Gender and Society
Flashcards for University of Iowa Gender and Society final
Terms in this set (148)
Rhode - "No Problem Problem"
Discusses denials of inequality, denials of injustice, denials of responsibility. Addresses the barriers that women face and the problems that arise when these are not recognized as barriers.
McCracken - "Winning the Talent War for Women"
Describes the steps taken by Deloitte Touche to keep female employees. Suggests making management responsible for change, requiring decisions to be explained, and promoting work-life balance for ALL workers.
Hyde - "The Gender Similarities Hypothesis"
Meta-analysis showing that men are more similar to women than they are different. Almost no gender differences have any statistical significance.
3 areas of gender difference in Hyde
Throwing velocity, masturbation frequency, and aggression
Interplanetary Theory of Gender
Genders are significantly and innately different; men are from mars, women are from venus. Supports evolutionary or biological differences, such as the belief that men are more dominant and aggressive and women are submissive and nurturing.
3 explanations for gender differences
The physiological and reproductive differences between males and females
Expression of traits, attitudes, and behaviors that are consistent with cultural definitions of being men and women
label given to an individual based on appearance or other cues. Socially determined.
Difference that creates differential access to resources and opportunities
Inequality that cannot be justified. Difference in salaries between Dr. and truck driver is an inequality, but not an injustice. Difference between male and female doctors is both.
Two types of gender segregation
Division of labor that places men in managerial positions and women as the laborers below them; an example is the tendency for men to be principals and women to be teachers.
Division of genders in the workplace between similar but separate jobs. A woman, for example, may sell makeup while a man sells power tools. This can create injustice: EX- Sears
Denial of inequality
Men and women are generally equal in our society; there is no inequality between them.
Denial of injustice
There is inequality between men and women, but this is not an injustice: any disadvantage to women is simply based on women's choices, biology, etc.
Denial of Responsibility
There is injustice in the treatment of genders, but there is nothing I can do about it. A manager may notice women resigning, but assume that it is simply a choice they are making, and he can't do anything to make them stay. An example was Walmart's requirement that employees move 100 miles to be considered for management.
Holding a bias that you don't even know about. Orchestra hiring study is an example.
stereotypically positive views of women. They believe that women are weaker and tend to idealize women romantically, may admire them as wonderful cooks and mothers, and want to protect them when they do not need protection, providing them with easier positions within a company or less opportunity for travel.
Multilevels of gender structure
Individual level gender
Biological and physiological, not reliant on interaction
Interactional/meso level gender
Ways in which social behavior is constrained or facilitated by expectations that people have regarding the traits men and women possess, how they should act, what they should believe. Ex- bomb dropping experiment
Institutional/macro/structural level gender
How macro level patterns, such as the positions to which people are assigned in society, lead to differences in the behavior or experiences of men and women.
Effects of gender often occur simultaneously at multiple levels; interventions often must be multilevel to be successful
Correll - "Social Psychology of Gender
Describes the shortcomings of "innate" gender explanations like biology and socialization, and promotes a multilevel "doing gender" approach.
Biological theories of gender
Micro level biological explanations for gender inequalities; may use brain chemistry, evolutionary pressures, or hormones.
Biological theories - brain differences
Women tend to have smaller brains with a greater proportion of white to grey matter. It is unclear how these differences translate to different behaviors.
Biological theories - evolutionary explanations
Gender differentiated reproductive strategies lead to differences in behavior. There isn't really much to support this.
Biological theories - hormonal processes
Higher levels of certain hormones cause different behaviors, for example, male aggression. There is a relationship here, but it is not perfect or simple-- permissive effect.
Individuals who do not fit clearly into either sex category, including XXY, X, ovotestes, etc. Prove that even biological sex is not simple.
Coventry - "Making the Cut"
Article about the tendency of doctors in America to perform elective surgery on children with "non-normative" genitalia.
Sapolsky - "The trouble with testosterone"
Sapolsky describes the fact that testosterone does not cause aggression, merely has a permissive effect. Male monkeys given huge amounts of testosterone don't become more aggressive to all other monkeys, but only to those who they were already dominant over.
Goldberg and Adriano - "I'm a girl"
Article about a young transgendered girl named Jazz, and her parent's decision to allow her to transition.
Thorne - "Boys and Girls Together... But Mostly Apart"
Article about the tendency of teachers to divide classes based on gender, "boys and girls," and the way that this creates a more distinct binary under which the children operate, largely separating themselves by gender in their day to day activities.
Babcock - "Women don't ask"
Women are less likely to ask for raises or negotiate their salaries because they are socialized to believe that money is men's business, or that it is inappropriate for a woman to be aggressive. One solution is to have women negotiate for others, instead of themselves.
Process by which social expectations are taught and learned.
process of learning gender expectations
Spontaneous, unofficial expressions of approval or disapproval that are not backed by the force of law. Applied by members of a group.
Agents of socialization
Individuals or forces that create and teach social expectations. Ex- parents, teachers, peers, media, religion, etc.
Gender and negotiation
West and Zimmerman - "Doing Gender"
the notion that gender emerges not as an individual attribute but something that is accomplished through interaction with others; in this way, gender is continually being adapted to suit different situations. Expectations function as "rules of the game"
Pierce - "Women and Men as Litigators"
Women face a double bind in the legal profession, and are frequently punished for not fitting in to the masculine ideals of what a lawyer should be. Aggressive litigators were punished, as were more genial attorneys. Women are underrepresented, generally, in law, and are often treated differently than their male counterparts.
Inequalities in the way that genders interact. Ex: Men are more likely to be chosen as group leaders, men are not sanctioned for interrupting, etc.
Ridgeway - "Gender, Status, and the Social Psychology of Expectations"
Article about Performance Expectations and interactional inequalities in group interactions.
Sinclair and Kunda - "Motivated Stereotyping of Women"
University professor experiment about motivated stereotyping: individuals are more likely to stereotype when they have been negatively reviewed by an individual who is a member of an out group, because it allows them to dismiss the feedback of the stereotyped individual.
Individual explanation for interactional inequality:
Men and Women just have different, innate ways of communicating. Men are instrumental, women are expressive
Situational explanation for interactional inequality:
Men and Women's communication styles and behaviors vary within features of the interactional setting. (Basically, doing gender.)
Expectation States Theory
A theory of how anticipated performance expectations shape participation in groups and the relative influence among group members. A higher PE leads to more advantages
Anticipations about the relative contributions of individuals to the group's task.
Determinants of PE
-knowledge about actual competence
-stereotypes about social groups
Widely held beliefs about the relative competence, worth, and esteem of groups in society. Shape behavior most powerfully by affecting our sense of what others expect of us.
attributes on which individuals differ that have status beliefs attached to them. Ex.- race, gender, education level, etc.
Williams - "The Glass Escalator"
For male tokens in female dominated professions, sexism still wins out and they are often promoted more quickly, and given more power, than their female coworkers. This is NOT true of women in male dominated professions.
3 potential solutions for gender inequality
-Change policy to alter organizational structures; give more opportunities for all.
Structural theories of gender
Gender difference and inequality are due to the different positions and roles men and women hold in society. If they had the same roles, there would be no inequality.
A person whose group membership makes them a minority (15% or less) in the workplace. Invisible in their work role and hypervisible in their minority status.
Difference between Male and Female tokens
Male tokens experience a "glass escalator," being advanced at an accelerated rate, and favored within the workplace. Women, on the other hand, have a harder time forming mentorship relationships and advancing.
Maas et al - "Sexual Harassment under Social Identity Threat"
Marta experiment. The more men's legitimacy was threatened, the more likely they were to send Marta pornographic material. Sort of a boundary heightening.
Sexual Double Standard
Men gain status via sex, women lose it. Men are assumed to be more sexual and try to escalate encounters, while women are assumed to not have strong sexual urges and must constantly control those that they do have to protect reputations. Has been around since Victorian Era (and before?)
Quid Pro Quo sexual harassment
unwelcome sexual advances requests for sexual favors and verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature in which submission is make either explicity or implicitly a condiiton of the victims employment
Hostile sexual harassment
Telling lewd jokes, displaying pornography, making sexually oriented remarks about someone's personal appearance, and other sex-related actions that make the work environment unpleasant. Hostile environments can be used as a boundary to keep women out of the workforce.
Group Value threat
Ingroup performs less well in some socially important domain or is inferior to outgroup.
Basis for ingroup's advantages in society is challenged
An individual is a marginal member of an important group.
Ingroup and Outgroup are increasingly similar
"Two or more persons related by birth, adoption, or marriage who reside in the same household."-- census. Also, raise children, provide companionship, socialize
How many more days in a year of housework do women do?
A month of 24 hour days (Second Shift)
Hochschild - "The Second Shift"
Women who work outside the home still do a disproportionate amount of housework and childcare, which Hochschild calls the second shift.
Time availability theory
The more available time, the more housework an individual would do. Women tend to work fewer hours and have more free time, so they do more housework.
Relative resource theory
Individual who earns more will bargain out of housework. Women tend to earn less than men, and so more often end up doing housework.
Doing gender theory
Women and men do housework or avoid doing housework as a part of accomplishing gender. An example is the tendency of unemployed men to do even LESS housework than employed men.
The "stalled revolution"
Men's involvement in housework has not increased enough to compensate for the increase in women's employment. The structure of work and cultural ideas about workers have not responded to the increase in female employment.
separate spheres ideology; men oriented toward work and women toward home.
Men and women equally oriented toward work and home.
somewhere between traditional and egalitarian. Many couples fall here.
plan of action through which a person attempts to solve the problems at hand, shaped by cultural notion of gender.
Hochschild - "The Time Bind"
Crittenden - "The Price of Motherhood"
Beliefs about the differences between men and women and the proper roles for each.
Stories couples tell themselves to manage conflicts between ideologies and conflicts
Employment discrimination of caregivers
Women make 5% less with each child, are judged as less competent when they are mothers, may have a difficult time advancing because they are viewed as less committed, less dependable, and less authoritative.
Carnes - "Jennifer Fever in Academic Medicine"
Male physicians will support new, young female physicians, and will point to this support as evidence of their gender equality. However, women who are more senior tend to be overlooked and even sanctioned as they begin to challenge the positions of male physicians. Men support women as long as they aren't competition.
Rudman and Glick - "Prescriptive Gender Stereotypes and Backlash Against Agentic Women"
Bimbos vs. Bitches
3 strategies for balancing work/family conflict
-Drop out of paid labor force
No flexibility or opportunity for women to work the way that they would like to; work is full time or no time. Little part time work.
Cost of opting out
-Loss of income
-Loss of status
-Loss of financial security
Widely held beliefs about who men and women are, including:
-competencies and abilities
Beliefs about who men and women SHOULD be; expectations about social roles and behaviors.
Beliefs about inappropriate behaviors; beliefs about what men and women should NOT be. They may be sanctioned if they violate these stereotypes.
The double bind
"Bimbos or bitches." Women can be seen as either competent OR nice. Men do not face that tradeoff. For example, self promotion reflects negatively on women, but not on men.
Salzinger - "Producing Women: Femininity on the Line"
Police chief example. One candidate was more booksmart, the other more streetsmart, but no matter which was male and which was female, the male was always favored.
How are stereotypes shifting?
Descriptive stereotypes, especially about differences in competencies, are becoming less common. However, prescriptive and proscriptive stereotypes remain almost unchanged.
Tomasetto et al: "Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat"
Gender as an empty frame
Gender distinctions create a very rigid binary, but almost any characteristic can be assigned to one gender or the other.
Negative stereotypes lead to decreased task performance. Interfere with working memory capacity. Also lead to worse self-evaluations: individuals facing stereotype threat have a much higher threshold for what is considered "good" behavior.
Chen et al - "Women's Status and Depressive Symptoms"
Women's earnings, autonomy, and reproductive rights were related to the frequency with which they experienced depressive symptoms.
Mental illnesses common in men:
-excessive drinking/substance abuse problems
-participation in risky behaviors
-early onset conduct disorders, ADHD, autism, and adult onset antisocial personality disorder
Mental illnesses common in women:
Mood, anxiety, and eating disorders. Also more likely to seek out mental health services.
Biological explanation for mental illness gender disparity
Belief that testosterone/estrogen somehow influence mental health. However, these hormones seem to have a very small impact. Remember that testosterone is permissive.
Loring and Powell - "Gender, Race, and DSM III"
Men and women experience certain mental illnesses disproportionately. Is this due to actual differences or because of biases in diagnosers?
Epidemiological explanation for mental illness gender disparity
Differences in population distribution, like the tendency for women to experience sexual assault, are the source of mental illness disparity.
O'Brien et al: "It's Caveman Stuff"
Men are somewhat less likely to seek medical treatment because it is viewed as being outside of hegemonic masculinity. Men should be "tough," should be able to persevere through minor medical issues.
Armstrong et al: "Sexual Assault on Campus: A multilevel, integrative approach to party rape."
Percentage of prisoners who are female?
Most violent group in the industrialized world?
Young American men
Hochschild - "Gender, Status, and Feeling"
Women do more, and different, emotional management than men do, partly because they have a lower social status.
Cultural Basis of Emotions
Certain emotions are bound by culture and are not universal.
Two factor theory of emotion
Emotions are not just hardwired; we also seek visual cues. Require both a physical response and a situational/cultural label.
Members of a society's expectations about how to experience different emotions. consist of feeling rules, which tell us how we should feel in different social interactions
Emotional management in the realm of work. More common in women, who are more likely to work in service industries. Can lead to burnout, self estrangement, and stress.
aligning deeply felt feelings with expectations
Aligning surface feelings with emotions
Done more by women who use their emotions as a resource and are expected to manage emotional displays. Women are also overrepresented in positions that require deference.
Milkie - "Social Comparisons, Reflected appraisals, and Mass Media"
Different groups interpret media in different ways. Though they may be able to recognize a nontruth, the belief that another group may still idealize it (reflected appraisal) may still cause them to inspire to it. Ex. - girls and magazines
Soulliere - "Wrestling with Masculinity - Messages about Manhood in WWE"
WWE presents a dominant, hegemonic masculinity that is very aggressive, which signals to men that being strong and aggressive is their gender ideal.
Which gender experiences more positive emotions?
Which gender experiences more negative emotions?
Which gender feels emotions more feels emotions more frequently?
Neither. They feel them equally.
Those means of communication that reach large audiences, especially television, radio, printed publications, and the Internet
Are women proportionally represented in media?
the process of seeing ourselves through the eyes of others; belief by women that men want them to look like magazine models.
Connell- the ideal of masculinity; the dominant, powerful form of masculinity in any society. Dominant over subordinate forms of masculinity and femininity. Content less important than the position in the social hierarchy. In our society, he is white, wealthy, aggressive, powerful, etc.
Most visible form of femininity, organized around the compliance with male domination. Because men are dominant over women, no form of femininity is dominant. Instead, there are many forms, with one being emphasized.
Women tend to vote for members of which party?
Female legislators more likely to favor:
-harsher penalties for hate crimes
-gay marriage or civil unions
-laws permitting minors to obtain legal abortions
Female legislators more likely to oppose:
-overturning Roe v Wade
-Government funded school vouchers
-the death penalty
-allowing prayer in public schools
Else-Quest et al - "Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics"
Men and women vary little in actual mathematical inability, and women tend to fare much better on math tests in countries where women are represented in STEM, education, and parlimentary positions.
Ridgeway and Correll - "Limiting Inequality through Interaction"
Ways to increase women in the legislature:
-increased funding and training
pushes for changes in laws and structures to equally include men and women. Changes within existing structures.
The belief that men and women should have equal political, economic, intellectual, social, and sexual rights and opportunities.
emphasizes overthrowing the system of male dominance built into preexisting structures. Requires radical changes such as eliminating hierarchy within/out organizations
Comparable worth policies
Based on idea that men and women should be paid equally for jobs requiring equal skill; instead of moving women into "men's" jobs, pay should be raised for "women's" jobs
About how many gender reassignments occur at birth each year?
In 2000, women earned _____% of what men did
True or False: Young people are more sexually permissive now than in the past
Friendship and love is _______, while sexuality is ________.
How did legitimacy threat impact pornography sent to Marta?
The greater the threat, the more pornography sent.
Women are worth 60% of what men are worth
% of gender difference in depression caused by sexual abuse before adulthood?
What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and mental health?
the lower your SES, the worse your mental health
True or False: the majority of children in the U.S. live in single parent households
When men are threatened in the labor force, they are more likely to:
sexually harass their female colleagues
In families where the female partner earns much more than her male partner, does she do more or less than 50% of the housework?
True or False: the number of pregnancy discrimination lawsuits has remained constant since 1997