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Ch. 14 & 15: World War II
Terms in this set (60)
What legacy did WW1 leave behind?
The Treaty of Versailles; Germany and Russia not present in discussion, Germany resented it, the treaty involved "peace" settlements
How did Stalin and Mussolini maintain their power?
They were the dictators of the parties they ran and took control over the government
How did the Great Depressions affect political life in Germany and Japan?
Widespread unemployment, homelessness, and hunger
Why did the League of Nations fail to halt German and Italian aggression?
It had no standing army and no real power to enforce its decrees; long on words but short on actions
Why did Britain, France and the US not stop fascist aggression in the 1930s?
They were trying to avoid conflict in order to maintain peace; appeasement
How did President Roosevelt react to Japan's aggression in China in the late1930s?
He gave a speech and his solution involved an informal alliance of the peace-loving nations
Which side seemed to be winning the war at the end of 1940?
The Axis Powers
According the interventionists, how would aiding the Allies actually keep the US out of the war?
The Neutrality Act of 1930; nations could buy goods from the US only with cash and only if they picked up and took the merchandise on their own ships
How did the US support the Allies after Roosevelt's reelection?
They helped out Britain who was in war but the US didn't get involved
What did the Japanese military leaders hope to achieve by attracting Pearl Harbor? Were they successful in this goal?
Their goal was to prevent Americans from mounting a strong resistance to Japanese expansion. After Pearl Harbor, Japanese were able to freely access needed raw material of their newly conquered territories.
What were the first actions taken by the US once war was declared?
Many Americans joined the military, many volunteered with the Red Cross and other organizations, and productions in industries increased, women joined the workforce
What military advantages did the US have over Japan?
They had more aircraft carriers and planes
Why did the Allies decide to concentrate first on the war in Europe?
Because of Hitler and German u-boats; Hitler and the Germans were trying to forcefully and violently take over lands
Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a turning point in WW2?
The Germans ended up surrendering to the Soviet Union and it ended the realistic plans Hitler had of dominating Europe
What were the goals of British and American bombing runs over Germany?
To inflict maximum damage and to destroy Germany's capacity
What impact did the Battle of Midway have on Japanese expansion in the Pacific?
It ended the Japanese advance and Japan was now on the defensive side
How did the war create new opportunities for African Americans?
The Executive Order 8802- assured fair hiring practices in any job funded with government money and established the fair employment practices committee to enforce these requirements
How did the war affect the location of industries and workers in the US?
Many migrated to work in industries located in cities and their was racial violence
Why were Japanese Americans interned during WW2?
The US believed the Japanese Americans were inherently disloyal and posed as a threat
How did the federal government control resources needed for war effort?
Office of Price Administration was created which had authority to control wages and set maximum prices and rationing was enforced which Americans were issued coupon books that limited the amount of certain goods that they could purchase
On what issue did Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill disagree?
Stalin felt that Britain and the US should carry more of the military burden by attacking Germany in the west, therefore firing Germany to divide it's groups. Roosevelt sympathized with Stalin. Churchill hesitated and delayed and argues that the Allies needed for landing craft and more equipment and better trained soliders
What was the primary objective of the D-Day invasion at Normandy?
To destroy German communication and transportation networks and to soften nazi beach defenses; also for allies to gain territory
What were the results of the battle of the bulge?
It crippled Germany by using its reserves and demoralizing its troops
Why was the island-hopping campaign in the Pacific so deadly to both sides?
Japanese men didn't surrender, instead they fought until the last man was dead or readily killed themselves and American soldiers would sacrifice their lives for the US
What were the consequences of the decision to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
Many civilians were killed and their government surrendered.
How did Hitler enforce anti-semitism as chancellor of Germany?
He blamed Jews for all the ills of Germany, especially for the defeat of Germany in WW1. He created Nuremburg laws and children were taught that Jews were polluting Germany
What actions did the Nazis take to carry out Hitler's "Final Solution"?
They built concentration camps for Jews, murdered jews there and treated Jews horribly
How did the US government respond to the German campaign against European Jews?
The war refugee board was established, Allies bombed railways to death camps and liberated the camps
What goals did the allies set for Eastern Europe at the Yalta Conference?
Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania would hold free election and divide Germany into 4 sections, one section for each of the Allies
What steps did the US take to increase its role in the postwar world?
Established the International Monetary Fund and world bank; German agreement on tariffs and trade; United Nations was formed; universal declaration of human rights
How did WW2 foster support for civil rights?
They renewed vigor to the fight for civil rights and wanted to live up to its promise as a beacon of freedom, democracy and justice
Operation Overload (D-Day)
•Allied forces invaded northern France by storming Normandy
•Germans taken by surprise
•Dwight d Eisenhower was a commander
Battle of Midway
•June 4, 1942 - 4 day long land and sea battle
•Japan wanted to sink unaffected US ships from Pearl Harbor
•US navy showed superiority
•turned the tide of the war in US favor; US became an offensive position
Chester W. Nimitz deciphered Japanese codes
Germany, Italy and Japan
Great Britain, Russia, France and US
December 7, 1941
Japan attacks US naval base in Oahu, Hawaii
Causes of Pearl Harbor
Japan's desire to expand its control over Asia
US refused to sell oil to Japan
Japan joining axis powers
Effects of Pearl Harbor
Japanese attack US base
Sever damage to US pacific fleet and aircraft
US declaration of war
Declaring war on Japan
December 8, 1941
Neutrality act of 1935
Isolationist senators propose strict laws. Roosevelt wants more flexibility, but Congress doesn't. Laws provided that on outbreak of war, all exports of America would be embargoed and American ships were prohibited from carrying arms to belligerent countries.
Neutrality act of 1937
laws gave presidential authority to determine if civil war was a threat to world peace and covered by Neutrality acts, prohibited sale of arms to belligerents, and allowed cash and non-military goods to belligerents
Neutrality act of 1939
Roosevelt proclaimed neutrality of US on Sept 5, 1939. He called COngress into session and urged it to follow cash and carry of arms. A new Neutrality act was passed, forbidding trade with belligerents and travel on belligerent ships
Sacrifices and struggles
Rationing(limiting amount of consumption) and
Shortages on materials
Metals, glass, rubber
Scrap drives created which collected waste materials for war
Worship, speech, want and fear
Office of war information
OWI; created June 1942
Provided posters, films, cartoons
Encouraged to join war, women to enter workforce
Sent warning to public enemy
Japanese internment Camps
People of Japanese heritage that lived on west coast isolated from other Americans and put here
Executive order 9066
gave armed forces the power to establish military zones and to force people and groups to leave these zones
Life in the Japanese internment camps
Hard, harsh climates, barbed wire, armed guards everywhere, families lived in cramped barracks
Fred Korematsa vs US
Fred refused to leave his home and relocate to a relocation camp for Japanese
Stalin, Chufchill, Roosevelt
Goal: discuss end of war and plan for peace
Agreed to divide Germany into four sections for each of the allies
What did Stalin promise for his section of Germany but fail to follow?
Promised to hold free elections in other countries that soviets occupied
Battle of Stalingrad
July 17 1942 - February 2 1943
Marked the turning of the tide of war in favor of the Allies
November 8, 1942
North Africa & Mediterranean theater British America vs French North Africa
Allies invade North Africa
1st time Britain and US had an invasion plan
Surprise attack on Nazis
July 1943- September 1944
Europe theater of war
Allies vs axis
Ended the rule of Mussolini and Italy surrendered
Battle of the Bulge
December 16, 1944- January 16, 1945
Last time Germany was on the offensive side
European theater of war
December 1941 - 1945
Japan captures the Philippines would give them advantage in war
McArthur (US) ordered to leave the Philippines
Allies liberated the islands from Japanese invaders
Battle of The Coral Sea
May 4 - May 8 1942
Happened right before midway
Japanese had no gains
Australia was An Allie
Battle of Iwo Jima
February 19, 1945 - March 26, 1945
Us Navy and Aircraft bombings
Japanese used underground tunnels to hide
US used explosives underground
Battle of Okinawa
April - June 1945
Japanese vs Allies
Put an end to war in Japan
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