What are the two stages of sleep & the respective percentages?
1. NREM = Non-Rapid Eye Movement (has 4 stages) 75%
2. REM = Rapid Eye Movement
What the two NREM characteristics?
1. Parasympathetic nervous system dominates
2. ↓ pulse, ↓ RR, ↓ BP, ↓ temp, ↓ metabolic rate
Stage 1 of NREM (4)
1. light sleep
2. 5% of sleep time
3. Can be aroused with relative ease
4. usually only 10 min long (if longer could be sleep disturbance)
Stage 3 of Sleep (3)
1. delta wave sleep or slow-wave sleep
2. deeper sleep /arousal becomes more difficult
3. 10% of sleep time
Stage 4 of Sleep (4)
1. delta wave sleep or slow-wave sleep
2. deepest level
3. most difficult to arouse (out of it)
4. body temp & metabolism are down
REM Sleep (5)
1. Rapid Eye Movement
2. more difficult to arouse than NREM
3. 20-25% of sleep time
4. awaken people state they were dreaming
5. ↑ RR, ↑ Temp, ↑ BP, ↑ metabolic rate, ↓ DTR
Normal Sleep Cycle characteristics & path (3)
1. usually only 2 stage 4's a night
2. 4 to 5 cycles a night about 100 min each
3. Path = 1-2-3-4-3-2-REM-2-3-2-REM
How is sleep differ from child to older adult?
Children need more sleep
Older Adults have less stage 4 & shorter REM
What are ten factors affecting sleep?
1. Development considerations = develop patterns of sleep
2. Motivation = desire to be awake & alert
4. Lifestyle = Melatonin → working the night shift
5. Physical activity = affects REM & NREM. activity 2 hours before sleep can affect sleep
6. Diet = caffeine, tobacco, alcohol
7. Environment = change from usual. affects both REM & NREM
8. Psychological stress = disturbed sleep, ↓ REM leads to anxiety/stress
9. Illness = ↓ gastric secretions
10. Medications = Barb, amph, diuretics
What should you avoid at least 2 hours before bed?
What is Insomnia? (6)
1. Difficulty falling asleep or
2. Intermittent sleep or
3. Early awakening
4. more common in women >60 (especially menopause, stress, travelers, depression
5. Will affect performance/mood the next day. Tired, lethargic, irritable during the day
6. Tx: promote good sleep habits
What is Narcolepsy? (5)
1. uncontrollable desire to sleep regardless of activity
2. life threatening
3. usually appears in adolescents
4. tx: sedatives & stimulants (Ridalin, Provigil)
5. may be genetic
What is Sleep Apnea? (5)
1. stop breathing for 10sec to 2min
2. caused by malfunctioning neurons
3. caused by fat buildup & loss of muscle tone in & around airway
4. Causes: overweight & short necks
5. can lead to: heart disease, attack, failure/stroke/ depression/breathing problems
What is the Dx & Tx of Sleep Apnea?
Diagnosis: through sleep studies / EEG electrodes to your head
avoid laying on your back
What is Restless Leg Syndrome? (4)
1. unpleasant creeping, crawling, tingling
2. must move legs for relief
3. more common in elderly, anemic (Fe deficiency), pregnant, & diabetic & end stage renal disease
4. Tx: ropinirole (Requip), ankle to thigh massage, walking, eliminate caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, mild analgesic
What is Sleep Deprivation? (5)
1. seen in hospitalized patients
2. different than insomnia
3. ↓ amount, consistency, or quality REM, NREM
4. Impairs concentration and attention
5. Imposes serious safety risks
- give 2 hours of uninterrupted sleep
What are six S/S of Sleep Disturbances?
1. ↓ energy level
2. puffy eyes / glazed / droopy eyelids
3. crabby / don't make sense / yawning
4. large neck
6. deviated septum
What are the components of Sleep Disturbance Assessment?
1. sleep/wake patterns
2. effects on everyday functions (remembering things)
3. use of sleep aids (Rx or OTC)
4. presence of sleep disturbances
What are the five components of a targeted sleep disturbance history?
1. Nature of the problem
2. Associated s/s
3. Onset and frequency of occurrence
4. affect on everyday life severity
5. how is patient coping - might want them to do a sleep diary
What are the components of a sleep diary? (3)
1. Daily record for 2 weeks
2. Include: Bedtime, onset of sleep, awakenings, food, activities, events before sleep, stressors
3. Maybe graph of the awakening
What four s/s should you look for in a physical exam?
1. Energy level
2. Facial characteristics = glazing eyes, ↓ animation, swollen eyes
3. Behavioral characteristics = yawning, rubbing eyes, slow speech
4. Physical data = obesity & large neck
What are four Nursing Diagnoses for Sleep?
1. Disturbed Sleep Pattern = problem is time limited
2. Sleep Deprivation = problem is prolonged
3. Readiness for Enhanced Sleep = asking for more information on how to improve sleep
4. RC Sleep Apnea
What are five Disturbed Sleep Pattern Interventions?
1. create a restful environment
2. appropriate snack = (carbs)
3. promote relaxation & comfort
4. support usual sleep-wake patterns
5. avoid alcohol, caffeine & excessive fluids
What are four types of medications?
1. Hypnotics - Barbiturates, Benzodiazipines, Misc
4. Herbal medicine = Melatonin
What are the three actions of Barbiturates?
1. reduce nerve impulse transmission to cerebral cortex
2. raises seizure threshold
3. inhibits REM sleep
What are the three concerns of Barbiturates?
1. Drowsiness, hangover, increased risk of injury
2. OD: respiratory depression, coma, death
3. habit forming
What are three examples of Barbiturates?
1. Secobarbitol (Seconal)
2. Pentobarbitol (Nembutal)
3. Phenobarbitol (Luminal)
What are the three actions of Benzodiazipines?
1. depress CNS activity to promote calm
2. Reduces sensory stimulation & relaxes skeletal muscles
3. Depresses REM somewhat
What are the three concerns of Benzodiazipines?
1. HA, drowsiness, increases fall risk
2. hangover effect
3. OD: confusion, coma
What are three examples of Benzodiazipines?
1. Flurazepam (Dalmane)
2. Temazepam (Restoril)
3. Triazolam (Halcion)
What are the two concerns of non-Benzodiazipines?
1. risk for fall
2. ↑ residual sleepiness in elderly
What are three examples of non-Benzodiazipines?
1. zolpidem (Ambien)
2. zalepion (sonata)
2. Eszopilone (Lunesta)
What are the actions & examples of Chloral Hydrate (Noctec)?
1. depresses CNS activity w/o suppressing REM
2. doesn't last long / stops quickly (lasts a couple days)
3. Tachyphylaxis = doesn't induce sleep, no reaction
4. Micky Finn (date rape drug w/ alcohol, slip a mickey)
What are the two actions of Eszopilone (Lunesta)?
1. Slows brain activity to allow sleep w/o suppressing REM
2. Approved for LT treatment of insomnia
What are the three concerns of Eszopilone (Lunesta)?
1. Risk for injury
2. Daytime drowsiness
3. Requires weaning
Herbal Therapy (Valerian) (7)
1. root used for sleep disorders
2. Depresses CNS
3. doesn't affect REM
4. also for menstrual cramps & anxiety control
5. risk for falls
6. avoid machinery
7. caution w/ ETOH
Herbal Therapy (Kava) (4)
1. Not FDA approved
2. plant rhizome that promotes sleep
3. yellowing of skin
4. liver failure
What is Melatonin? (6)
1. hormone produced by pineal gland to control sleep-wake cycles
2. levels change in response to light
3. possible uses: jet lag / seasonal / shift work
4. only works if you have abnormal levels
5. risk for injury
6. changes levels of hormones = thyroid, Cortisol, Estradiol, Vasopressin, Glucose (↑ BG for DM)