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Chapter 7: Road to Revolution
Terms in this set (29)
A just society as one in which all citizens willingly subodinated their private, selfish interests to the common good. Both the stability of the society and the authority of the government depended on the virtue of the citizens-capacity for selflessness, self-sufficiency, and courage and civic involement. It was opposed to hierarchal and authoritarian institutions (aristocracy and monarchy).
Group of British political commentators. Widely read by the colonists, they feared the threat to liberty psed by th earbitrary power of the monarch and his ministers realtive to elected representatives in parliament. They mounted withering attacks on th euse of patronage and bribe by the kings ministers. They also warned citizens to be on guard against corruption and to be eternally vigilant against possible conspiracies against their liberties.
Theory that stated that wealth was pwer and that a country's economic wealth (military adn political power) could be measured by the amount of gold or silver in its treasury. A counry needed to export more than it imported.
Navigation Law of 1650
Laws passed to regulate the mercantilist system. This one was aimed at rival Dutch shippers trying to elbow their way into the American carrying trade. All commerceto and from colonies could be transported onlu in British vessels, European goods had to land in Britain and get a British tax,and also American merchangs must ship certain "enumereate" products (tobacco) exclusively to Britain.
Prime Minister who first aroused the resentment of the colonists in 1763 by ordering the british navy to begin strictly enforcing the Navigation Laws. He also secured from Parliament the Sugar Act of 1764.
Sugar Act of 1765
The first law ever passed by that body for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It increased the duty on foreign suggar imported fromthe West Indies.
Quartering Act of 1765
Required certain colonists to provide food and quarters for british troops. Some colonial assemblies defiantly refused to comply with this act or voted only a fraction of the supplies that it called for.
Stamp Act of 1765
Tax to raise revenues to supprot the new military force. Mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax. Satmps were required on bills of sale for about fifty trade items as well as on certain types of commercial and legal documents, including playing cards, pamphlets, newspapers, diplomas, billds of lading, and marrage liscenses.
Courts where juries were not allowed. The defendants were assumed to be guilty unless the could prove themselves innocent. Trial by jury and the precept of "innocent until proved guilty" were ancientprivlidges that British people everywhere, including the American colonists, held most dear.
Colonists cried "no taxation without representation". Theory that colonist were "represented" in Parliament grenville claimed that every member of Parliament represented all british subjects, even those Americans in Boston etc. who had never voted for a member of Parliament. The colonists did not want direct representation in Parliament.
Stamp Act Congress of 1765
One of many out cries against the stamp tax. An assemblage which brought together in NY City 27 distinguished delegates from nine colonies. The members drew up a statement of their rights adn grievances and beseeched the king and Parliament to repeal the legislation. It was a significant step toward intercolonial unity.
A promising stride toward union, they spontaneously united the American people fo the first time in common action. gave ordinary American people new opportunities to participate in colonial protests. Public defiance helped sprea revolutionary fervor thoughout the American colonial society.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Violent group of ardent spirits took the law ino their own hnad. Crying "liberty, property, and no stamps!" They enforced the noimportation agreements against violators, often with a tar a feathering. Patriotic mobs ransacked the houses of unpopular official, confiscated thei money and hanged effigies of stamp agents on liberty poles.
Declaratory Act of 1766
Reaffirmed Parliaments right "to bind" the clonies "in all cases whatsoever".It defined the constitutional principle it would not yield: absolute and unqualified sovereiggnty over its Norh American colonies.
Townshend Acts of 1767
Light import duty on class, white lead, paper paint and tea. This tax was an indirect customs duty payable at American ports. Colonists took the tac less seriously because it was light and indirect but found that they could msuggle tea at a cheaper price. But then British officers were faced with a breakdown of law and order. Eventually these clashes led to the Boston Massacre.
One of the first to die in the Boston Massacre. Described as a pwerfully built runaway "mulatto" and as a leader of the mob.
A second cousin of John Adams, he contibuted to a potent pen and tongue to the American revoltuion as a political agiatator and organizer of rebellion. He was he leading spirt in hosing the BostonTea Party. He was sent by Massachusetts to the First Ocntinental Congress of 1774. He signed the Declaration of independance adn serve in Congress until 1781.
Committees of Correspndence
Where each colony could exchange ideas and information with other colonies. These intercolonial groups were supremely significant in stimulating and dissemination sentiment in favor of united action. They evolved directly into the first American congresses.
British East India Company.
In 1773, overburdened with 17 million poundsd of unsold ea, was facing bankruptcy. If it collapsed, the London government would lose heavilyin tax evenur. The ministry therefore decided to assist the company by awarding it a complete monopoly of the American tea business. It now sold tea cheaper and colonist fel tricked.
Massachusetts governor whose house was destroyed in Stamp Act protests. He agreed the tea tax was unjust, but he believed even more stongly that the colonists had no right to flout the law. He infuriated Boston's radicals when he ordered the tea ships not to clear the Boston harbor until they had unloaded their cargoes.
Boston tea Party
Provoked beyond resraint, a band of Bostonians, clumsily disguised as Indians, boarded the docked tea ships on Decmeber 16, 1773. They smashed open 342 chests and dumped the contesnts into the botons harbor.
Acts dsigned to chastise Boston in particular. Boston Port Act anduebec Act. Many of the charteed rigts of colonial Massachusetts wereswept away. Restiritions were lekwise places on teh reios town meetings.
Boston Port Act
Most drastc of l Intolerable acts. Closd tea-stained harbr util daages were paid and order could be ensured.
British action to the tubulence in Boston. Especially noxios slapped directly at Massahuettes.Against merican jury trials, Catholic jurisdiction.
First Continental Congress
Congress to meet in Philidelphia to consder ways of redressing colonial grievances. 12 colonies minus Georgia sent 35 men. Intercolonial frictions were partially melted away by social activity after working hours. Drew up several dignified papers-Declaration fo Rights and the creation fo teh Association.
Called for a complete boycott of British goods: nonimportation, nonexportation and nonconsumption. They sought merely to repeal the offensive legilation and return to the happy days before parliamentary taxation. Parliament rejected the Congress's petitions.
At Lexington, these men refused to disperse when the British soldiers came and were shot.
Germans employed in the treasury of foreign soldiers hired by King GeorgeIII.
Marquis de Lafayette
French officer gave to America not only military services but $200,000 of his private funds. He returend to France after the American revolution to play a conspicious role int he French Revolution.
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