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100 terms

Intro Kinesiology

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Biomechanics
The application of the mechanical laws of physics and engineering to the motion, structure, and functioning of all living systems, including plants and animals
Human Movement Biomechanics
The study of the structure and function of human beings using the principles and methods of mechanics of physics and engineering
Biomechanics of Physical Activity
Subdiscipline of kinesiology, use mechanical laws that determining how we move during physical activity, and how forces act on our bodies to affect the structure and functioning of our bodies
The seven sections of scholarly study of physical activity
Biomechanics, Physiology of physical activity, Philosophy of physical activity, History of physical activity, sociology of physical activity, motor behavior, and sport and exercise psych
Human Factors Engineers
People who design technology based on how people process information and respond to the information when performing a task
First major goal of human movement biomechanics
"Understanding how people use and are affected by the fundamental principles of mechanical physics and engineering that explain how forces influence our structure and function"
Second major goal of human movement biomechanics
"To apply to our theoretical understanding gained through attainment of the first major goal to determine how best to a. improve performance effectiveness or b. increase the safety and health of those body tissues that are affected by forces or those tissues involved in physical activity"
Anthropometry
Study of the physical dimensions of people
Qualitative Analysis
When a movement specialist observes the movement technique of a performer
Quantitative Analysis
If a tool is used to measure and evaluate quantities related to space, time, motion, force, or energy during a performance
Motion Measurement
The use of digital cameras and other motion-detection technology for recording motion in biomechanics
Force Platform
A metal plate with force transducers in the beams that hold up the plate, usually embedded solidly in the surface
Pressure
The amount of force applied to a given amount of surface area
Electromyography
Method for estimating forces, Measuring the electrical activity of the membranes of the muscle cells when nerve cells stimulate them to contract
Ground Reaction Force
Force that is generated any time you push against the ground because the ground pushes back, Can be created in any direction
Moment
Whenever a force is applied so that it causes an object to rotate
Profiles
Portrayals of biomechanical and other characteristics of a group of performers-- Elite athletes, athletes with disabilities, or novices
Elite Athlete Model
Profile strategy that assumes that elite or highly skilled performers must be using ideal technique to achieve their success
Normative Model
Using biomechanical values of the general population in a profile rather than values of highly skilled performers or elite athletes
Exercise Physiology or Exercise Science
A subdiscipline of the biophysical sphere, along with biomechanics of physical activity
Physiology
The study of how the body functions
Exercise
Form of physical activity engaged in to improve or regain performance, health, or bodily appearance
Sport Physiology
The application of "the concepts of exercise physiology to training the athlete and enhancing the athlete's sport performance"
A study reporting that American children were less fit than European Children and President Eisenhower's heart attack
What two events that happened in the 1950s that peaked America's interest in physical activity?
Gerontology
The study of aging
Clinical Exercise Physiologists
Physiologists who study the role that physical activity plays in disease management and rehabilitation
The muscle biopsy needle
The use of _________ by Bergstrom and Hultman to sample muscle tissue and examine muscle glycogen concentration during exercise resulted in one of the most important advances in exercise physiology
Oxygen Debt
Excess oxygen consumption following exercise
Hypertension
High blood pressure
Method Used to determine maximal oxygen uptake or VO2 Max
Increasing the intensity of exercise progressively until the person can no longer maintain the required exercise intensity
Hydrostatic Weighing or Underwater Weighing
The gold standard for determining body composition in humans, The individual is weighed while submerged under water, Makes use of Archimedes' principle
Myofibrils
Inside of the muscle fiber, contain the contractile elements that shorten to generate force and move your bones during physical activity, There are three main types
Fast Glycolytic (FG) Fibers
Fast-twitch fibers that use almost exclusively anaerobic energy systems, Create the most force and power but fatigue rapidly
Fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG)
Fast-twitch fibers that use both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
The primary source of energy for muscle contraction, high-energy phosphate
ATP-Phosphocreatine System, Glycolytic System, Aerobic System
What are the three primary energy systems used to generate the ATP that muscles need during physical activity?
Muscular Strength
The maximal amount of force exerted by a muscle group
Muscular Power
The product of the force times the speed of movement
Muscular Endurance
The ability of a muscle to repeatedly exert force over a prolonged period
Isometric Exercise
Tension is produced without muscle length
Isotonic Exercise
Muscle changes length without changing tension
Isokinetic Exercise
Muscle changes length at a constant rate of velocity
Progressive overload
Training principle in which the exerciser must overload the muscle group in order for strength to increase
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of individual muscle fibers
Hyperplasia
Muscle fibers split and increase
Cardiac Output
The amount of blood pumped out of the heart each minute, function of both the heart rate and stroke volume
Stroke Volume
Amount of blood pumped per beat
Cardiovascular Endurance
Ability to exercise at moderate to heavy intensities for prolonged periods
Ventilation
The process of moving air in and out of the lungs
Minute volume
The amount of air exhaled per minute
Tidal Volume
The amount of air exhaled per breath
Respiratory Frequency
The number of breaths per minute
Ventilatory Threshold
The point at which your breathing begins to increase rapidly
Maximal Ventilation
The amount of air entering and leaving your lungs
Metabolic Rate
The rate at which the body uses energy
Hypothermia
Below-normal body temperatures
Carbohydrate Loading
Technique used by endurance athletes with a diet high in carbohydrates in order to increase muscle glycogen storage
Angioplasty
Procedure used to open or block narrow coronary vessels
Five Spheres of Professional Practice Centered in Physical Activity
Health and fitness, Therapeutic exercise, Sport management, Coaching and sport education, teaching physical education
Coronary Heart Disease
The leading cause of mortality in the US
Healthy People 2010 Objective 7-5
A program to increase the number of companies that offer comprehensive employee health promotion programs
O'Donnell's Definition of Health Promotion
The art and science of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health
Physical, Emotional, Intellectual, Spiritual, Social
What are the five dimensions of the Multidimensional Model of Wellness?
Therapeutic Exercise
The systematic and scientific application of exercise and movement experiences to develop or restore muscular strength, endurance, or flexibility
Rehabilitation
Processes and treatments that restore skills or functions that were previously acquired but that have been lost because of injury, disease, or behavioral traits
Habilitation
The process and treatments leading to the acquisition of skills and functions that are normal and expected for an individual of a particular age and status
Habilitational Therapeutic Exercise
When a physical therapist is attempting to correct congenital postural problems
Rehabilitational Therapeutic Exercise
Restoring the patient's physical skills and functions, reduces the risk of reinjury and of suffering different types of injury
Physical Dysfunction
The inability to use one or more limbs or the torso
Sports Medicine
An aspect of therapeutic exercise that is exclusively dedicated to the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of athletic injuries
Prehabilitation
Occurs following the injury but before surgery
Private Practice
The entrepreneurial venture in which the professional establishes his or her own place of work
Athletic Training
A healthcare profession that addresses the prevention, evaluation, management, treatment, and rehabilitation of injuries and other conditions experienced by athletes and other physically active individuals
Occupational Therapist
Therapist who assists people with physical, emotional, or mental disabilities to restore or maintain as much independence as possible in daily living and work throughout their lives
Physical Therapist
Therapist who is educated to provide rehabilitative care to a diverse patient population with a ride range of injuries, illnesses, and diseases
Cardiopulmonary
Specialty of PT, Treatment of patients with acute or chronic diseases of the cardiovascular or respiratory system
Clinical Electrophysiology
Specialty of PT, Measurement of normal and abnormal electrical activity within the human body
Geriatrics
Specialty of PT, Conditions related to aging or other problems associated with older members of the population
Neurology
Specialty of PT, Treatment patients with injuries or diseases of the brain and nervous system
Orthopedics
Specialty of PT, Treatment of patients with injuries or diseases of the muscles, bones, and joints
Pediatrics
Specialty of PT, Treatment of children in health and disease during development from birth through adolescence
Sports Physical Therapy
Specialty of PT, Treatment of an athletic population, normally people who have incurred injuries as the result of competition
Class Management
Organizing students in such a way that learning is most likely to occur
Discipline
Teaching rules, enforcing them when they are broken, and rewarding exceptional behavior
Competent Bystanders
Well-behaved students who consistently avoided participation without attracting notice
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy or Pygmalion Effect
When a teacher has expectations of a child that influence the child to behave precisely in accordance with the expectations
Federal Laws stipulating that children with disabilities will be provided with a physical education program
94-142, 101-476, and 105-17
Dudley Sargent
Medical Degree from Yale, Circus Acrobat, Directed Hemmingway Gymnasium at Harvard, Developer of Weight Training, Instituted the Harvard Summer School of Physical Education
Delphine Hannah
Spent most of her career at Oberlin College, First female professor of physical education, Trained many of the early leaders of physical education, Orthopedics Specialist, Strong advocate of the Swedish Medical System, Development of scientific curriculum for physical education teachers
Amy Morris Homans
Not formally trained in physical education, Philanthropist who founded the Boston normal school for gymnastics, First director of Mary Hemenway College
Franklin Henry
Proposed the creations of the sub-disciplines: Biomechanics, Exercise Physiology, Exercise sport and psychology and motor development
Physical Education
A part of school curriculum that offers the best opportunity to provide physical activity to all children and to teach them the skills and knowledge needed to establish and sustain an active lifestyle
Pedagogy
The art, science or profession of teaching
5 essential teaching elements
Safe, secure, and comfortable learning environment; Communicate clear expectations; Provide and control KP and KR; Ensure enough successful practice; Guarantee they perceive they are learning and making progress
American Public Health Association, Medical Fitness Association, American College of Sports Medicine, Medical Wellness Association, National Strength and Conditioning Association
Name 5 Professional Health and Fitness Membership Associations
Odds
Risk/(1-Risk)
Relative Risk
Experimental Group Injury Risk/ Control Group Injury Risk
Relative Risk Reduction
(1-Relative Risk) * 100
Absolute Risk Reduction
Control Group Injury Risk - Experimental Group Injury Risk
Numbers Needed to Treat
1/(Absolute Risk Reduction)