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43 terms

Sociology 101 Final

CHAPTER SIX
STUDY
PLAY
Social Group
A collection of two or more people who frequently interact with one another (History Club)
Aggregate
A collection of people who happen to be at the same place at the same time but have little else in common (Bus stop)
Category
A number of people who never of met one another but share a similar characteristic such as age, race, or gender
Secondary Group
Sociologist Charles H. Cooley's Theory larger more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal goal oriented relationships for a limited amount of time
Primary Group
Sociologist Charles H. Cooley's theory to describe small less specialized group in which members engage in face to face emotion based interactions over an extended amount of time.
Dyad Sumner
A group composed of two members
Tryad Sumner
a group composed of three members
Ingroup
William Graham Sumners Theroy where a group to which a person belongs and with which a person feels a sense of identity
Outgroup
William Graham Sumners Theroy a group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility
Reference Group
A group that strongly influences a persons behavior and social attitudes regardless if the person is a member
Network
A web of social relationships that link one person with other people and through them with other people they know (facebook)
Expressive
Emotional needs especially those involving soft expression and support from family
Instrumental
According to functionalist task oriented needs needs can not always be met by one person so the group work cooperatively to fill a specific goal
George Simmel
Sociologist who suggested that small groups have distinctive interaction patterns that do not exist in larger groups. (Dyad and Tryad theories)
Conformity Size
amount of people who conform in a group
Absolute Size
Number of members a group actually has
Relative Size
Number of potential members a group has
Functionalist Perspective
sociological approach that views society as a stable, orderly socity
Instrumental Leadership
Goal or task oriented leadership
Expressive Leadership
provides emotional support for members
Leadership Characteristics
instrumental leadership and expressive and leadership
Lassez Fair
leaders who are minimally involved in decision making and encourage group members to make their own decisions
Authoritarian
leaders who make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members
Democratic
encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building
Conformity
the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by society, sub cultural, or other group
Compliance
...
Obedience
listening to orders of an authority figure
Sexual Harassment
more likely to occur when encouraged by others. Its a bad bad thing. Consist of unwanted sexual advances, request for sexual favors, or other verbal, physical conduct of sexual nature.
Group Conformity
everyone in a group conforming
Group Think
is the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately think is unwise. (Elevator Guy)
Social Change
...
Rational Choice
...
UTILITARIANISM
a belief that the purpose of all action should be to bring about the greatest happiness to the greatest amount of people
SELF-INTEREST
is the basic motivating factor in peoples interactions
SOCIAL EXCHANGE
...
RATIONAL CHOICE
based on the assumption that social life can be explained by using models of rational individual action
FORMAL ORGANIZATION
a highly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals in the most efficient manner
NORMATIVE
they pursue some common interest or gain personal satisfaction or prestige from being a member (political parties)
COERCIVE
organizations or associations that people are forced to join
BUREAUCRACY
an organization or model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and procedures, and personality, and in personnel
Weber
sociologist interested in bureaucracy that accelerated during the industrial revolution
Rationality
According to Weber it is the process by which traditional methods of social organization characterize by informality and spontaneity, or gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures
CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACY
Division of labor, hierarchy of authority, rules and regulations, qualification based employment, impersonalty