Junior Cert - WW1 Terms
Terms in this set (17)
Cause of World War I
On the afternoon of 28 June 1914 the heir to the Austrian throne, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife were shot dead at Sarajevo in Bosnia.
World War I
Global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. From the time of its occurrence until the approach of World War II, it was called simply the World War or the Great War, and thereafter the First World War or World War I. In America, it was initially called the European War. More than 9 million combatants were killed; a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate.
Armistice of World War I
Agreement that ended the fighting in western Europe that comprised the First World War. It went into effect at 11 a.m. on 11 November 1918, and marked a victory for the Allies and a complete defeat for Germany, although not technically a surrender.
28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913. With the Republican Party split in 1912, he led his Democratic Party to control both the White House and Congress for the first time in nearly two decades.
David Lloyd George
As Chancellor of the Exchequer (1908-1915), Lloyd George was a key figure in the introduction of many reforms which laid the foundations of the modern welfare state. His most important role came as the highly energetic Prime Minister of the Wartime Coalition Government (1916-22), during and immediately after the First World War.
French statesman who led the nation in the First World War. A leader of the Radical Party, he played a central role in politics during the Third Republic. Clemenceau served as the Prime Minister of France from 1906 to 1909, and again from 1917 to 1920.
14-point peace plan
Open covenants of peace. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas. The removal of all economic barriers and the establishment of equality of trade conditions. National armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia. Belgium must be evacuated and restored without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy. The people of Austria-Hungary should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty. The Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees. Independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations. General association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
Treaty of Versailles
One of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties.
Treaty of London
Secret pact between the Triple Entente and Italy, signed in London on 26 April 1915 by the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and the Kingdom of Italy. Its intent was to gain the alliance of Italy against its former allies, including Germany.
League of Nations
Intergovernmental organisation founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.
Considered the Treaty of Versailles to be "a capitulation, a treason" because he believed that only permanent occupation of the Rhineland would grant France sufficient security against a revival of German aggression. As the treaty was being signed Foch said: "This is not peace. It is an armistice for 20 years".
The country is led by a single ruler or party. A dictator can pass laws without seeking the permission of parliament. Opposition political parties are banned and strict censorship is imposed. Although elections may take place in this type of government, they are usually neither free nor fair.
German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Marx's work in economics laid the basis for the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and has influenced much of subsequent economic thought.
System of government which believes that the wealth of a country should be in the hands of the government for the good of all its people. The State, rather than private owner, controls all land and industry.
Socialist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991, governed as a single-party state by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital. A union of multiple subnational Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized.
Second imperial dynasty, after the Rurik dynasty, to rule over Russia, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as the leader of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922, until his death.
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