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A member of the tribe of Franks who settled in the Netherlands in the 4th century AD


A sub-set of Frankish people who settled in Germany


A group of Germanic tribes who flooded into the Roman Empire and later revolted, weakening the empire.


Germanic people who settled in the Roman province of Gaul and established a great empire during the Middle Ages; wanted to unite all Germanic tribes

Merovingian Line

A Frankish line founded by Clovis I that reigned in Gaul and Germany from about 500 to 750

Clovis I

Germanic king who was first to unite all Germanic kingdoms under one rule; converted to Christianity

Mayor of the Palace

Frankish official who held power in government; performed all the official duties of the kingdom

Do Nothing Kings

Nickname, earned by the Merovingian kings due to their lack of prestige and accomplishments

Charles Martel

Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe

Battle of Tours

(732 AD) Frankish Christians defeat Muslim invaders and stop the spread of Islam into Europe

Pepin the Short

Frankish King who defeated the Lombards and gave their land to the Pope; territory became the Papal States.


Germanic people who had settled in northern Italy and were pushing south, threatening Rome; crushed by Charlemagne

Donation of Pepin

The gift of land given by Pepin the Short to the pope after defeating the Lombards

Charlemagne (Charles the Great)

King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of literature and learning


The capital of Charlemagne's empire


The Lombard king who Charlemagne defeated in 771 to become king of Lombard

Pope Adrian I

Pope who relied on Charlemagne to defend the Papal States from the Lombards

Pope Leo III

(December 25, 800 AD) Pope who crowned Charlemagne as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire


A Frankish courtier and dedicated servant of Charlemagne, of whom he wrote his famous biography

Carolingian Renaissance

Period of intellectual, cultural, and economic revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries, with the peak of the activities occurring during the reigns of both Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.

Alcuin of York

A respected scholar who hired other scholars to teach at Charlemagne's schools; he also established a curriculum

Charles the Bald

Grandson of Charlemagne who, upon his [Charlemagne's] death, received the western part of the empire (modern-day France and Benelux)

Lothair I

Grandson of Charlemagne who, upon his [Charlemagne's] death, inherited the Middle Kingdom (modern-day Italy) and became Holy Roman Emperor.

Louis the German

Grandson of Charlemagne who, upon his [Charlemagne's] death, inherited the East Saxon Kingdom (modern-day Germany and Belgium)

Louis the Pious

Charlemagne's only surviving son; his sons divide the Carolingian Empire into three


A political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service


In the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty

Code of Chivalry

A code of honor followed by knights that outlines treatment of women and going on quests

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