chapter 17 words def. Dylan McDonald

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risk factor
A trait or habit that increases a person's chances of having or getting a disease
diabetes mellitus
a condition of abnormal use of glucose usually caused by too little insulin or lack of response to insulin
insulin
Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.
diabetic coma
a loss of consciousness due to uncontrolled diabetes and tge resulting buildup of toxic ketones in the blood.
ketones
Fragments formed by the tissues during incomplete use of fat for energy, and released into the blood.
insulin shock
the result of too much insulin which causes a dangerous drop in blood glucose.
cardiovascular disease
a general term for all diseases of the heart and blood vessels
arteries
blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues
capillaries
the smallest blood vessels which connect the smallest arteries with the smallest veins. Nourishment and fluid noramlly trapped in thick walled arteries and veins can easily pass through the delicate walls of the capillaries
veins
blood vessels that carry waste containing blood from the tissues back to the heart
cardiovascular system
The system of structures that circulate blood and lymph throughout the body.
blood
The thick red fluid that flows through the body's blood vessels and transports important substances throughout the body.
chambers
rooms, in the heart, large, hollow areas that recieve incoming blood from the lungs and tissues and ship it out again.
atria
Two upper chambers of the heart
ventricles
the two lower chambers of the heart, and they pump blood out to the lungs and body.
coronary arteries
the two arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle
valves
flaps of tissue that open and close to allow the flow of blood in one direction only. The heart's valves are located at the entrances and exits of its chambers
heart murmur
a heart sound that reflects damaged or abnormal heart valves
electrocardiogram
a record of the electrical activity of the heart that, if abnormal, may indicate heart disease.
lymph
the clear fluid that bathes each cell and transfers needed substances and wastes back and forth between the blood and the cells
heart disease
any disease of the heart muscle or other working parts of the heart
atherosclerosis
the most common form of CVD. A disease characterized by plaques along the inner walls of the arteries.
plaques
mounds of fat, mixed with minerals, that build up along artery walls in atherosclerosis.
aneurysm
the balooning out of an artery wall at a point where it has grown weak
aorta
The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
platelets
tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation
thrombus
a stationary clot. When it has grown enough to close off a blood vessel, this dangerous event is a thrombosis
coronary thrombosis
the closing off of a vessel that feeds the heart muscle by a stationary clot, or thrombus
heart attack
the event in which vessels that feed the heart muscle become blocked, causing tissue death
cerebral thrombosis
the closing off of a vessel that feeds the brain by a stationary clot, or thrombus
stroke
the shutting off of the blood flow to the brain by plaques, a clot, or hemorrhage.
embolus
a clot that breaks loose and travels through the blood stream
embolism
the sudden closure of a blood vessel by a traveling blood clot, or embolus
critical phase
in atherosclerosis the stage when plaques cover more than half of the inner surfaces of the arteries
angina
pain in the heart region caused by lack of oxygen
fibrillation
extremely rapid contractions of the heart that lack the power needed to pump blood around the body
pacemaker
a device that delivers electrical impulses to the heart to regulate the heartbeat
coronary artery bypass surgery
surgery to provide an alternate route for blood to reach heart tissue, bypassing a blocked coronary artery
heart transplant
the surgical replacement of a diseased heart with a healthy one
artificial heart
a pump designed to fit into the human chest cavity and perform the heart's function of pumping blood around the body
systolic
the blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the heart's ventricles are contracted and the blood is being pushed out into the arteries.
diastolic
the blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the hearts venticles are relaxing
lipoproteins
protein and fat clusters that transport fats in the blood
low density lipoproteins
lipoproteins that carry fat and cholesterol from the liver, where they are made, to the tissues where they are used
high density lipoproteins
lipoproteins that carry fat and cholesterol away from the tissues back to the liver for breakdown and removal from the body
cancer
a type of disorder of cell growth that results in invasion and destruction of surrounding healthy tissue by abnormal cells
tumor
an abnormal mass of tissue that can live and reproduce itself, but performs no service to the body.
malignancy
a dangerous cancerous growth that sheds cells into body fluids and spreads to new locations to start new cancer colonies
melanoma
an especially dangerous cancer of the pigmented cells of the skin, related to sun exposure in people with light-colored skin
myeloma
a cancer originating in the cells of the bone marrow
lymphomas
Cancers that arise in organs of the immune system.
leukemias
cancers that arise in the blood cell making tissues
carcinomas
cancers that arise in the skin, body chamber linings, or glands
sarcomas
Cancers that arise in the connective tissue cells, including bones, ligaments, and muscles.
initiator
a carcinogen, an agent required to start the formation of cancer
mutation
a change in a cell's genetic material. Once the genetic material has changed, the change is inherited by the offspring of that cell
promoter
a substance that assists in the development of malignant tumors, but does not initiate them on its own
benign
noncancerous not harmful; a description of a tumor that is not able to spread from one area to another.
metastasized
when speaking of cancer cells, a term that means the cancer cells have migrated from one part of the body to another, and started new growths just like the original tumor.
melanin
the protective skin pigment responsible for the tan, brown, or black color of human skin; produced in abundance upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation
suntan lotion
lotion that may or may not protect from solar radiation
sunscreen
a partial block against the cancer-causing rays of the sun
sun block
A total block against the cancer-causing rays of the su. Has SPF of 50 or greater. Zinc oxide is and example of sun block.
radon
A gas that arises from the earth where radioactive materials are present.
Hodgkin`s disease
a lymphomas that attacks people in early life and is treatable with radiation therapy.
mammogram
X-ray examination of the breast, a screening test for cancer.
polyps
Tumors that grow on stem, resembling mushrooms. Polyps bleed easily, and some have the tendency to become malignant.
radiation therapy
the application of cell-destroying radiation to kill cancerous tissues
chemotherapy
the administration of drugs that harm the cancer cells, but that do not harm the client, or at least do not harm the client as much as the disease does
phytochemicals
Chemicals in plant-based foods that are not nutrients but that have effects on the body.
cruciferous vegetables
Vegetables of the cabbage family.
irradiation
Ionizing radiation applied to food to kill microorganisms and other pests. Ionizing radiation disrupts the internal molecular workings of cells, killing them.
genetic engineering
a science of manipulating the genes of living things to instill some desirable trait not present in the original organism. An example is a tomato given a gene to delay its rotting.