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Arts and Humanities
Music 17 Midterm
Terms in this set (41)
Used for Jamaican cultural performances. Often in Urban cities in the Ghettos. Indigenized foreign media and did something unique with it. It was the ghettos newspaper.
Improvised by singing and hyping up crowds through sound system events. Often produced the music, riddims, mixes that they would perform over.
Chose the riddims and songs that were played out of sound systems.
Media Circulation, Technology (As it relates to sound system culture in Jamaica)
Globalization of Vinyl records was huge in producing Jamaica's music culture. Sound system technology and U.S. R&B produced a thriving music industry in Jamaica.
Instrumental tracks with no vocals that allow DJs to do what they want over the music in live situations
Began in 1930s and participants were treated as outcasts, it was connected to Pan-African movements and rose in popularity in the 1960's as part of a larger liberation movement. Became even more popular with the outbreak of Reggae (helps that Bob Marley was a Rastafarian).
Nationalism in Jamaica
Once they got their independence their was a strong sense of optimism in Jamaica about the future. Jamaican's were very proud and had their own sound system culture among other things. You can hear this sense of nationalism in the song "Forward March" by Derrick Morgan (1962). This sense of unity was strengthened by religious and social political movements connecting themselves to the idea of the Black Atlantic.
Culture (What it is and what are the problems with culture and with area studies?)
A people's way of life, learned and transmitted through centuries of interaction and adaption in the human world. Music is very culturally specific... it's not really a universal language so this can cause problems (Qur'an recitation is an example)
1) Affective experience 2) performance 3) community 4) memory/history
Study of music in culture, this includes soundscapes, rhythms, patterns of transnationalism, and the people who make the music.
Thick Description: Emic and Etic Perspective
Emic= Insider data
Thick Description= Interpretation of a native's own ideas of an event, based on the anthropologist's empirical knowledge.
Etic: Outsider data
What are Titon's Four Components of Music Culture
Ideas (why are all performers men?), Activities (is there a reason for the gatherings?), Repertories (What is the meaning behind the songs they play?), and Material culture (Why do they wear the things they do?)
Globalization: Homogenization and Indigenization
Homogenization: Cultural grey-out... fear that globalization will cause all cultures to become similar.
Indigenization: "Global facts take local form" Looking at the world through your own cultural lends and processing it in ways that make sense locally
Soundscape (What is it... how it shapes our worlds, identities, religion, etc.)
Characteristic sounds of a certain place. Shape atmosphere
Prepare #3 and #4 Short Essays
(Fill in this blank) #3 say something about uneasy juxtaposition
Islamic Soundscape: How does sound shape religious practice, how does religious practice share soundscapes?
Sonic Devotional Practices*****
You can hear a soundscape as music, but that doesn't mean that's what it is to someone else. Sonic Devotional Practices are things like reciting the Qur'an which can seem like a sort of musical performance, but that is not what it's intended to be or seen as by the performers.
Music (Sacred and Secular)
Music in Everyday Life (Morocco)
Blessing from God, Prophet, or a saint → spiritual energy (healing)
Rhythms used in Ska that are closely related to the early music of Calypso
Influenced from the US Jamaicans began making their own music to play through sound systems in the 50/60s. "Lollipop girl"
Used Mento rhythms. "Forward March" is an example. Emphasis on upbeat. Optimistic music in the 60s.
Less optimism, sometimes sung about rude boys, copied soul music from the US, but different from Jamaican R&B, slower tempos.
More explicitly political and often involved Rastafarianism, symbolic of Jamaican pop coming into its own. New sounds and strong emphasis on the bass... sound systems remained key.
Deejays became more important (singing more, toasting, etc.), people recycled/remixed rides, Genre of music in 1970s-1980s
Call to Prayer
(1960) The Folkes Brothers (w/Prince Buster, Count Ossie) - SKA - Complex track that fits between Jamaican R&B and Ska, prince buster was muslim and set himself apart from rastafarians, familiar upbeat of Jamaican music heard in the drums
(1962) Derrick Morgan - Ska - About Jamaica's Independence and it's full of optimism towards future, unofficial anthem of Jamaica, popular track in the ghetto, used instruments like piano that would change a lot later on
(1982) Sister Nancy - DanceHall - Example of a Jamaican Riddim being sung over by a Deejay
(1969/76) The Abyssinians - Reggae - Wasn't liked until the 70's when it was re-recorded and Rastafarianism was more popular. Horns play melodic harmony and you can hear minor tonalities.
(1966) Alton Ellis - Rocksteady - Less optimistic music with slower tempos (Jamaica's version of US soul music) Song is very stripped down but is getting closer to Reggae with its heavy bass
(1963) - The Wailing Wailers - SKA
Telling people to relax because change isn't going to come easily after independence. (Themes of music)Early Rastafarianism/politics connecting themselves to Black Atlantic.
"Take it easy"
(1966) - Rocksteady - Hopeton Lewis. Same stress on upbeat as Ska, but slowed down and emphasized by guitar. Isolates vocals and is strippe down to bass guitar and drums. Positive vibe to not give up when things aren't going as planned after becoming independent in Jamaica.
"Do the Reggae"
(1968) - Reggae - Toots and the Maytals
Organ used to fill soundspace. Not yet live music, drums more exciting than in rocksteady.
"Stir it Up"
(1973) Bob Marley and the Wailers- Reggae - Live element added to the music. Double strum added to the upbeat. New instruments used like organ, etc.
"Tougher than Tough"
(1967) Derrick Morgan- Rocksteady - Praised the Rude Boy's, people celebrated Robin Hood characteristics, piano has prominent intro, some people thought they were dangerous and bad
(1956) Sang & Harriot - Jamaican R&B - Song created during a time when Jamaican's got interested in SoundSystems, kind of a misoganistic song. Expressed hyper masculinity in Jamaican Culture, popular because it was dance music.
Know difference between intentionally and unintentional musical prayer
Abdu Hafid Making doughnuts, reciting Qu'Ran
Be able to identify Abdu Hafid's adhan. (Call to Prayer)
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