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Weathering Soils and Mass Wasting EVSC 1010
Terms in this set (43)
is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric
features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the earth's surface.
the breakdown of rocks and minerals, both physically and chemically
these involve the transport of weathered materials by wind, water, and/or ice.
these involve the laying down of material that has been eroded by wind, water, and/or
this occurs when soil and rock moves down a slope under the force of
Mass Wasting (Mass Movement)
_______ are those related to rivers and streams.
________ are those involving the weathering, erosion and deposition of rocks and sediment by
________ are those related to the mass of flowing ice
these relate to the movement of Earth's tectonic plates (includes volcanic activity and
This principle states that geological
change occurs over very long periods of
time, by a series of almost imperceptible
gradualism or uniformitarianism
Geologic change sometimes occurs
rapidly(catastrophes), modifying the path
of slow change.
the decomposition and disintegration of rocks and minerals at Earth's surface.
the removal of weathered rocks by moving water, wind, ice or gravity
this reduces solid rock to smaller
fragments but does not alter the chemical composition of the rocks and minerals
Mechanical weathering (physical weathering)
______ dislodges rocks from cliffs and creates talus slopes
the process of scraping or wearing away
_____ occurs when air and water chemically react
with rock to alter its composition and mineral content
the process of going into solution
this is the process of rock minerals reacting with carbonic acid. Carbonic acid is
formed when water combines with carbon dioxide. Carbonic acid dissolves or breaks down
minerals in the rock.
______ form when ground water dissolves limestone.
this is the reaction of rock minerals with
oxygen, changing the mineral composition of the
In __________, water reacts with a mineral to form a new mineral with the water as part of the
the loose, unconsolidated, weathered material that overlies bedrock.
upper layers of the regolith that support plant growth.
layer generally parallel to the soil surface, whose physical characteristics differ from the layers
above and beneath
_______ is the process by which rocks are broken down into progressively smaller particles and mixed
with decaying organic material.
material from which the soil develops
plants, animals, bacteria and fungi
contour of the land which influences drainage patterns
Five interdependent factors are important in the formation of soils:
parent material, climate, biotic factors, topography, time
_______, _______, and ______ are different types of soils
that form in different climates.
Pedocals, pedalfers, and laterites
this is the downslope movement
of Earth material, primarily under the
influence of gravity
general term for mass wasting and for the
landforms created by mass wasting
Factors influencing the occurrence of landslides:
Steepness of slope
Type of rock and orientation of rock layers
Nature of unconsolidated materials
Water and vegetation
Earthquakes and volcanoes
is the maximum slope
that can be maintained by a specific material
angle of repose
individual particles move
downslope independently of one
another, not as a consolidated
material moves as discrete
materials fall freely in air.
are the three
categories of mass wasting
flow slide and fall
During ________, the land surface moves more
rapidly than deeper layers, so objects
embedded in rock or soil tilt downhill.
In ______, blocks of soil or rock remain
intact as they move down slope. (B) Trees tilt
back into the hillside on this _____ along the
Quesnell River, British Columbia.
__________ commonly occurs in spring or fall when freezing water dislodges
rocks from cliffs.(B) Undercutting of cliffs by waves, streams, or construction
can also cause __________l.
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