the writer hopes to convey. What writer has to say
Voice
The writer's emotions, opinions, and personality
Conventions
The editing and revisions components of the writing process.
Organization
How a writer clarifies & or organizes his thoughts. Structure of paper. Events proceed logically and connections are strong.
Word Choice
Creates mental image for reader by using words that are specific and accurate. Also clarifies and expands ideas.
Sentence Fluency
The rhythm & flow of the language in the writing.
Audience
The person or people who will be reading. Consider language appropriate level, what they already know about topic, what they want to know
Tone
How something is said in a piece of writing, after determining audience. Can be very formal or informal.
Purpose
Reason for writing (to describe, to analyze, to persuade, to entertain)
Instruction for reading fluency
Read-Alouds, Repeated readings, Choral reading, Echo Reading, Sight Words, Reader's Theater
Fluency (reading)
The ability to read connected text rapidly, smoothly, effortlessly, & automatically with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading
Read-Alouds
Teacher reads orally to students each day. Students learn, listen, engage in material and comprehend content. Teacher models good reading, develops sense of story, increase vocabulary.

Techniques:
1.) Meaning Statement - Main idea of story
2.) Content/Vocabulary Questions - As you read think about questions students may have
3.) Unusual Language Structures - ie once upon a time, on monday. Point these out to students.
Repeated readings
Timed readings use 100 word passage and account for accuracy as they read again (3-5 times). As they read over and over their accuracy will improve. 1 minute times readings.
Choral Reading
Chose passage not too long & the independent reading level of most students. Read passage modeling fluent reading, ask students to follow along with finger over words, pre-read passage & all students read aloud together.
Echo Reading
A formal modeling oral reading. Teacher reads a line of a story and students echo her model by reading the same line imitating her intonation and phrasing.
Sight Words
The most frequently used & repeated words (Dolch 220) Memorize with pictures and flash cards, complete sentence structures.
Reader's Theater
Reading script from literature out loud effectively enabling audience to visualize the action.
Print Awareness
Knowing the basic concepts about written word, such as print organization, reading left to right, and separating words by spaces.
Phonological Awareness Instruction
Understanding that sounds are related to words (poor readers exhibit a lack of this) Elkonin (phoneme) boxes, Segmentation, Blending, Manipulating sounds, deleting, subtracting, adding, categorizing, isolation, rhymes
Elkonin boxes
Listen for individual sounds & mark where they heard them. Ex. Sheep /sh/ /ee/ /p/. Each box represents 1 sound.
Segmentation
Breaking a word into separate sounds & counting them (ex. Pig /p/ /i/ /g/ 3 sounds)
Blending
Provide a sequence of spoken phonemes & then form a word (Ex. /s/ /i/ /t/ is siiittt sit)
Manipulating Sounds
Deleting, substituting, adding, categorizing, isolating
Deleting
Identifying the word that remains when a phoneme is removed. (ex. Remove /c/ from "crock" leaves "rock")
Substituting
Change 1 phoneme for another to make a new word (ex. "Bed" change /d/ to /t/ new word "bet")
Adding
Making new words by adding a phoneme to word (ex. Add /t/ to "rain" becomes "train")
Categorizing
Identify words that don't belong. (Ex. Ton, Tea, Sit, Tug - The word "sit" does not belong as it does not begin with a /t/)
Isolation
Recognizing separate sounds in words (ex. The 1st and last sound in the word "top" are /t/ & /p/)
Rhymes
Finish phrases with rhymes (ex. The fat rat sat on a ___.) Help children learn rhymes to recite, sing, jump rope, nursery rhymes. Read books with rhymes often, let children fill in missing words. Also play games where they need to recognize what doesn't rhyme (ex. Car - tar, bed-red, tan-fan, ice-truck Ice-truck does not rhyme) - helps to develop decoding skills
Phonics Instruction
Promotes understanding of Alphabetic principle, the concept that written language is comprised of letters (graphemes) that represent sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.
Explicit, systemic Instruction, decoding, word families, word wall, word building, automaticity
Explicit, Systemic Instruction
(phonics) Includes sets of letter sound relationships that are organized into sequences and the directions are precise and clear.
Decoding
Ability to sound out new words or interpret through the skill of sound-symbol correspondance. The process using known words to figure out unfamiliar words. Uses blending of sounds to decode (Ex. using "an" family "an" = "can" = "scan")
Word Families
Groups of words that have a common feature or pattern, same combinations of letters and similar sounds (Ex. at, cat, fat, rat, mat) Also known as phonograms, rines, chunks.
Word Wall
organized collection of words displayed in classroom an interactive tool. Will include things like: high frequency words, word families, alphabet.
Word building
Helps students decode. Provide spelling of word, ask them to decode it, tell you what word those letters make when put together in particular order (uses affixes, root words, prefixes, suffices)
Automaticity
Readers must be able to decode automaticially. Repetition and practice games using high frequency words, word lists, orthographic patterns, word walls to help develop this.
Vocabulary Instruction
Sight words, graphic organizers, linear arrays, categorizing (ranking words), levels of word knowledge, word wall
Sight words (again)
high frequency words (ex. the, to, from, in, said, he, it, she, you)
Graphic Organizers
Help readers focus on text structure, show relationships within texts, organize ideas for summarizing, illustrate concepts (Ex. venn diagram, storyboards, story maps, cause & effect, chain of events)
Linear Arrays
Strategy to extend vocabulary by asking students to extend their understanding of words. Using opposites on each end, students add words that are in between (ex. pretty on one end with three spaces and ugly on other end)
Categorizing (ranking words)
Beck's Tiers: Tier One - Basic words that rarely require instructional focus (door, house) Tier Two - Words that appear with high frequency, across a variety of topics and are critical when using mature, academic language (analysis, reluctant, coincidence) Tier Three - Low frequency & specific to field material of study (buddhism, isotope, reconstruction) Focus on tier two words with some tier three relevant to course material.
Levels of word knowledge
Refers to how well you know the meaning of the word. 3 kinds: Unknown - completely unfamiliar, Acquainted - basic meaning is recognized after some thought, Established - meaning is easy, rapid, automatic.
Predict & Confirm
Students use their prior knowledge to anticipate what might occur in readings. Help students to set their own purpose for reading, question their predictions and read more to find out if predictions were right. After reading, return to original predictions & modify them to coordinate with newly learned information. Go back to the key parts of the text to confirm or refute these predictions to enhance understanding.
Genre
Fantasy - include elements that are impossible such as talking animals or magical powers. Realistic Fiction - uses made up characters but could happen in real life. Mystery - Suspenseful story about a puzzling event that's not solved until the end of the story. Historical Fiction - Takes place in a particular time period in the past. Traditional Literature - Stories that are passed down from one group to another in history (folklores, legends, fables, tall-tales, myths, fairy tales). Science Fiction - Type of fantast that uses sciences and technology. Informational - provide facts about a variety of topics (sports, travel, space etc.) Biography - Story of a real person written by another person. Autobiography - Written by person. Poetry - To create a response of thought & feeling from reader (teaching by making posters of genre and graph genres read)
Types of Writing
Expository, Descriptive, Narrative, Persuasive
Expository
The author intends to inform, explain, describe or define their subject to you. Most common type found in text books and online. Author is mostly trying to tell you all about the subject they give facts and figures. No opinion. (Ex "how to" guides)
Descriptive
Uses a lot of great visual words to help you see the person, place or thing they are writing about. Writing can be poetic at times & explain things in great detail. Metaphors, similes, and symbols are often used.
Narrative
Common in novels, poetry, & biographies. The author puts themselves in their characters shoes & writes as if they were that person. Life stories involving plot and story lines.
Persuasive
Opinion writing. Also referred to as creative writing or an argument. Convince reader of his point of view on topic.
Structure of text
The way that authors organize information in text. Story grammar, compare & contrast, cause & effect, and sequence & order
Story Grammar
Addresses the elements of a story (Title, author, setting, main characters, conflicts & resolution, events, & conclusion). Aims to improve students' comprehension in reading by giving them a framework they can use when reading stories.
Compare & Contrast
Shows how 2 or more ideas or items are similar or different (signal words - same as, similar, as well as, either.. or)
Cause & Effect
Causes come before effect. Cause is why something happened. Effect is what happened. (signal words so, since, if, then)
Sequence/Order
Describes items or events in order or tells the steps to follow to do something or make something (signal words - first, next, after, now, soon, before, not long after)
Schema
(Background knowledge) - The meaning you get from a piece of literature that is intertwined with the meaning you bring it. Children make personal connections with the text. 3 main types of connections
3 Types of Schema Connections
Text to Self - Connections made between the text & the reader's personal expereience.
Text to Text - Connections made between a text bring read to a text previously read
Text to World - Connections made between a text being read & something that occurs in the world.
Questioning
Readers ask themselves questions throughout reading text. Asking questions is valuable in helping readers to integrate information, identify main ideas, and summarize information.
Pre-reading
Questions are asked and predictions are made in order to set the purpose for reading and to activate prior knowledge. Gets students thinking about the way the text may connect.
During reading
While reading, students constantly question, justify, & predict. An excellent strategy is "thinking aloud" Students become critical thinkingers through process.
Post Reading
After the reading students confirm their predictions, questions, and thoughts by discussing, writing, and retelling.
Inferential Understanding
Develop knowledge via the process of interpreting new information in light of past experiences and rethinking past knowledge based on new information. As students develop these reading skills they learn to: Understand intonation of characters and relationships to one another. Provide explanation for ideas that are presented in the text. Offer details and explanation for events. Recognize author's view of world and biases. Offer conclusions from facts present in text. Also with vocab. figuring out antecednet for pronouns. Meaning of unknown words from context clues and grammatical function of unknown words.
Previewing
Prepares students to receive information from the material. For fiction it includes: Cover & Title, reading blurbs on back, considering author's style predicting in a general way what the story is about. Nonfiction: Discussion of topic, review prior knowledge, generation of possible questions that may be answered. For fiction, discussion should center on whether the children think the story is realistic & why, who the characters may be how they interact, what the problem of story is, etc. For non-fiction, what students know about topic, what they'd like to know, structure of book or articles, titles, characters, and what info will be included.
Summarizing
Teaches students how to discern the most important ideas in a text, how to ignore irrelevant info., and how to integrate the central ideas in a meaningful way. Also improves memory of what is read. Ask these questions: What are the main ideas? What are the crucial details necessary for supporting the ideas? What information is irrelevant or doesn't matter?
Literal Understanding
Locating & recognizing information that's presented in a very straightforward fashion. Cover facts, details, and relationships between ideas (comparison, contrast, sequence of events, or cause & effect) that are stated directly in the passage.
Literature Circles
Used in comprehension instruction. Small groups discuss a piece of literature which they have chosen. Each member of the circle is assigned a role which helps guide discussion. Helps with critical thinking, sharing thoughts, asking questions, & responding to reading selection. Reader-response centered, groups formed by book choice, structured for student independence, responsibility, and ownership, guided primarily by student insight and questions. They are NOT assigned groups based soley by ability. Features include - 3-6 students, members of varied reading levels, same book, teacher is facilitator, share or present, students assume roles. These roles are as follows: Discussion director, word finder, correspondent, literary luminary, summarizer, illustration checking, report, etc.
China
Classical civilization - 1029 BCE - One of the most influential civilazations & longest lasting in world history. 3 dynasties: Zhou, Qin, Han
China Accomplisments
Established model of GLOBAL TRADE, Established system of TAX COLLECTION, Developed CONFUCIANISM & DAOISM, Stressed details in ARTS & CRAFTSMANSHIP, Developed accurate CALENDARS, Studied SCIENCE for practical uses, promoted trade as essential, promoted PERSONAL ETHICS of acting with self-control, humanity, and respect, established 3 main social groups: UPPER CLASS, LABORING PEASANTS, UNSKILLED WORKERS, instill PATRIARCHAL society (women subordinate), Began BUREAUCRACY training, promoted MANDATORY LABOR SERVICES, Embrace HARMONY in nature, studied MATH OF MUSIC, excelled in TECHNOLOGIES, encouraged TIGHT-KNIT FAMILY
Greece & Rome
Classical Civilization - 800 BCE - Extremely powerful, created a rise in city states. Romans gained territory & power by acquiring lesser developed cultures becoming an empire
Specific to Greece
Set up large expanding colonial & trading systems or webs. Formed DEMOCRACY, excelled in SCULPTURE, ARCHITECURE, & PLAYS, promoted GEOMETRY & ANATOMY
Major Accomplishments of Greece & Rome
Created unifor LEGAL PRINCIPLES, promoted intense LOYALTY TO THE STATE, taught MODERATION & BALANCE (Aristotle, Cicero), made greatest contribution to science ENGINEERING (ROME), developed systems for AGRICULTURE, promoted UNIFIED FAMILY STRUCTURE, emphasized ARISTOCRATIC RULE but DEMOCRATIC ELEMENTS also present, taught followers to have conventional wisdom using RATIONAL INQUIRY (Socrates), participated in extensive TRADE by using a structure of SLAVERY
Regions
Used to organize & identify overall Earth's surface. Have unique & distinct attributes related to people who live there and land forms that are present. (ex. can be parts of 2 continenants, 2 or more countries, several cities, or territories).
Types of Regions
1.) Formal - human features - language, religion, nationality, culture (Ex. Four corners region, cattle ranches of texas) or physical features - climate, landform, vegatation (ex. mediterranean climate, wine country of CA)
2.) Functional - Central Hub with surrounding areas connected to the center by transportation, communication systems, manufacturing, or trade (ex. metropolitian areas ie sydney, Australia)
3.) Perceptual - Human feelings & attitudes about the area or stereotypes (ex. appalachian region of US, percieved as as an isolated rural area, people are modest and promote tradition and religion)
U.S. Regions
6 Cultural groupings not dependent upon government or political rule. Each region has unique demographics, dialects, language, & attitude based on folklore, literature, and economics.
1.) New England - CT, ME, MA, NH RI, VT
2.) Mid-Atlantic - DE, MD, NJ, NY, PA
3.) The South - AL, AR, FL, GA, KY, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN, VA, WV
4.) The Midwest - IL, IN, IA, KS, MI, MN, MO, NE, ND, OH, SD, WI
5.) The West - AK, CO, CA, HI, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
6.) The South West - AZ, NM, OK, TX
Places
Large sections but are human created areas which are part of the Earth's surface. Each place has a certain bordered area (specific or imagined) & has meaning according to the human who live there. Physical or human characteristics are used to define the places. Physical - water systems, animal life, plant life, landforms, climates. Human - values, politics, religions, lang., economics, socioeconomics.
Bloom's Taxonomy
Categorizes learning structures in educational settings, which incorporated specific questions to obtain various levels. Levels are: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation
Knowledge
(find out and remembers) - skill - observe & recall info., know dates, events, places, know major ideas/conceps, remember previous materials. Questions are who? what? when? where? Verbs are: listen, observe, collect, identify, name, match, locate, list, define, show, describe, label.
Comprehension
Skills - understand info., interpret facts by constrast and compare, grasp the meaning of material, explain or summarize, predit outcomes & effects Questions are: Why? How? Verbs are: discuss, restate, predict, give, associate, define, explain, report, review, estimate, express, chart, summarize
Application
(Use) Skills - use info., ability to use methods, concepts, theories, in new situations, apply rules, laws, methods, theories, solve problems using appropriate techniques. Quesions are: apply Verbs are: apply, demonstrate, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, classify, compute, operate, use, employ, interpret
Analysis
(take apart) - skills - recognize patterns, organize parts, implications, identify components, conclude and clarify. Questions: How? What? Verbs are: analyze, order, connect, arrange, divide, inter, compare, explain, distinguish, sort, test, criticize, calculate
Synthesis
(create new) skills - arrange things in a new way, generalize from given facts, relate knowledge from various areas, predict and draw conclusions. Questions: What if? Verbs: compile, combine, create, design, invent, compose, produce, collect, manage, assemble, develop, formulate
Evaluation
(Judge) skills- assess the validity & value of ideas/theories, make choices based upon reasoning and valid arguments, verify the value of date and evidence, recognize bias and subjectivity. Questions: Why? Why not? Verbs: Evaluate, valus, decide, measure, justify, criticize, contrast, debate, support, rank, convince, select
Higher-order thinking
A concept based on learning taxonomies such as Bloom's Taxonomy. The idea is that some types of learning require more cognitive processing than others, but also have more generalized benefits. In Bloom's taxonomy, for example, skills involving analysis, evaluation and synthesis (creation of new knowledge) are thought to be of a higher order, requiring different learning and teaching methods, than the learning of facts and concepts. Higher order thinking involves the learning of complex judgmental skills such as critical thinking and problem solving.
Application
Uses info. in a familiar situation
Analysis
Breaks information into parts to explore understandings and relationships. Recognize patterns, organize parts, identify components, conclude, and clarify. Questions are how? What?
Synthesis
Requires generating new ideas or ways of viewing things. The step in which students demonstrate the capibility of combining the information they already know into creating something new and unique.
Prereading strategies for reading development
Active instruction by teachers and adullts who point out letters, words, and other feature of print that surrounds children.
Homonyn
Two words have same pronunciation AND spelling but different meanings (left (turning) and left (leave))
Homophone
Spelled DIFFERNLY, pronounced the same, but have different meaning (Son, sun)
Homograph
Same spelling but different meanings and may or may not be pronounced differently (ex. dove (bird) and dove (dive))
Synonms
Words with similar meaning
Antonyms
Words with opposite meanings
Story Map
a visual depiction of the settings or the sequence of major events and actions of story characters. This procedure enables students to relate story events and to perceive structure in literary selections. By sharing personal interpretations of stories through illustrations, students increase their understanding and appreciation of selections. Story maps can be used as frameworks for storytelling or retelling, and as outlines for story writing.

What is its purpose?

to enhance students' interpretative abilities by enabling them to visualize story characters, events and settings
to increase students' comprehension of selections by organizing and sequencing main story events
to develop students' sense of story which will assist storytelling, retelling and writing
to increase students' awareness that story characters and events are interrelated
Pronoun
can replace a noun or another pronoun. Using "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.
Syntax
The manner in which words are organized and put together in a sentence and shows the readers what type of sentence is being read and how to read the information presented.
Primary benefit of Oral book reports
They encourage students to share their reading experiences with others.
Standardized test scores
report the performance of a student in comparison with similar students who took the same test(s).
Report Cards
Show student's progress but the metric used may differ from one district to anther.
Internal Conflict
Struggle between opposing forces in the mind of a single character.
Hyperbole
An exaggeration or overstatement that may or may not be realistic and is not meant to be taken literally (mile-high)
Imagery
Lang. that appeals to the readers' senses; describes people or objects by using the 5 senses. (Ex. I walked calmly to the dark side of the moon where the winds of time blew softly through my hair.)
Idiom
When words are used in a special way that is different than their literal meaning. (steal one's thunder. or cut corners)
Metaphor
Comparison of two unrelated objects, concepts, or ideas WITHOUT using words "like" or "as" (the cloud was a soft pillow of down.)
Simile
Comparison of two unrelated objects, concepts, or ideas USING the words "like" or "as"
Onomatopoeia
Words that mimic sounds (buzz, hiss, crackle)
Oxymoron
Occurs when combining two words with opposite meaing. (jumbo shrimp, military intelligence, small fortune)
Personification
Giving a nonhuman thing (object, idea, animal) human characteristics (The tree fell with a silent, crackling cry of relief)
Holistic Rubric
Used to assess students' work as a whole, not just portions of students' writing.Assessing the overall structure and quality of writing
Ex. 3 - Excellent Researcher

included 10-12 sources
no apparent historical inaccuracies
can easily tell which sources information was drawn from
all relevant information is included

2 - Good Researcher

included 5-9 sources
few historical inaccuracies
can tell with difficulty where information came from
bibliography contains most relevant information
Analytic Rubric
Most rubrics, like the Research rubric above, are analytic rubrics. An analytic rubric articulates levels of performance for each criterion so the teacher can assess student performance on each criterion. Using the Research rubric, a teacher could assess whether a student has done a poor, good or excellent job of "organization" and distinguish that from how well the student did on "historical accuracy."
Ex.
Criteria Poor (1) Good (2) Excellent (3)
Number of Sources x1
Historical Accuracy x3
Organization
x1
Bibliography x1
Structural Analysis
Used in spelling deals with using familiar word parts (base words, prefixes, and suffixes) to determine the meaning of a word.
Reader's Workshop
An instructional model for reading that provides explicit instruction in reading strategies with opportunities for students to practice.
Round Robin
the practice of calling on students to read orally one after the other.
Irregular Words
cannot be sounded out according to regular pronunciation rules. One or more letters does not represent their most common sounds.
Concept of Print
An awareness of print in the everyday environment with an emerging understanding of how printed language works.
Graphophonic Cues
are hints based on sound-symbol correspondences that help readers decode and comprehend a text.
Alliteration
langague repears the consonant sounds, which occur at the beginning of words or within words, creates mood and melody, brings attention to important words, and points out similarities and differences.
Whole Language
based off of research regarding how individuals learn concepts and express ideas, how reading and writing are interrelated with the structures of language, and the basics of literacy. Coincides with the constructivist theory of learning. Promotes the use of a student's language knowledge and their experiences to increase and improve reading ability.Key concepts include: meaningful context, acceptance of all learners, flexible structure, supportive classroom, integrated approach, focused expectations, context skill development (as students read and write teachers interject skills in spelling, grammar, reading, and writing. Collaboration and scaffolding and authentic assessments.
Phonics Instruction
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Basal Reading Approach
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Literature-based reading Approach
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Linguistic Approach
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Language Experience Approach
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Individualized reading approach
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Compass
math compass is a metal or plastic V-shaped drawing tool with a clamp on one end to hold a pencil and a sharp point on the other end that keeps the tool steady on the drawing surface while the pencil moves.

A compass is used in mathematics, drawing and drafting to create arcs, circles or other geometric figures that can be determined by measuring intersecting line segments. A compass can be used to bisect lines, find midpoints and help solve problems in geometry.
Counting Patterns
(number concepts) Know single digit sequence 1-10. Transitions signaled by "9" Transition terms for the new series (29 signals 30). Rules for new series. Exceptions to rules (11, 12, the teens).
Number Concepts
Counting patterns, counting objects in a set, symbols, relationships, comparisons, 1 or 2 more and less, visual patterns, part/part/whole, and place value
Counting objects in a set
(number concepts) Know number-word sequence, each set is labeled with 1 counting word, keeping track of counted to not count twice and knowing when to stop the count
Symbols
(number concepts) Recognize, construct, and distinguish symbols, look for relationships.
Relationships
(number concepts) Understanding of word, quantity, and symbol. Will lead to mastery and understanding will allow for addition, subtractions.
Comparisons
(number concepts) More/less/same relationships. Initially children construct and compare sets of concrete objects.
One of two more or less
(number concepts) Say the number after and the number before when given a number. Count on from the number and back. State the number that is 1 or 2 more and less than given number.
Visual Patterns
(number concepts) recognize patterns as both a whole (unit itself) and a composite of parts (individual units within a whole unit)
Part, Part, Whole & place values
(number concepts) Focusing on quantity in terms of its parts has important implications for developing number sense
Rational Numbers
All integers (natural, whole, and negatives) i.e. -4, -3, 0, 1 etc. They are also fractional numbers , decimal or percentage.
Fractions
Taught before decimals or percentage. Students must learn that fractions are the ratio of two whole numbers, ie one whole number divided by another whole number. After solid understanding of fractions, the following terms can be introduced: top # is numerator, bottom # is denominator. They also need to learn that 1/6 is NOT larger than 1/3. Then teach addition/subtraction, then multiplication/division of fractions. Then teach decimals. Then percentages. Explain how they are all the same thing.
Manipulatives for fractions
Region/Area - Help to visualize fraction problems where the surface area may be divided into smaller parts (ex. 1500 acres of land maybe visualized using patterns, blocks, geoboards, grids)
Length - These may model a fraction situation in which divided a line may be necessary (fraction strips, number lines, cuisenaire rods)
Set - These are related to a group of objects considered whole and dividing a set creates fractional parts (beans, small counters, toys)
Distributive Property
To share something or to deal out something. One operation may change to another. Used to make math simpler by breaking equations apart. Can be used when multiplying with ( ).
Formula: a(b+c) = ab+ac
4 (3+2) = 4(3) + 4(2)
4(5) = 12+8
20 = 20
Associative Property
Numbers can be grouped or regrouped in an operation in any manner without changing the answer.
Addition Formula: a+(b+c) = (a+b)+c
3+(4+6) = (3+4)+6
3+10 = 7+6
13=13
Multiplication Formula: a(bc) = (ab)c
4(26) = (42)6
4(12) = (8)6
48=48
Commutative Property
Numbers in an operation can change order without altering the end result.
Addition Formula: a+b=b+a
60+15=15+60
75=75
Pre-Number
Matching - one-to-one coorespondence (e. pass 1 cookie to ea. classmate) Sorting - Look at the characteristics of different items & find characteristics that are the same. Begin sorting by color before other attributes. Comparing - look at items & compare by understanding difference. Make comparisons of more, less, same by making visual comparisons. Ordering - Foundation of the system. Children have to be able to put items in an order so they are counted once and only once. Putting items in order is a prereq to ordering numbers. Subtizing - Instant recognition of a number pattern without counting. Helps children see small collections as 1 unit. (Finger patterns, dot patterns, domino patters)
Common Number Patterns
String of numbers that follow some logical rule for the continuation of the string.
Even #'s, Odd #'s, Arithmetic Sequence - Add the same value each time ex. 1, 4, 7, 10, 13 adding 3 ea. time. Squares -Square each number ex. 1, 4, 9, 16, 25 (1^2, 2^2 etc.). Geometric Sequence - Multiply by the same value each time ex. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 - ea. multiplied by 2. Cube - Cube each # in the pattern (ie 1^3, 2^3 etc). Fibonachi #'s - The next # is found by adding the two #'s before it together (ex. 0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13 therefore 2+3=5, 3+5=8)
Number Sense
The ability to understand #'s and their relationship. This skill develops gradually over time through experiencing #'s in a variety of concepts, exploring #'s, relating #'s. Number senses should include: Relative Magnitude, Real World connections, and Approximations & rounding
Students will move from basic counting technique and concepts to understanding size and relationships. They will learn place value and operations because they have gained number sense
Relative Magnitude
The size relationship btw #; Is the number smaller, larger, close to the same.
Real World Connections
How do #'s effect our lives? Where do we use #'s? What do we do with #'s?
Approximations & Rounding
Estimation skills are important for mental computations & verification of solutions.
Ways human impact Earth
By consuming natural resources and changing natural pattens. Humans promote the consumption of natural resources from 1 area to another for use thus changing natural patters on Earth. By building structures - developed to establish settlements conducive to meeting human needs crating a change in Earth's surface and impacting a variety of ecosystems. By competing for control. Results of these three methods are seen in: Population growth, consumption of natural resources (oil, water, gas), Migration of humans, urbanization increases
Physical Systems
Shape the Earth's system and interact with plants & animals life to create, maintain, and change the ecosystems.
Concepts explaining the interaction
System, boundary, force, state of equilibrium, and threshold (point of change)
Physical props that mold shape of Earth's surface
Atmosphere (air) - climate, meterology, Lithosphere (ground & service) - Rock formation, soil formation, plate tectonics, erosion, Hydrosphere (water) - water cycle, currents, rivers, tides, oceans, Biosphere (life) - Ecosystems, habitats, plants & animal realm
Motion Geometry
Transformations - (equals "to change") Changes the position of a shape upon a coordinate plane resulting in the same value and magnitude. The shape moves from one plance (coordinate) to another. 3 types: Reflection, Translation, Rotation. Orientation is also important.
Reflection
Flip - The shape is a mirror image. Preserves distance, size, shape
Translation
Slide - Shape moves by sliding. All parts of shape move same direction and space. Preserves size, shape, distance and orientation
Rotation
Turn - Shape is turned on a 360 degree axis.
Orientation
The order of the shape's parts as you move around the object in a clock-wise or counter clock-wise direction.
Market Economy
Functions through the exhange in the "Free Market" It's not designed or managed by a central authority, but through privately owned production, in which revenue is distributed through the operation of markets. is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production and distribution are based on supply and demand and the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system
Base 10 numeration systems
Recognize that the word "ten" represents a single entity (1 ten) and/or ten separate units (10 ones). These representations are interchangable, as they have the same value.
Emergent Literacy Skills
A continuously evolving ability that results from one's expereiences & experiments with language in literacy contexts. Focuses on the reading & writing development of young children before they attain conventional literacy skills and strategies. Highlights of a child's progression toward conventional literacy include developing an understanding of concepts about pint, the alphabetic principle, and a sense of story.
Manipulatives
Any concrete objects that allow students to explore an idea in an active, hands-on approach. Manipulatives can be almost anything- blocks, shapes, spinners or even papter that is cut or folded. They can also be tools to help students solve problems.
Fraction Strips
rectangular pieces to represent different parts of the same whole. They can be cut apart & manipulated to see how various parts can be added to make whole or compare different fraction amounts for equivalency. Help students to visualize and explore fraction relationships.
Cuisenaire Rods
give students a hands-on way to learn elementary math concepts, such as the four basic arithmetic operations and working with fractions. They are like rectangular blocks that are different size similar to fraction strips.
Counters
lower grade levels. They are physical tokens.

A counter could be any small manipulative object, such as a coin or poker chip, a sugar cube, a small piece of candy, a stone, marble, a card, Legos, or wad of clay. Often they are stackable for ease of manipulation.

suppose you are asked to find the quotient of 6 divided by 3. For this problem you would arrange 6 objects in 3 equal piles. Of course, there would be 2 objects in each pile. That is the quotient: 2.
Place Value Chart
Chart with grids showing place values with blanks so that children can input numbers.
Ex. Millions, Hundred Thousands, Ten Thousands, Thousands, Hundreds, Tens, Ones, (decimal), Tenths, Hundreds, Thousandsths
Base 10 Block
are a way to represent numbers with blocks. Remember, there are different size blocks that can represent numbers. You can use a unit, a long, or a flat.
Unit is one unit, a long is equal to 10 unites, and a flat is equal to 100 units.
Kindergarten Learning
Language - Rhymes, nonsense words, notice of words all around, teachers read variety of poems, stories, and non-fiction books aloud, that letters and sounds go together to form words, and how to identify alphabet letters and their sounds. Read some words. Math - Counting cuves, number rods, physical items for sets of #'s and solving simple addition and subtraction, learn about time clock and calendars. Science - Plants and animals, weather and seasons, simple science experiments for scientific inquiry intro., separate toy animals into groups of classification (ie those found on land in the sea, those that hatch eggs etc) Social Studies - about rules that help people get along, begin to form oponions on issues and understanding that others may have different points of view
1st Grade Learning
Language - learn to read, first steps toward fluency, reading materials vary, listen for sounds in words, write the sounds they hear, and discover parts of written language, "invent" their spellings, Activities include journal writing, creative story writing, sound out word they write. Math - time, money, and meaning of numbers greater than they can count, learn best by working with physical objects, manipulatives such as number cubes, pattern blocks, and color rods, start to do simple addition and subtraction, counts by 2's, 5's, and 10's, work with 2&3 dimensional geometric shapes. Science - encouraged to find their own answers about world and learn patterns in world, learn living things are made up of small parts
2nd Grade Learning
Language - can read and write at basic level, emphasis on fluent reading, become better story writers basic sentences and short narratives about event or character, handwriting becomes smaller and neater, cursive may be introduced, may experiment with different voices, writing stories from personal viewpoint, and in third person, more frequent use of correct spelling of words & punctuation. Math - can order, group and work with numbers far greater than physically counting, add and subtract two digit number, and understand meaning of multiplication and division, times table up to 5. Science - make predictions and find patterns in world, earth and its natural resources and people, earth changes over time and how we learn about the history of Earth through fossils, deeper study of life cycles and plants and animals. Social Studies - learn about people & places of their local communities and regions and compare. Resolve conflicts with classmates, importance of rules and role of helping.
3rd Grade Learning
Language - What it takes to be a good reader, understand what to do when they dont understand a word or passage like looking at pictures or context clues, discuss stories in small groups, summarize using graphs, introduce many literary genres and variety of print forms, learn organization methods like maps, webs, and venn diagrams (compare and contrast two things), write reports, creative fiction and personal narratives, know writing process - revising, editing, proofreading. Math - larger whole number like 3,000, fractions and decimal numbers. Odd and even numbers, patterns, solve and explain addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems. math work completed in head more. Science - Complex natural systems relationships between sun, earth, moon, cycles, weather concepts, living systems and food chain, landmasses and water, different stated of solids, liquids, and gases, sound and light, smart guesses on observations. Social Studies - natural environment and how groups of people have adapted to or modified the environment, methods of travel & communication have changed.
4th Grade Learning
Use root words, context clues, and word endings to figure out new words, long periods of time reading independently, genres, relate chacters and other story elements to their own lives, use research tools such as dictionaries library and internet to gather info., organize this info. into paragraphs, essays, projects, and presentations that help students synthesize learning, develop writing style with voice and edit work. Math - read, write, compare, add, subtract, multiply, divide with large whole numbers. Equations with fractions, decimals and learn prime numbers. Solve factors problems, geometry formulas for determining perimeter and area, and measuring angles. Figure out conversion problems, read graphs, tables, and charts but should be able to create them from data collected. Science - Look at changes in the Earth over long periods of time, observing water cycle, interactions between organisms and environment, work on projects with hypotheses, forms of energy, states of matter, and solar system. Social studies - all about the home state, first people to live there, explore changes in state populations over time, how different people and cultures have adapted and influenced state, state's history, local and state government structures, state laws.
5th Grade Learning
Languague - analyze characters, plot, and settings, recognize author's purpose and organizational strategies. Skillful writers with own style, produce and present research projects and write more complex narratives, edit writing and use rules of grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Math - divid whole numbers with and without remainders. Connections between decimals, fractions, and precentages. Learn to multiply and divide fractions and do same operations using powers of time. Real world solving problems about time, measurement and money. Science - observe and experiment to gather data and draw conclusions, processes of living things, like photosynthesis and digestion, look at the Earth and its resources, and how people us and affect those resources, some chemical reactions, earth's atmosphere and weather, solar system, and classifying matter. Social studies - learn about the people and events in American history, compare native american and colonial experience with present day life, differing cultures of colonies, people's move to US.
KWL
Can be an assessment or isntructions guide - Asks what do we know? What do we want to know? What we have learned?
Protractor
1.An instrument for measuring angles, typically in the form of a flat semicircle marked with degrees along the curved edge.
Geoboard
Useful for illustrating concepts such as area and perimeter but is not useful for measuring angles.
Straightedge
An idealized mathematical object having a rigorously straight edge which can be used to draw a line segment. Although geometric constructions are sometimes said to be performed with a ruler and compass, the term straightedge is preferable to ruler since markings on the straightedge (usually assumed to be present on a ruler) are not allowed by the classical Greek rules.
Language Experience Approach
to reading instruction is based on activities and stories developed form the personal experiences of the learner.
Interactive Writing
Involves sharing of the pen between teach and student. The focus is on concepts and conventions of print, the sounds in words, and connecting sounds with letters. For the most part, children control the writing of the text. The teacher guides this process and provides pacing, assistance, and instruction when needed.
Order of operations
mathematical skills are developed in a hierarchy. They learn addition, subtraction, before multiplicaiton. From learning multiplication, they understand that division is an inverse operation or inverse of multiplication.
Guess & Check
What Is It?

"Guess and Check" is a problem-solving strategy that students can use to solve mathematical problems by guessing the answer and then checking that the guess fits the conditions of the problem. For example, the following problem would be best solved using guess and check:

Of 25 rounds at the regional spelling contest, the Mighty Brains tied 3 rounds and won 2 more than they lost. How many rounds did the Mighty Brains win?

Why Is It Important?

All research mathematicians use guess and check, and it is one of the most powerful methods of solving differential equations, which are equations involving an unknown function and its derivatives. A mathematician's guess is called a "conjecture" and looking back to check the answer and prove that it is valid, is called a "proof." The main difference between problem solving in the classroom and mathematical research is that in school, there is usually a known solution to the problem. In research the solution is often unknown, so checking solutions is a critical part of the process.

How Can You Make It Happen?

Introduce a problem to students that will require them to make and then check their guess to solve the problem. For example, the problem:

Ben knows 100 baseball players by name. Ten are Red Sox. The rest are Blue Jays and Diamondbacks. He knows the names of twice as many Blue Jays as Diamondbacks. How many Blue Jays does he know by name?

When students use the strategy of guess and check, they should keep a record of what they have done. It might be helpful to have them use a chart or table.

Understand the Problem

Demonstrate that the first step is understanding the problem. This involves finding the key pieces of information needed to find the answer. This may require reading the problem several times, and/or students putting the problem into their own words.

For example, "I know there are twice as many Blue Jays as Diamondbacks. There are 10 Red Sox. The number of Blue Jays and Diamondbacks should equal 90."

Choose a Strategy

Use the "Guess and Check" strategy. Guess and check is often one of the first strategies that students learn when solving problems. This is a flexible strategy that is often used as a starting point when solving a problem, and can be used as a safety net, when no other strategy is immediately obvious.

Guess and check can be made more sophisticated by improving each guess based on the last guess. Encourage students to analyze their guesses to determine what the next guess should be. Students can use patterns in the problem or in their guesses to determine the correct guess.

Students may not want to use any other strategy once they have learned guess and check, because it is so easy to use. When children are completely stuck, guessing and checking provides a useful place to start, but may not be the most efficient strategy. As problems get more difficult, other strategies become more important and more effective, but by starting with guess and check, the students may find a more efficient strategy that leads to a solution


Read more on TeacherVision: http://www.teachervision.fen.com/math/problem-solving/48896.html#ixzz1uVEqIIVV
Area
Amount of surface shape covers measured in square units.
Perimeter
The total distance arond the outside of a shape (rectangles and triangles) add up all the lengths of the sides.
Stanine
a method of scaling test scores on a nine-point standard scale. Standardized scores are arranged according to rank. The bottom 4% and the top 4% of scores fall into the first and ninth classes respectively, and the middle 20 percenter of scores fall in the 5th class.
Constructivist Approach
Self-directed activity. A learner-centered approach that emphasizes the importance of individuals actively constructing their own knowledge and understanding while receiving guidance from the teacher.
Remediation
to ensure the desired quality of learning. It is very essential for ensuring effective learning and in improving the quality of education. It is a ty peof teaching aimed at correcting errors or addressing gaps in knowledge. Therefore, diagnostic test provides a detailed picture of strengths and weaknesses in the areas of students¶ learning.The stages of diagnostic testing are: Identifying the students who need help,locating the error/learning difficulties, and discovering the causal factors. After locating the area where the difficulty lies, as a teacher we should devise some strategy to overcome the problems in learning. Therefore remedial education teachers should be trained to tailor their classes to a wide range of different learning styles. They should assess each student's individual proficiency level and then create a plan for that student's learning. From time to time during the classes,teachers should evaluate the progress of individual students and modify their learning plan as needed. Thus, teachers help each student improve their self-confidence throughout the course of the program
IEP
Each public school child who receives special education and related services must have an Individualized Education Program (IEP). Each IEP must be designed for one student and must be a truly individualized document. The IEP creates an opportunity for teachers, parents, school administrators, related services personnel, and students (when appropriate) to work together to improve educational results for children with disabilities. The IEP is the cornerstone of a quality education for each child with a disability.
To help decide what special education and related services the student needs, generally the IEP team will begin by looking at the child's evaluation results, such as classroom tests, individual tests given to establish the student's eligibility, and observations by teachers, parents, paraprofessionals, related service providers, administrators, and others. This information will help the team describe the student's "present level of educational performance" — in other words, how the student is currently doing in school. Knowing how the student is currently performing in school will help the team develop annual goals to address those areas where the student has an identified educational need.
Mode
the most common score
Mean
the average
Median
the middle score (must be arranged smallest to largest)
Meaningful counting in a social context
an activity that is relevant, reinforces the students' counting skills, and connects to an event that involves students.
One-to-One Correspondence
"the ability to match each member
of one set to the member of an equal set." For
example, if a child is given a set of socks and a set of
shoes, he/she can then match the socks and shoes
one-to-one.
Pie Charts & Circle Graphs
are suitable for showing relationships between the parts and the whole, so they are good for contrasting and comparing.
Goals of map introduction
to help students gain an understanding of their community and the world around them. Maps allow students to interpret and retrieve info. and to build models of communities (floor maps).
Numbered Heads together
a cooperative learning strategy that holds each student accountable for learning the material. Students are placed in groups and each person is given a number (from one to the maximum number in each group). The teacher poses a question and students "put their heads together" to figure out the answer. The teacher calls a specific number to respond as spokesperson for the group. By having students work together in a group, this strategy ensures that each member knows the answer to problems or questions asked by the teacher. Because no one knows which number will be called, all team members must be prepared.
Jigsaw method
can be used in many ways but is used primarily for the acquisition and presentation of new material and for review or informed debate. are divided into competency groups of four to six students, each of which is given a list of subtopics to research. Individual members of each group then break off to work with the "experts" from other groups, researching a part of the material being studied, after which they return to their starting group in the role of instructor for their subcategory. Appropriate for 3rd grade and up.
Taking Action
involves having a solution to a problem and developing an action plan so that others accept the solution (scientific inquiry)
Intrinsic motivation
motivation that comes from within an individual rather than from an external or outisde rewards, such as money or grades.
Extrinsic motivation
comes from the outside, providing satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide. This type of person will work on a task to receive a reward even if the person has little interest in the task itself.
Negative Reinforcement
behavior is strengthened by the consequence of the stopping or avoiding of a negative condition.
Continuous Reinforcement
desire behavior is reinforced every time it occurs.
Physical Change
in a substance does not change the chemical nature of the substance.
Process of writing development
Scribbling, Letter-like symbols, string of letters (some letters are legible and usually capital), beginning sound emergence (message within the writing makes sense and matches the picture), Consonants represent words (spaces more frequent btw words, lower case letters begin appearance, begins sentences), Initial, Middle, and final sounds (sight words, environmental print are spelled correctly and frequently, writing legibly), transitional phrases (advance toward conventional spelling), Standard spelling (understanding of root words, compound words, contractions, decode words, spell using analogies)
Conduction (heat transfer)
transfer of heat between substances in direct contact with each other.
Convection (heat transfer)
heat transfers through a fluid, such as water or moisture in air, when the heated fluid moves away from the sourfce of heat and carries energy with it.
Radiation (heat transfer)
process by which energentic particles of energy waves travel though a medium or space
Prime numbers
Divisible only by itself and one ie 3, 5, 7, 11, 13
Critical thinking
The process of conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information.
Deductive reasoning
conclusion are made based upon prior knowledge, facts, and truths. It's a step by step process of drawing conclusions. Only realiable when all premises are true and each step follows the previous step logically.
Inductive Reasoning
based not upon proofs but upon observation. it does not provide valid or reliable conclusion but is used instead to develop hypotheses or ideas.
Adaptive Reasoning
the ability to justify strategies and to analyze strengths and weaknesses of solutions proposed by others.
Problem Analysis
the ability to apply and adapt a variety of mathematical strategies to solve problems.
Scaffolding
Occurs after teacher initially describes & models concept/skill at least three times.
Teacher begins by modeling succeeding skill and providing a high level of direction: Teacher asks questions and answers questions.
Teacher gradually fades his/her direction as student(s) demonstrate increasing levels of competency in performing the skill: Teacher asks questions and students answer questions.
Teacher provides additional modeling as needed when students demonstrate non-understanding.
Students demonstrate they can perform skill with few or no teacher prompts: Students ask questions and students answer questions.
Throughout the process, the teacher provides immediate and specific feedback to students, including corrective feedback and ample amounts of positive reinforcement
Reciprocal Teaching
a constructed activity for students to collaborate in understanding a selection of content (can also be done individually); students take on roles as Summarizer, Questioner, Clarifier, or Predictor
Think-Pair-Share
a cooperative discussion strategy developed by Frank Lyman and his colleagues in Maryland. It gets its name from the three stages of student action, with emphasis on what students are to be DOING at each of those stages.

How Does It Work?
1) Think. The teacher provokes students' thinking with a question or prompt or observation. The students should take a few moments (probably not minutes) just to THINK about the question.

2) Pair. Using designated partners (such as with Clock Buddies), nearby neighbors, or a deskmate, students PAIR up to talk about the answer each came up with. They compare their mental or written notes and identify the answers they think are best, most convincing, or most unique.

3) Share. After students talk in pairs for a few moments (again, usually not minutes), the teacher calls for pairs to SHARE their thinking with the rest of the class. She can do this by going around in round-robin fashion, calling on each pair; or she can take answers as they are called out (or as hands are raised). Often, the teacher or a designated helper will record these responses on the board or on the overhead.
Question-Answer Relationships
a way to help students realize that the answers they seek are related to the type of question that is asked; it encourages them to be strategic about their search for answers based on an awareness of what different types of questions look for. Even more important is understanding where the answer will come from.

Teaching QARs to students begins with helping them understand the core notion: that when confronted with a question, the answer will come either from the text or from what kids know.
Cooperative Learning
Increases achievement, race relations, acceptance of special needs students, and self-esteem.
Invented Spelling
when a young child attempts to spell words using best judgement. The child can identify letters and relate letter sounds to words.
dipthong
two vowels in which the sound begins at the vowel and moves toward the sound of the second vowel Ex. Snout = ou boy = oy
Digraph
combination of two letters possessing a single sound. Ex. Head = ea Chance =ch swing = ng
Conformal Map
Presents land masses and the retention of proper shapes, but they are often distorted
Equal-area Map
Shows land areas with relatively proper sizes; however, distortion can occur.
Fact-book Maps
Examines the actual facts of events or activities in certain regions or specific places (ie life expectancy rates, energy consumption)
Historical Maps
Illustrates the people of an area and the population (trade routes, religions)
Mental Map
conjures a sketch in a person's mind and is constructed mentally without any particular references
Physical Map
Reveals the features of actual geographical surfaces, like mountains or rivers, and the underlying geographical structures, such as rocks and fault lines
Outline Map
Show some geographic features but does not include others
Political Map
Demonstrates government boundaries and territorial borders for major countries, states, territories etc.
Relief Map
Exhibits a 3-d variation in the topography of land and water areas
Thematic Map
Demonstrates the location of specific ideas or contributions
Seven Continents
Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antartica, Europe, and Australia
Teaching sentences
Play a game "great sentence caper" have children each take a sentence type (ie demonstrative, interrogative, etc.) write a mystery play and each student can only use their sentence type at the end they act out the play.
Metric Unit Conversion
King Henry Doesn't Usually Drink Chocolate Milk (kilo, hecto, deka, unit, deci, centi, milli)