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23 terms

Composers of the 20th Century, Part II

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Composers of Les Six
Aurie, Durey, Honegger, Milhaud, Poilenc, Tailleferre
Honegger
Swiss National. Educated at Paris Conservatory. Style: Short melodies, ostinatos, dissonant
Milhaud
born in Marseilles, Jewish family. Moved to USA, faculty of Mills College
Poulenc
Style distinctly Parisian
Stravinsky
Born near St. Petersberg, Russia. Expected to study law at St. Petersberg University. Instead studied composition from Rimsky-Korsakov. Employed by Pleyel to record music on player rolls. Conducted concerts with LA Phil. Added 7th to national anthem and detained by Boston police. Moved to New York until his death.
Schoenberg
born in Vienna to a Jewish family. Mostly self-taught in music. Taught at Vienna Conservatory. Students included Berg and Webern. Authored Harmonielehre (Theory of Harmony). Style of First Period: Chromatic Romanticism. Second Period: Atonality. Emphasized colors. Composed first 12 tone piece.
Berg
Born in Vienna, no formal music training until studying with Schoenberg, served in WWI. Returned to Vienna and taught privately. Died at age 50 of blood poisoning. Use of tone rows.
Webern
Born in Vienna, attended U of Vienna. Studied composition with Schoenberg. Conductor of Worker's Symphony Orchestra. Denounced by Nazis, unable to perform or publish. Accidentally killed by a soldier at war's end.Tonal serialism, tone rows, short pieces.
Boulanger
French composer and teacher. Students include Copland, Thompson, Harris, Diamond, Fine, Piston, Moore, Carter, and Glass.
Ives
born in Danbury, Connecticut. Studied at Yale with Parker. Opened successful insurance agency--originated concept of estate planning. Organist and composer at church in Danbury. 1927, ceased compositions. Free dissonance, polytonality, multi/asymmetrical meters, experimental forms, tone clusters.
Copland
Born in Brooklyn to a Jewish family. Lessons from Goldmark. Achieved national reputation and financial security with his ballet compositions. Accused of being a communist. 1960s became more of a conductor. Awarded Congressional Gold Medal. Students: Adler, Bowles, Ginastera.
Gershwin
Born in Brooklyn, Parents Russian Jews. Studied with Hambitzer, Goldmark, and Cowell. Composed musicals with brother. Traveled to Paris, rejected for study with Boulanger and Ravel. Incorporated jazz into art music compositions. Use of traditional opera elements, neoclassic techniques, and 20th century techniques.
Harris
Folksongs/modal melodies, counterpoint, large wind sections. 14 symphonies.
Cowell
Member of "American Five." Studied at UC Berkley. Arrested and incarcerated on Moral Charges (Bisexual). Used piano in non-traditional ways.
Varese
born in France, moved to NY in 1915. Focused on manipulation of sound masses.
Barber
Born in Westchester, Pennsylvania. Entered Curtis Institute in Philadelphia to study piano, composition, and voice. Served with Army in WWII. Two Pulitzer Prizes. Suffered from alcoholism and depression after failure of 3rd opera.
Bernstein
Conductor and composer. Born in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Attended Harvard to study music. Influcnced by Piston, Davidson, and Mitropoulos. Copland his composition teacher. Enrolled in Curits Music Institute, studied with Thompson. Studied at Tanglewood. Asst. Conductor of NY Phil. Music director of NY Symphony. Blacklisted in 1950s. Young People's Concerts for CBS. Friend of JFK.
Rorem
Born in Richmond, Indiana. Educated at Curtis Institute & Northwestern. Moved to Paris. Composer at U of Buffalo. Professor then composer at U of Utah. Composition prof at Curtis Institute. Currently lives is NYC. Many types of music, authored 16 books.
Crumb
New sounds from ordinary instruments. New & unusual score configurations.
Babbit
Studied with Sessions. Taught math at Princeton. Piano and string music.
Cage
Forefront of new musical developments in indeterminacy. All controls of composition left to listener. Partial indeterminacy.
Hindemith
born in Germany. Studied violin & piano at age 9. Age 13, awarded a scholarship to Hoch Conserv. in Frankfurt. Age 20, first violinist in Frankfurt opera. Drafted into army for WWII. Taught at Berlin Hochschule fur Musik. Moved to Switzerland due to censorship. Taught at U of Zurich and Yale. Active as a conductor and retired from teaching at age 61. Authored The Craft of Musical Composition.
Tippet
Choral conductor with numerous vocal compositions. Orchestra compositions inspired by Javanese music.