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U.S History Midterm
Terms in this set (65)
land bridge that connected Asia and Alaska
member of portuguese royal familyt hat sets up a navigation school, helps early navigation
Italian navigator sailas for spain in discovery of new world
Treaty of Tordesillas
drew lone of demarcation down middle of Atlantic ocean. Spain would own all land to west and Portugal owns all land to east
repeated Columbus's attempt to sail west along coast of south america, named new continent america
sailed from Cuba to Yucatan Penninsula
King Henry VII
Broke away from the Catholic church and created the Anglican Church or the Church of England. Made himself head of the church.
the lost colony
Was discovered by the Virginia Company. Was the first settlement in new found America. Was aided by Captain John Smith
Member of the Society of Friends AKA, the Quakers. Believed in religious toleration. Discovered PA.
top class, owned slaves, same % of the population
was promised food clothing and shelter until their contract expired
planter that organized his own militia to fight natives in the backcountry
marched to jamestown and burned it to the ground
Royal African Company
British company that got involved with African slave trade
an economic theory about world economy
believed that to become wealthy, a country must acquire gold and silver
bloodless revolution in englands where william and mary came to powe.
spread ideas about self gov and governing self and citizen rights
stated that revolutions against kings were justified. published 2 treaties and argued that people's rights were blank slants and that society and education makes people better.
Baron de montesquieu
suggested 3 types of political power. executive, legislative, and judicial
Jean Jacques Rousseau
in social contract, argued that a gov. should be formed by consent of the people, who would then make their own laws
Royal Proclamation Act
act passed to calm natives who were angered w/ westward expansion. drew line south down Appalachian mountains.
Sons of Liberty
colonial group that demonstrated and protested against British Acts.
a group of colonists demonstrating in front of British officials house and colonists refused to leave. 5 killed, 6 wounded.
First Continental Congress
55 delegates representing 12 colonies met in philly.
(Tories)american colonists who remained loyal to King George III and felt that British law should be upheld.
(Whigs) Americans who wanted change and viewed George as a tyrant.
2nd Continental Congress
met in philly to come up with war fund for american revolution
writer of the constitution and suggested that each colony should create a Committee of Correspondence author of declaration of independence
Battle of Saratoga
turning point of american rev. after french agreed to help the us. american victory, gave us support
First President of the United States. Was a General.
Articles of Confederation
set up weak central gov that met once a year. power was to declare was and sign treaties
basis for governing new territory. created a new territory north of Ohio River and east of Mississippi River
occurred in MA when gov raised taxes and farmers led by Daniel Shay attacked state arsenal
plan proposed throwing out articles and create a gov w/ power to make national laws and power to tax.
New Jersey Plan
(William Paterson) Plan was to revise the Articles to make a stronger central gov. and allowed congress to tax and regulate trade
(Connecticut Compromise) made up by Roger Sherman and proposed that house of representatives would be elected by people and representation depended on population. (equal representation, 2 senators)
plan for counting slaves to determine taxes and representations. Every 5 slaves will count as 3 free citizens.
Checks and Balances
prevented any one branch of gov from becomming too powerful. created a ssytem for making changes or amendments to the doc.
These people supported the Constitution. Believed that a strong central government was needed to impose taxes and regulate trade.
Supporters: Washington, Jefferson, and Madison.
These people opposed the Constitution. Believed that it endangered the independence of individual states. They also felt that it should include a Bill of Rights that would protect individual freedoms. They agreed that the U.S. needed a central government, but questions who would have the authority (National vs. State Power).
Supporters: John Hancock, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, and Samuel Adams.
Congress created the Department of State, Department of Treasury, Department of War, and the Office of Attorney General. Thomas Jefferson was Secretary of State, Alexander Hamilton was Head of Treasury, General Henry Knox was General of War, and Edmund Randolph was Attorney General.
Powers that are specifically listed in constitution.
Powers that were not specifically listed in the constitution.
To make money, Hamilton put a tax on Whiskey. This angered many farmers because it was a direct tax on the people. Pennsylvania farmers terrorized tax collectors, stopped court proceedings, robbed mail, and destroyed the still of those who paid the taxes in an effort to rebel against the tax. But Washington sent 15,000 troops to stop the rebellion. The use of troops against citizens worried Americans.
Alien and Sedation Act
Limited the rights of illegal citizens and expanded presidential powers.
argued that gov needed checks and balances to prevent that government needed checks to having too much power.
vice pres, 3rd pres
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court for 34 years who made the court a powerful independent branch of government.
Lewis and Clark
They led the party that was sent to find a Northwest Passage. Was aided by Sacagawea (Shoshone Indian) were served as an interpreter and guide. The trip increased their knowledge of the west and gave U.S. a claim called Oregon Territory.
Treaty of Ghent
Was signed to officially end the War of 1812.
Era of Good Feelings
Term used to describe the Monroe Presidency, because harmony in national politics because there was really only one party (Republicans).
Adams Onis Treaty
Spain gave into U.S. demands and sold Spanish Florida to the U.S.
Proclaimed that the American continent was "henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power." This kept Europe out of Latin America.
hero of battle of new orleans, and conquers Flordia. 7th president
Free Enterprise System
people enjoy private property rights and in u.s. citizens can gain capital (money) and invest where they want
1st american inventor locomotive
1st steamboat on Hudson river
creater of cotton gin and interchangaable parts and gun making, (part of industrial rev.)
Was used on small farms and plantations. Workers were given a specific task to finish everyday and when completed they could do whatever they wanted.
Slaves were put into work gangs that labored in the fields from sunup to sundown 6 days a week.
Former slave who became a leader in the antislavery/abolition movement.
Had four parts:
1.) Admitting Maine as a free state
2.) Admitting Missouri as a slave state
3.) Drew an imaginary line at Missouri's southern border allowing slavery in the Arkansas territory.
4.) Prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of Missouri's southern border.
John Quincy Adams
Son of John Adams, Secretary of State. Tried for reelection after first term but did not succeed for a second one.
New party formed by Andrew Jackson's supporters
Were rules developed in the southern states that African Americans had to follow.
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