21 terms

American Nation Chapter 9

The Jacksonian principle that rationalized the dismissal of experienced government employees from their jobs by arguing that no one had any intrinsic right to hold an appointed office; that, if left in office too long, they would become indifferent toward public interests and tend toward incompetence and corruption.
pet banks
Following his victory in the Bank War, President Jackson decided to withdraw federal funds deposited in its vaults. Secretary of Treasury Robert Taney then redeposited the funds in several state banks that Jackson;s enemies bestowed with this name.
Specie Circular
An executive order issued by President Jackson in 1836 to halt a speculative land mania fueled by the easy availability of paper currency issued by state banks. The order provided that purchasers must pay for public land in gold and silver. It abruptly halted the speculative boom.
common man
The Americans of Andrew Jackson's day (1820-1840) found it easy to believe that every person was the equal to and as politically important as his neighbor. This view led to the glorification of ordinariness and made mediocrity a virtue. It also led to a democratizing of American politics in the period.
President Jackson, who generally held to Jeffersonian views of states' rights and limited government, suggested that once the federal debt was paid off, the surplus revenues of the federal government should be allocating among the states.
President Jackson viewed Indians as savages who were incapable of self-government. He pursued a policy of clearing Indians from the path of westward settlement. By 1840 most eastern tribes had been relocated to lands west of the Mississippi River.
Nullification Crisis
In 1832 a South Carolina convention voided the Tariff of 1832. President Jackson responded by threatening the use of federal troops to compel South Carolina to obey federal law. Congressional leaders worked out a compromise Tariff of 1833. South Carolina then withdrew the ordinance and the crisis passed.
Bank War
In 1832 President Jackson vetoed a politically motivated proposal to renew the charter of the second Bank of the United States. Jackson's veto message asserted that the Bank was unconstitutional, a dangerous monopoly, and vulnerable to control by foreign investors.
Independent Treasury Act
To ensure the absolute safety of federal funds, President Van Buren proposed, and Congress passed, this legislature took the federal government out of banking activity. All payments to the government were to be made in hard case and it was to be stored in government vaults until needed.
Trail of Tears
This term defined the route of the tragic removal of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to Indian Territory under severe conditions in 1838.
equality of opportunity
Jacksonians revered the concept that all special privileged barriers to social and economic mobility and opportunity by removed so that all might have the chance to succeed.
National Republicans
A loosely organized political party that opposed Preseident Jackson and his policies. It coalesced with other anti-Jacksonians in the 1830s to create the Whig party.
Webster-Hayne debate
In 1830, South Carolina Senator Robert Hayne tried to forge an alliance of the South and West based on a cheap land policy and low tariffs. Senator Webster accused Hayne of disunionism and argued that the Constitution was a compact of the American people, not of the states, and that it was perpetual and indissoluble.
Worcester v. Georgia
In 1832, the Supreme Court ruled that a state government could not govern the Indians or their territory lying within that state. With President Jackson's endorsement, Georgia officials ignored the ruling and forced the Cherokees to leave the state.
Jacksonian Democrats
This political party generally championed the principles of equal opportunity, absolute political freedom (for white males), glorification of the common man, and limited government.
Nicholas Biddle
President of the Second Bank of the United States during the Bank War of 1832. He was a competent administrator of the bank's affairs, especially its regulating the availability of credit by controlling the lending policies of state banks.
Jacksonian Democracy
This concept glorified the equality of all adult white males, the common man. It disliked anything that smacked of special privilege. It rejected the elitist view that only the proven "best" men should bbe chosen to manage public affairs.
A term used to describe the withdrawal of exclusive government recognition or support. When finally applied to America's churches in the 1830s, this action reflected the Jacksonian dislike of special privilege.
spoils system
A term, usually used derisively, that identifies the practice of elected officials who appoint loyal members of their own party to public office. Jackson was accused of initiating this practice (which he called rotation-in-office) when he was elected to the presidency in 1828.
Maysville Road veto
In 1830, President Jackson vetoed a bill providing federal aid for the construction of a road because the route was wholly within Kentucky. Jackson generally favored internal improvements, but preferred that local projects like this be left to state funding.
A political party organized in the 1830s and held together to oppose President Jackson and his policies. Led by Henry Clay, they were spiritual descendants of Hamiltonian nationalism.