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The researcher most closely related with the study of classical conditioning:


A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n):

Conditioned response

For the most rapid acquisition of a conditioned response (CR), the conditioned stimulus (CS) should be presented:

Shortly before the unconditioned stimulus (CS)

You always rattle the box of dog biscuits before giving your dog treat. As you do so, your dog salivates. Rattle the box is a(n) ________; your dog's salivation is a(n)_______.


Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates:


In Watson and Rayner's experiment, the loud noise was the _____ and the white rat was the _____.


After repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea-producing drug, people with alcoholism may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This illustrates the importance of ________ in classical conditioning.

cognitive processes

The psychologists most closely associated with the study of operant conditioning was"


Jack finally takes out the garbage in order to get his father to stop pestering him. Jack's behavior is being influenced by:

negative reinforcement

Money is to food as ________ is to ________.

secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer

The process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behavior is called:


An event that decreases the behavior that precedes it is a:


The first experimental study of associative learning were conducted by:


By learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate the process of:

classical conditioning

Seals in an aquarium with repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them herring. This best illustrates:

Operant conditioning

John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n):


Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?

classical conditioning

As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Your mother (who was a terrible fear of animals) screamed ans snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the UR.

your crying

During extinction, the ________ is omitted; as a result, the ________ seems to disappear.


Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of:


Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Alonzo found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates:

spontaneous recovery

The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ______ in classical conditioning.

cognitive processes

Cognitive processes are:

important in both classical and operant conditioning

Last evening May-ling ate her first cheeseburger and french fries at an American fast-food restaurant. A few hours later she became ill. It can be expected that:

May-ling will develop an aversion to the taste of a cheeseburger and french fries.

Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of:

operant conditioning

A Skinner box is a(n):

chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.

Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of:


Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as _____ is to _____.

positive reinforcer: negative reinforcer

Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is correct?
A) Learning is most rapid with intermittent reinforcement, but continuous reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.
B) Learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermittent reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.
C) Learning is fastest and resistance it extinction is greatest after continuous reinforcement.
D) Learning is fastest and resistant to extinction is greatest following intermittent reinforcement.

B) Learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermittent reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.

The "piecework" or commission, method of payment is an example of which reinforcement schedule?


Leon's psychology instructor has scheduled an exam every third week of the term. Leon will probably study most just before the exam and the least just after an exam. This is because the schedule pf exams is reinforcing to which schedule?


Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behaviors will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of _____ in operant conditioning

cognitive processes

If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates:

latent learning

The highest and mos consistent rate of response is produced by a ______ schedule.

variable-ratio (example: pop quizzes)

Despite the painful hangovers that follow his use of alcohol, Boris continues to drink because just a couple of drinks begin to reduce his anxiety. His continued drinking most clearly illustrates the power of:

Immediate reinforcement

The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ______ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________.

punishment; reinforcement

Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called:

cognitive maps

It's easier to train a pigeon to pack a disk for a food reward than to flap its wing for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.

biological predispositions

According to B.F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by:

external influences

Compared with apartment dwellers whose landlords pay their electricity costs, those apartment dwellers who pay their own electric bills use less electricity. This most clearly illustrates that consumer usage is influenced by:

operant conditioning

Jeremy wears his baseball cap backwards because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of:


Rhesus macaque monkeys are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older stumptail macaque monkeys. This best illustrates the importance of:

observational learnin

Mirror neurons are found in the brains's ______ and are believed to be the neural basis for _________.

frontal lobe: observational learning

Learning by imitating others' behavior is called _______. learning. the researcher best kown for studying this syle of learning is _________.

observational: Bandura

The manager of a manufacturing plant wishes to use reinforcement to increase the productivity of workers. Which of the following procedures would probably be the most effective?
A) Deserving employees are given a general merit bonus at the end of each fiscal year.
B) A productivity goal that seems attainable, yet is unrealistic, is set for each employee.
C) Employees are given immediate bonuses for specific behaviors related to productivity.
D) Employees who fail to meet standards of productivity receive pay cuts.

C) Employees are given immediate bonuses for specific behaviors related to productivity.

Nancy decided to take introductory to psychology because she has always been interested in human behavior. Jack enrolled in the same course because he thought it would be easy. Nancy's behavior was motivated by ________, Jack's by__________.

intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation

Punishment is a controversial way of controlling behavior because:

Behavior is not forgotten any my return.
Punishing stimuli often create fear.
Punishment often increases aggressiveness

Like European Christians who risked their lives to rescue Jews from the Nazis, civil rights activists of the 1960s had parents who:

Modeled a strong moral or humanitarian concern

Bandura's experiments indicate that ______ is important in the processes of learning.


Regarding the impact of watching television on children, most researchers believe that:

watching violence on television lead to aggressive behavior

The process of getting information into memory is called


A flashbulb memory would typically be stores in _______ memory.


To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory, researchers have characterized it was _______ memory.


Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as:

automatic processing

Ourr inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to:

encoding failure

Students who restudy course material at the end of a semester in order to pass a comprehensive final are especially likely to demonstrate long-term retention of the course material. This best illustrates the value of:

The spacing effect

The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ________ effect.

serial position

The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called:

semantic encoding

As an aid to memorizing lengthy speeches, ancient Greek orators would visualize themselves moving through familiar locations. They were making use of:

The method of loci

Tim, a third-grader, learns the sentence "George Eats Old Gray Rats And Paints Houses Yellow" to help him remember the spelling of "geography." Tim is using:

a mnemonic device

By creating an outline in which specific facts are located within the larger framework of major topics and subtopics, Jasmine can remember much more of what she reads in her college textbooks. This best illustrates the benefits of:

hierarchical orginization

Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ______ is to _________.

visual stimulation; auditory stimulation

the increase in a synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known as:

long-term potentiation

The accuracy of the flashbulb memories of those who witnessed the first bombings of Baghdad during the 2003 war in Iraq best illustrates that memory formation is facilitated by:

the body's release of stress hormones

Many people retain their classical conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned. This best illustrates _______ memory.


Ebbinghaus' retention curve best illustrates the value of:


Riming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to:


The tendency for a distributed study to yield better long-term retention than massed study is known as:

the spacing effect

You ability to immediately recognize the voice over the phone as your mother's illustrates the value of:

acoustic encoding

Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as ________ is to __________.

meaning: imagery

Rephrasing text material in your own words in an effective way of facilitating:

semantic encoding

One reason adults typically recall little of their first three years of life is that during infancy they were unable to verbally label most of their experiences. this best illustrates that the formation of long-term memories often requires:

semantic encoding

In order to remember a list of the school supplies she needs, Marcy mentally visualizes each item at a certain location in her house. Marcy's tactic best illustrates the use of:

the method of loci

The letters Y, M, O, M, R, E are presented to. Jill remembers them by rearranging them to spell the word "MEMORY." This provides an illustration of:


"the magical number seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of _______ memory.


Long-term potentiation refers to:

an increase in a neuron's firing potential

Conscious memory of factual information is called ________ memory.


Which of the following is most likely to be stored as in implicit memory?
A) A mental image of one's best friend
B) The date of one's own birth
C) A conditioned fear of guns
D) one's own name

C) A conditioned fear of guns

Remembering procedural things and thingss with emotional content are included in ______ memory.


Whenever he feels sexually jealous, David is flooded with painful recollections of the rare occasions in which he had observed his girlfriend flirting with other men. David;s experience best illustrates:

retroactive interference

Words, cues, places, and emotions that rigger our memory of that past are called:

retrieval cues

In an effort to recall his early life experiences, Aaron formed vivid mental images of the various rooms in his childhood home. Aaron was engaging in the process of:


The eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation is known as:

déjà vu

Austin can't remember Jack Smith's name because he wasn't paying attention when Jack was formally introduced. Austin's poor memory is best explained in terms of:

encoding failure

Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Judy's poor memory most likely results from a failure in:


Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriend's telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriend's number. Arnold's difficulty best illustrates:

proactive interference

After studying biology all afternoon, Alonzo is having difficulty remember details of the organic chemistry material that he memorized that morning. Alonzo's difficulty best illustrates:

retroactive interference

Philippe has just completed medical school. In reflecting on his years of formal education, he is able to recall the names of all of his instructors except the fifth-grade teacher who flunked him. According to Freud his forgetting illustrates:


The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called:


Donald Thompson, an Australian psychologist, was an initial suspect in a rape case. The rape victim confused her memories of Thompson and the actual rapist because she had seen Thompson's image in a TV shortly before she was attacked. The victim's false recollection best illustrates:

source amnesia

Mrs. Ramos claims to remember being sexually abused by her father when she was less than a year old. Memory experts are most likely to doubt the reliability of her memory due to their awareness of:

infantile amnesia

Research on memory construction reveals that memories

reflect a person's biases and assumptions

The misinformation effect provides evidence that memory:

may be reconstructed during recall according to how questions are formed.

Studies by Loftus and Palmer, in which people were quizzed about a film of an accident, indicated that:

people's recall may easily be affected by misleading information.

Memory researchers are suspicious of long-repressed memories of traumatic events that are "recovered" with the aid of drugs or hypnosis because:

Such experiences usually are vividly remembered.
Such memories are unreliable and easily influenced by misinformation.
Memories of event happening before about the age of 3 are especially unreliable.

Unconsciously motivated by miserliness, Mr. Rioja refused to send his son money to buy the books he needs for his college courses. In defending his actions, Mr. Rioja explained that "parental financial aid prevents teenagers from developing into mature, independent adults." Mr. Rioja's explanation is an example of:


While Professor Gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily difficult tests and gave his students unusually low grades. A psychoanalyst would most likely to view the professor's treatment of students as an example of:


A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of:

reaction formations

When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, which test of memory is being used?


Many of the experimental participants who were asked how fast two cars in a filmed traffic accident were going when they smashed into each other subsequently recalled seeing broken glass at the scene of the accident. This experiment best illustrated:

The misinformation effect

The psychologist Jean Piaget constructed a vivid, detailed memory of being kidnapped after hear his nursemaid's false reports of such an event. his experience best illustrates:

Source amnesia

I am 14 months old an fearful of strangers. I am in Piaget's _______ stage of cognitive development.


I am 3 year old, can use language, and have trouble taking another person's perspective. I am in Piaget's _____ stage of cognitive development.


Compared to when he was younger, 4-year-old Antonio is better able to empathize with his friend's feelings. This growing ability to take another's perspective indicates that Antonio is acquiring a:

Theory of mind

Harlow's studies of attachment in monkeys showed that:

a cloth mother produced the greatest attachment response.

The term critical period to:

a restricted time for learning.

The development theorist who suggested that securely attached children develop an attitude of basic trust:


"I don't care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.


The body structures that enable reproduction are the:

primary sex characteristics

Fourteen-year_old Lisa was asked, "What would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went blind?" She responded, "Those who had previously been blind would become leader." Lisa's answer indicates she is in the ______ stage of development.

Formal operational

Whose stage of theory of moral development was based on how people reasoned about ethical dilemmas?


Based on the text discussion of maturation and popularity, who among the following is probably the most popular sixth grader.?

Rob, the tallest, most physically mature boy in the class

The average age at which puberty begins is _____ in boys; in girls, it is ________.

13; 11

In preconventional morality, the person:

Obeys to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards

The branch of psychology that systematically focuses on the the physical, mental, and social changes that occur throughout the life cycle is called

developmental psychology

During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n):

zygote and finally develops into a fetus.

Newborn infants typically prefer their mother's voice over their father's voice because:

They become familiar with their mother's voice before they are born.

They symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome demonstrate that alcohol is a:


The rooting reflex refers to a baby's tendency to:

open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.

Habituation refers to the:

decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.

Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as:


Three-year-old Zara calls all four-legged animals "kitties." Her tendency to fir all four-legged animals into her existing conception of a kitten illustrates the process of:


In recognizing the inaccuracies of one's own ethnic stereotypes and revising his or her beliefs, an individual most clearly illustrates the process of:


Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

concrete operational
formal operational

Five-year-old Tammy mistakenly believes that her short, wide glass contains less soda than her brothers tall, narrow glass. Actually, both glasses contain the same amount of soda. This illustrates that Tammy lacks the concept of:


An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with:


According to Piaget, egocentrisim is to conservation as the _____ stage is to the ________ stage.

preoperational; concrete operational

The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by:

inner speech

Young children typically try to stay very close to their parents when they are in an unfamiliar setting. This best illustrates the adaptive value of:


Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of:


The process by which certain birds form attachments during a critical period very early in life is called:


A mother who consistently responds supportively to her infant's cries for care and protection is most likely to experience:

secure attachment

Erik Erikson suggested that children with a secure attachment to their parents are especially likely to experience:

basic trust

Foster care that moves a young child through a series of foster families is most likely to result in the disruption of:


Researchers have sneakily dabbed rouge on young children's noses in order to study the developmental beginnings of:


In formulating his theory of psychosocial, Erikson would have suggested that authoritarian parents are likely to inhibit young children's

autonomy and initiative

According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about abstract propositions is indicative of the stage of:

formal operations

Puberty is most clearly related to the onset of:


After a series of unfulfilling relationships, 30-year-old Carlos tells a friend that he doesn't want to marry because he is afraid of losing his freedom and independence. Erikson would say that Carlos is having difficulty with the psychosocial task of.

intimacy vs. isolation

fourteen-year-old Cassandra feels freer and more open with her friends than with her family. Knowing this is the case, Cassandra's parents should:

Not worry, since adolescence is typically a time of growing peer influence and diminishing parental influence.

Lolita vacillates between acting rebellious toward her parents and high school teachers and behaving with compliance and respect. Erikson would have suggested that Lolita's inconsistency illustrates:

role confusion

Research on social relationships between parents and their adolescent children shows that:

high school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers tend to enjoy the most intimate friendships with girlfriends.

Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates _______ morality.


Underlying Alzheimer's disease is a deterioration in neurons that produce:


After their grown children have left home, most couple experience:

greater happiness and enjoyment in their marital relationships

An elderly person who can look back on life with satisfaction and reminisce with a sense of completion has attained Erikson's stage of:


The popular idea that terminally ill and bereaved people go through predicable stages, such as denial, anger, and so forth:

is not supported by research studies

Marriage bonds are especially likely to endure when members of a couple:

engage in more positive than negative interactions with each other

Explaining why the best work of scientists is often produced in early adulthood while that of novelists often originates during middle adulthood requires a distinction between:

fluid and crystallized intelligence

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