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48 terms

AP Enviro Ch. 8: Pollution

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acid precipitation
acid rain, acid hail, acid snow, all of which occur as a result of pollution in the atmosphere
acute effect
the effect caused by a short exposure to a high level of toxin
closed loop recycling
when materials such as plastic or aluminum are used to rebuild the same products. an example of this is the use of aluminum from aluminum cans to produce more cans
catalytic converter
a platinum coated device that oxidizes most of the VOC's and some of the CO that would otherwise be emitted in exhausted, converting them into CO2
building related illness
when the signs and symptoms of an illness can be attributed to a specific infectious organism that resides in the building
chronic effect
and effect that results from long term exposure to low levels of toxin
deep well injection
drilling a hole in the ground that is below the water table to hold waste
disease
occurs when infection causes a change in state of health
dose response analysis
a process in which an organism is exposed to a toxin at different concentrations and the dosage that causes the death of the organism is recorded
dose response curve
the result of graphing a dose response analysis see picture
ED(50)
the point at which 50% of the test organisms show a negative effect from a toxin
global warming
an intensification of the greenhouse effect due to increased presence of heat trapping gases in the atmosphere
gray smog (industrial smog)
smog resulting from emissions of industry and other sources of gases produced by burning of fossil fuels, especially coal
heat islands
urban areas that heat up more quickly and retain heat better than non-urban areas
high level radioactive waste
radioactive waste that produce high levels of ionizing radiation
infection
result of a pathogen invading a body
LD(50)
the point at which 50% of the test organisms die from a toxin
leachate
liquid that percolates to the bottom of a landfill
noise pollution
any noise that causes stress or has the potential to damage human health
non-point source pollution
pollution that does not have a specific point of release
open loop recycling
when materials are reused to form new products
ozone holes
the thinning of the ozone layer over Antarctica
pathogens
bacteria, virus, or other microorganisms that can cause disease
photochemical smog
usually formed on hot sunny days when NO(x) compounds, VOC's, and ozone combine to form smog with brownish hue
point-source pollution
specific location from which pollution is released
poison
any substance that has an LD(50) of 50 mg or less per kilogram of body weight
physical treatment
in a sewage treatment plant, the initial filtration that is done to remove debris such as stone, sticks, rags, toys, and other object that were flushed down the toilet
primary pollutants
pollutants that are released directly into the lower atmosphere
primary treatment
when physically treated sewage water is passed into a settling tank where suspended solids settle out as sludge, chemically treated polymers may be added to help the suspended solids separate and settle out
risk assessment
calculating risk or degree of likelihood that a person will become ill upon exposure to a toxin or pathogen
risk management
using strategies to reduce the amount of risk
secondary pollutants
pollutants that are formed by the combination of primary pollutants in the atmosphere
secondary treatment
biological treatment of waste water in order go continue to remove biodegradable waste
sick-building syndrome
a condition in which the majority of a buildings occupants experience certain symptoms that vary with the amount of time spent in the building w/o being able to identify a specific cause of illness
sludge
solids that remain after secondary treatment of sewage
sludge processor
tank filled with aerobic bacteria that is used to treat sewage
solid waste
can consist of hazardous waste, industrial solid waste, or municipal waste
stationary sources
non-moving sources of pollution, such as factories
superfund program
a program funded by federal government and a trust thats funded by taxes on chemicals; identifies pollutants and cleans up hazardous waste sites
threshold dose
dosage level of a toxin at which negative effect occurs
toxicity
degree to which a substance is biologically harmful
tropospheric ozone
ozone that exists in troposphere
US noise control act
gave the EPA power to set emission standards for major sources of noise including transportation, machinery, and construction
vector
the carrier organism through which pathogens can attack such as a tick
waste water
any water that has been used by humans
waste to energy program (WTE)
when energy released from waste incineration is used to generate electricity
green tax
a fiscal policy that lowers taxes on income including wages and profit, and rages taxes on consumption, particularly the unsustainable consumption of nonrenewable resources
market permits
when companies are allowed to buy permits that allow them a certain amount of discharge of substances into certain environmental outlets. if they can reduce their amounts of discharge, they are allowed to sell remaining portion of their permit to a remaining company