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Islam

The beginnings of the religion Islam and its followers, Muslims.
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Arabia
southwest corner of Asia
sand dunes
shaped by the wind, rise to 800 feet high & stretch for miles
oasis
wet, fertile area in a desert
caravan
group of traders traveling together
Islam
means "to submit to God"
Muhammad
man who brought a new religion to Arabia
Muslim
follower of Islam
nomads
tribe of people who moved around the desert living in tents
Pilgrimage
to journey to a sacred place; muslims must go on their hajj to Mecca
Qur'an
holy book of Islam; exact word of Allah (God) told to Muhammad
Ramadan
holy month of fasting
Sunnah
refers to the way Muhammad lived and provides a model for duties and the way of life for Muslims
Five Pillars of Islam
first duties of a Muslim;
1. Proclaim "there is no God, but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet."
2. Pray 5 times a day and visit a mosque on Friday
3. Give alms to the needy
4. Fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan.
5. Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your lifetime.
Shariah
Islamic law, judges the rightness of actions an individual or community might take
Abu Bakr
chosen as leader of Islam after the death of Muhammad
Baghdad
Capital of Islamic empire during 762
caliph
title given to the muslim leader
Janissaries
slave soldiers, converted to Islam and became strong warriors
Mehmed II
led Ottomans to conquer Constantinople in 1453
Mughals
Turkish Muslims from Central Asia
Shia
muslims who thought only descendants of Muhammad could become caliphs
Suleyman I
ruled over Spain for 700 years
Sunni
group who doesn't think caliphs have to be related to Muhammad
Taj Mahal
tomb built between 1631 & 1647 by Emperor Shah Jahan
calligraphy
decorative writing
Arabic
muslim scholars in Baghdad & Cordoba translated ancient writings to this language
Ibn Battutah
1320, the explorer who traveled to Africa, India, China, & Spain
medicine
the muslims greatest advance
smallpox
doctor in Baghdad learned/discovered how to treat this disease