Junior Cert History - WW2 Terms
Terms in this set (54)
Leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
System of government that believed in strong government headed by a dictator and it encourages national pride and the ordinary people to put the interest of the State before their own personal freedom. They believed in private businesses and ownership of land and industries.
Reasons why fascism became popular
Some countries were dissatisfied with the Treaty of Versailles. There was much unemployment and inflation in Europe and many land and factory owners were scared of communism.
The right of people of one race and language to choose their own government.
Refers to the money that Germany had to pay as compensation for the damage it caused in World War I
Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943. He ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship. Known as Il Duce ("the leader"), Mussolini was one of the key figures in the creation of fascism.
Reasons for the rise of fascism in Italy
Economic problems, unhappy with the Treaty of Versailles, poor law and order and the fear of communism
Fascist paramilitary armed squads in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Blackshirts were officially known as the Voluntary Militia for National Security
Groups who supported fascism in Italy
Industrialists, landowners and the Catholic Church
King Victor Emmanuel III
King of Italy (29 July 1900 - 9 May 1946). In addition, he claimed the thrones of Ethiopia and Albania as Emperor of Ethiopia (1936-41) and King of the Albanians (1939-43), which were unrecognised by the great powers. During his long reign (46 years), which began after the assassination of his father Umberto I, the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two World Wars.
Prime Minister Luigi Facta
Italian politician, journalist and last Prime Minister of Italy before the leadership of Benito Mussolini.
Where the word 'fascism' comes from
The term comes from the Latin word 'fasces' which means a bundle of rods and an axe. This was a sign of authority in ancient Rome before it became the symbol of the Fascist Party formed by Benito Mussolini in Italy in 1919.
Why Mussolini turned away from socialism in 1914
He disagreed with the socialists' objections to Italy joining the war.
Steps on Mussolini becoming dictator
OVRA (secret police force), Acerbo Law, Giacomo Matteotti, removing the king's right to appoint or dismiss government ministers, all opposition parties were banned, laws could be passed without the consent of parliament and Mussolini called himself simply Il Duce.
How he tackled unemployment
Autostrada were built throughout Italy; the Pontine Marshes on the outskirts of Rome were drained and turned into agricultural land and hydroelectric stations were built and the train system was electrified.
The management of sectors of the economy by government or privately controlled organizations (corporations). Each trade union or employer corporation would, theoretically, represent its professional concerns, especially by negotiation of labour contracts and the like. This method, it was theorized, could result in harmony amongst social classes.
Wall Street Crash
Most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout. The crash signalled the beginning of the 10-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries.
Sons of the She-Wolf
Youth movement for children between the ages of four and eight acting as shades of Romulus and Remus.
Italian Fascist youth organisation functioning, as an addition to school education, between 1926 and 1937 between the ages of eight and fourteen.
Italian Fascist youth organisation between the ages of fourteen and eighteen.
Mussolini recognised the Vatican City to be an independent State. Compensation was paid to the Church for its loss of land in 1870. Catholicism became the official religion of the Italian State. In return, the pope agreed to recognise the Italian State.
Mussolini's intentions in his foreign policy
Increasing influence over the Mediterranean. He wished to make the Mediterranean an 'Italian lake'. He also wanted to rebuild a Roman Empire by taking over other lands.
Invasion of Abyssinia
Crisis during the interwar period originating in the "Walwal incident." This incident resulted from the ongoing conflict between the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Ethiopia. Its effects were to undermine the credibility of the League of Nations and to encourage Fascist Italy to ally itself with Nazi Germany.
Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy's foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, 1936.
Concluded between Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascistic, governments) on November 25, 1936 and was directed against the Third (Communist) International.
Pact of Steel
Consisted of two parts: the first section was an open declaration of continuing trust and cooperation between Germany and Italy while the second, a "Secret Supplementary Protocol" encouraged a union of policies concerning the military and economy.
Battle for Grain
Mussolini encouraged farmers to grow grain so that the country would not need to import it from other countries.
Members of a party of light or irregular troops engaged in harassing an enemy, especially a member of a guerrilla band engaged in fighting or sabotage against an occupying army.
Discrimination against or prejudice or hostility toward Jews.
Why Hitler hated the Jews
Adolf Hitler considered them to be living a life of luxury while he suffered in poverty.
Role that the SS and the SA played in the early years of the Nazi Party
The SS acted as Hitler's bodyguards while the SA (also called the Stormtroopers or the Brownshirts), a much larger force led by Ernst Röhm, attacked enemies of the Nazis.
Political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945. Its predecessor, the German Workers' Party (DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920.
Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party. He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and the Holocaust.
German officer in the Bavarian Army and later an early Nazi leader. He was a co-founder of the Sturmabteilung ("Storm Battalion"; SA), the Nazi Party militia, and later was its commander. In 1934, as part of the Night of the Long Knives, he was executed on Heinrich Himmler's orders as a potential rival.
German Emperor, the Emperor of Austria, or the head of the Holy Roman Empire.
Name given by historians to the federal republic and semi-presidential representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government.
Autobiographical manifesto by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, in which he outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany.
Financial and industrial slump of 1929 and subsequent years.
Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel, a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party of Nazi Germany.
Historical edifice in Berlin, Germany, constructed to house the Imperial Diet, of the German Empire. It was opened in 1894 and housed the Diet until 1933, when it was severely damaged in a fire.
How Hitler became a dictator
Control of the police force. Communist set fire to the Reichstag. Enabling Law. 'Night of the Long Knives'. Death of President Hindenburg and the naming of Hitler as 'der Führer'. Third Reich
German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. As one of Adolf Hitler's closest associates and most devoted followers, he was known for his zealous orations and deep and virulent antisemitism, which led to his strongly supporting the extermination of the Jews when the Nazi leadership developed their "Final Solution".
the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe. Hermann Göring formed the unit in 1933. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of SS national leader, Heinrich Himmler who in 1936 was appointed Chief of German Police by Hitler.
First of Germany's concentration camps
Paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. It existed from 1922 to 1945. The HJ was the second oldest paramilitary Nazi group, founded one year after its adult counterpart, the Sturmabteilung (SA).
League of German Maidens
Girls' wing of the Nazi Party youth movement, the Hitler Youth. It was the only female youth organization in Nazi Germany.
How Hitler tackled unemployment
Great public work schemes, such as the building of the autobahnen. The size of the German army was increased and large factories opened that made war materials. Special allowances were paid to married women with children to encourage them to stay at home.
Antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany introduced at the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party. After the takeover of power in 1933 by Hitler, Nazism became an official ideology incorporating anti-Semitism as a form of scientific racism.
Pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and Austria on 9-10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians. German authorities looked on without intervening. The name Kristallnacht comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues had their windows smashed.
Mass murder or genocide of approximately six million Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, throughout the German Reich and German-occupied territories.
Part of a city in which members of a minority group live, especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure. The term was originally used in Venice to describe the part of the city to which Jews were restricted and segregated.
Nazi Germany's plan during World War II to systematically empty Nazi-occupied Europe of its Jewish population, through genocide. This policy was formulated in procedural terms at the Wannsee Conference in January 1942, and culminated in the Holocaust, the physical destruction of two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, which was carried out across Europe and North Africa.
German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organisers of the Holocaust. Eichmann was charged by SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich with facilitating and managing the logistics of mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and extermination camps in German-occupied Eastern Europe during World War II.
Auschwitz-Birkenau, Sobibor and Treblinka
Examples of extermination camps in Eastern Europe