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39 terms

AP Chem Formulas/Equations

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Avogadro's Number
6.02x10²³
Molar Mass
MM=g/mol
Anode
oxidizes, loses e⁻
Cathode
reduces, gains e⁻
∆Enthalpy
∆E=E(final) - E(initial)
Calorimetry
q=sm∆T (q=joules transferred; s=specific heat constant; m=grams)
q(solution)
= - q(rxn)
frequency, wavelength
vλ=c (v=frequency s⁻¹; λ=wavelength meters; c=3.00x10⁸)
photon energy, frequency
E=hv (v=frequency s⁻¹; E=energy of one photon; h=6.63x10³⁴)
Quantum Number
*n, l, ml, ms
n=energy level (1,2,3,4...)
Quantum Number
n, *l, ml, ms
l=orbital (s=0;p=1;d=2;f=3)
Quantum Number
n, l, *ml, ms
ml=orientation (-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3)
Quantum Number
n, l, ml, *ms
ms=spin (+½, -½)
Gas volume per mole
22.4 L/mol
Ideal Gas Equation
PV=nRT (P=atm; V=L; n=moles; R=.08206; T=Kelvin)
∆ in Gas
(P₁V₁)/T₁=(P₂V₂)/T₂
Boyle
P₁V₁=P₂V₂
Charles
V₁/T₁=V₂/T₂
Gay-Lussacs
P₁/T₁=P₂/T₂
.08206
L atm mol⁻¹ K⁻¹
8.314
J mol⁻¹ K⁻¹
760 torr (mm Hg)
1 atm
Effusion
Rate₁ / Rate₂= square root of (MM₂ / MM₁)
Reaction Rate Expression
R=k[A][B] (coefficients become exponents)
1st Order Rate Law
ln[A] = -kt + ln[A]₀ ([A]=concentration; k=rate constant, t=time)
Kwater
= Kacid x Kbase = 10¹⁴
Strong Acid
HCl
Strong Acid
H₂SO₄
Strong Acid
HNO₃
Strong Acid
HBr
Strong Acid
HI
Strong Acid
HClO₄
Strong Base
a base ending in (OH⁻)
Dalton
Total Pressure = Sum of partial pressures
Partial pressure
total pressure x mol x (total mol)⁻¹
Solvent + volatile solute
decreased freezing point, increased boiling point
Heat of Fusion/Vaporization
= moles x constant
(fusion = - freezing)
Ecell (voltage)
=Ecathode - Eanode (anode is more negative than cathode)
∆G from voltage
∆G = -nFEcell (F=96500 J/V