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Psychology Final

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The researcher most closely related with the study of classical conditioning:
Pavlov
A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n):
Conditioned response
For the most rapid acquisition of a conditioned response (CR), the conditioned stimulus (CS) should be presented:
Shortly before the unconditioned stimulus (CS)
You always rattle the box of dog biscuits before giving your dog treat. As you do so, your dog salivates. Rattle the box is a(n) ________; your dog's salivation is a(n)_______.
CS; CR
Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates:
generalization
In Watson and Rayner's experiment, the loud noise was the _____ and the white rat was the _____.
US; CS
After repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea-producing drug, people with alcoholism may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This illustrates the importance of ________ in classical conditioning.
cognitive processes
The psychologists most closely associated with the study of operant conditioning was"
Skinner
Jack finally takes out the garbage in order to get his father to stop pestering him. Jack's behavior is being influenced by:
negative reinforcement
Money is to food as ________ is to ________.
secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer
The process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behavior is called:
shaping
An event that decreases the behavior that precedes it is a:
punishment
The first experimental study of associative learning were conducted by:
Bandura
By learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate the process of:
classical conditioning
Seals in an aquarium with repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them herring. This best illustrates:
Operant conditioning
John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n):
behaviorist
Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
classical conditioning
As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Your mother (who was a terrible fear of animals) screamed ans snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the UR.
your crying
During extinction, the ________ is omitted; as a result, the ________ seems to disappear.
CS; CR
Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of:
generalization
Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Alonzo found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates:
spontaneous recovery
The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ______ in classical conditioning.
cognitive processes
Cognitive processes are:
important in both classical and operant conditioning
Last evening May-ling ate her first cheeseburger and french fries at an American fast-food restaurant. A few hours later she became ill. It can be expected that:
May-ling will develop an aversion to the taste of a cheeseburger and french fries.
Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of:
operant conditioning
A Skinner box is a(n):
chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.
Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of:
Shaping
Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as _____ is to _____.
positive reinforcer: negative reinforcer
Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is correct?
A) Learning is most rapid with intermittent reinforcement, but continuous reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.
B) Learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermittent reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.
C) Learning is fastest and resistance it extinction is greatest after continuous reinforcement.
D) Learning is fastest and resistant to extinction is greatest following intermittent reinforcement.
B) Learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermittent reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.
The "piecework" or commission, method of payment is an example of which reinforcement schedule?
fixed-ratio
Leon's psychology instructor has scheduled an exam every third week of the term. Leon will probably study most just before the exam and the least just after an exam. This is because the schedule pf exams is reinforcing to which schedule?
fixed-interval
Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behaviors will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of _____ in operant conditioning
cognitive processes
If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates:
latent learning
The highest and mos consistent rate of response is produced by a ______ schedule.
variable-ratio (example: pop quizzes)
Despite the painful hangovers that follow his use of alcohol, Boris continues to drink because just a couple of drinks begin to reduce his anxiety. His continued drinking most clearly illustrates the power of:
Immediate reinforcement
The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ______ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________.
punishment; reinforcement
Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called:
cognitive maps
It's easier to train a pigeon to pack a disk for a food reward than to flap its wing for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
biological predispositions
According to B.F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by:
external influences
Compared with apartment dwellers whose landlords pay their electricity costs, those apartment dwellers who pay their own electric bills use less electricity. This most clearly illustrates that consumer usage is influenced by:
operant conditioning
Jeremy wears his baseball cap backwards because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of:
modeling
Rhesus macaque monkeys are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older stumptail macaque monkeys. This best illustrates the importance of:
observational learnin
Mirror neurons are found in the brains's ______ and are believed to be the neural basis for _________.
frontal lobe: observational learning
Learning by imitating others' behavior is called _______. learning. the researcher best kown for studying this syle of learning is _________.
observational: Bandura
The manager of a manufacturing plant wishes to use reinforcement to increase the productivity of workers. Which of the following procedures would probably be the most effective?
A) Deserving employees are given a general merit bonus at the end of each fiscal year.
B) A productivity goal that seems attainable, yet is unrealistic, is set for each employee.
C) Employees are given immediate bonuses for specific behaviors related to productivity.
D) Employees who fail to meet standards of productivity receive pay cuts.
C) Employees are given immediate bonuses for specific behaviors related to productivity.
Nancy decided to take introductory to psychology because she has always been interested in human behavior. Jack enrolled in the same course because he thought it would be easy. Nancy's behavior was motivated by ________, Jack's by__________.
intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
Punishment is a controversial way of controlling behavior because:
Behavior is not forgotten any my return.
Punishing stimuli often create fear.
Punishment often increases aggressiveness
Like European Christians who risked their lives to rescue Jews from the Nazis, civil rights activists of the 1960s had parents who:
Modeled a strong moral or humanitarian concern
Bandura's experiments indicate that ______ is important in the processes of learning.
modeling
Regarding the impact of watching television on children, most researchers believe that:
watching violence on television lead to aggressive behavior
The process of getting information into memory is called
encoding
A flashbulb memory would typically be stores in _______ memory.
long-term
To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory, researchers have characterized it was _______ memory.
working
Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as:
automatic processing
Ourr inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to:
encoding failure
Students who restudy course material at the end of a semester in order to pass a comprehensive final are especially likely to demonstrate long-term retention of the course material. This best illustrates the value of:
The spacing effect
The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ________ effect.
serial position
The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called:
semantic encoding
As an aid to memorizing lengthy speeches, ancient Greek orators would visualize themselves moving through familiar locations. They were making use of:
The method of loci
Tim, a third-grader, learns the sentence "George Eats Old Gray Rats And Paints Houses Yellow" to help him remember the spelling of "geography." Tim is using:
a mnemonic device
By creating an outline in which specific facts are located within the larger framework of major topics and subtopics, Jasmine can remember much more of what she reads in her college textbooks. This best illustrates the benefits of:
hierarchical orginization
Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ______ is to _________.
visual stimulation; auditory stimulation
the increase in a synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known as:
long-term potentiation
The accuracy of the flashbulb memories of those who witnessed the first bombings of Baghdad during the 2003 war in Iraq best illustrates that memory formation is facilitated by:
the body's release of stress hormones
Many people retain their classical conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned. This best illustrates _______ memory.
implicit
Ebbinghaus' retention curve best illustrates the value of:
rehearsal
Riming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to:
encoding
The tendency for a distributed study to yield better long-term retention than massed study is known as:
the spacing effect
You ability to immediately recognize the voice over the phone as your mother's illustrates the value of:
acoustic encoding
Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as ________ is to __________.
meaning: imagery
Rephrasing text material in your own words in an effective way of facilitating:
semantic encoding
One reason adults typically recall little of their first three years of life is that during infancy they were unable to verbally label most of their experiences. this best illustrates that the formation of long-term memories often requires:
semantic encoding
In order to remember a list of the school supplies she needs, Marcy mentally visualizes each item at a certain location in her house. Marcy's tactic best illustrates the use of:
the method of loci
The letters Y, M, O, M, R, E are presented to. Jill remembers them by rearranging them to spell the word "MEMORY." This provides an illustration of:
chunking
"the magical number seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of _______ memory.
short-term
Long-term potentiation refers to:
an increase in a neuron's firing potential
Conscious memory of factual information is called ________ memory.
explicit
Which of the following is most likely to be stored as in implicit memory?
A) A mental image of one's best friend
B) The date of one's own birth
C) A conditioned fear of guns
D) one's own name
C) A conditioned fear of guns
Remembering procedural things and thingss with emotional content are included in ______ memory.
implicit
Whenever he feels sexually jealous, David is flooded with painful recollections of the rare occasions in which he had observed his girlfriend flirting with other men. David;s experience best illustrates:
retroactive interference
Words, cues, places, and emotions that rigger our memory of that past are called:
retrieval cues
In an effort to recall his early life experiences, Aaron formed vivid mental images of the various rooms in his childhood home. Aaron was engaging in the process of:
Priming
The eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation is known as:
déjà vu
Austin can't remember Jack Smith's name because he wasn't paying attention when Jack was formally introduced. Austin's poor memory is best explained in terms of:
encoding failure
Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Judy's poor memory most likely results from a failure in:
retrieval
Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriend's telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriend's number. Arnold's difficulty best illustrates:
proactive interference
After studying biology all afternoon, Alonzo is having difficulty remember details of the organic chemistry material that he memorized that morning. Alonzo's difficulty best illustrates:
retroactive interference
Philippe has just completed medical school. In reflecting on his years of formal education, he is able to recall the names of all of his instructors except the fifth-grade teacher who flunked him. According to Freud his forgetting illustrates:
repression
The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called:
projection
Donald Thompson, an Australian psychologist, was an initial suspect in a rape case. The rape victim confused her memories of Thompson and the actual rapist because she had seen Thompson's image in a TV shortly before she was attacked. The victim's false recollection best illustrates:
source amnesia
Mrs. Ramos claims to remember being sexually abused by her father when she was less than a year old. Memory experts are most likely to doubt the reliability of her memory due to their awareness of:
infantile amnesia
Research on memory construction reveals that memories
reflect a person's biases and assumptions
The misinformation effect provides evidence that memory:
may be reconstructed during recall according to how questions are formed.
Studies by Loftus and Palmer, in which people were quizzed about a film of an accident, indicated that:
people's recall may easily be affected by misleading information.
Memory researchers are suspicious of long-repressed memories of traumatic events that are "recovered" with the aid of drugs or hypnosis because:
Such experiences usually are vividly remembered.
Such memories are unreliable and easily influenced by misinformation.
Memories of event happening before about the age of 3 are especially unreliable.
Unconsciously motivated by miserliness, Mr. Rioja refused to send his son money to buy the books he needs for his college courses. In defending his actions, Mr. Rioja explained that "parental financial aid prevents teenagers from developing into mature, independent adults." Mr. Rioja's explanation is an example of:
rationalizations
While Professor Gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily difficult tests and gave his students unusually low grades. A psychoanalyst would most likely to view the professor's treatment of students as an example of:
displacement
A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of:
reaction formations
When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, which test of memory is being used?
Recall
Many of the experimental participants who were asked how fast two cars in a filmed traffic accident were going when they smashed into each other subsequently recalled seeing broken glass at the scene of the accident. This experiment best illustrated:
The misinformation effect
The psychologist Jean Piaget constructed a vivid, detailed memory of being kidnapped after hear his nursemaid's false reports of such an event. his experience best illustrates:
Source amnesia
I am 14 months old an fearful of strangers. I am in Piaget's _______ stage of cognitive development.
Sensorimotor
I am 3 year old, can use language, and have trouble taking another person's perspective. I am in Piaget's _____ stage of cognitive development.
preoperational
Compared to when he was younger, 4-year-old Antonio is better able to empathize with his friend's feelings. This growing ability to take another's perspective indicates that Antonio is acquiring a:
Theory of mind
Harlow's studies of attachment in monkeys showed that:
a cloth mother produced the greatest attachment response.
The term critical period to:
a restricted time for learning.
The development theorist who suggested that securely attached children develop an attitude of basic trust:
Erikson
"I don't care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.
Authoritarian
The body structures that enable reproduction are the:
primary sex characteristics
Fourteen-year_old Lisa was asked, "What would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went blind?" She responded, "Those who had previously been blind would become leader." Lisa's answer indicates she is in the ______ stage of development.
Formal operational
Whose stage of theory of moral development was based on how people reasoned about ethical dilemmas?
Kohlberg
Based on the text discussion of maturation and popularity, who among the following is probably the most popular sixth grader.?
Rob, the tallest, most physically mature boy in the class
The average age at which puberty begins is _____ in boys; in girls, it is ________.
13; 11
In preconventional morality, the person:
Obeys to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards
The branch of psychology that systematically focuses on the the physical, mental, and social changes that occur throughout the life cycle is called
developmental psychology
During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n):
zygote and finally develops into a fetus.
Newborn infants typically prefer their mother's voice over their father's voice because:
They become familiar with their mother's voice before they are born.
They symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome demonstrate that alcohol is a:
teratogen
The rooting reflex refers to a baby's tendency to:
open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.
Habituation refers to the:
decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.
Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as:
maturation
Three-year-old Zara calls all four-legged animals "kitties." Her tendency to fir all four-legged animals into her existing conception of a kitten illustrates the process of:
assimilation
In recognizing the inaccuracies of one's own ethnic stereotypes and revising his or her beliefs, an individual most clearly illustrates the process of:
accommodations
Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
sensorimotor
preoperational
concrete operational
formal operational
Five-year-old Tammy mistakenly believes that her short, wide glass contains less soda than her brothers tall, narrow glass. Actually, both glasses contain the same amount of soda. This illustrates that Tammy lacks the concept of:
conservation
An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with:
autism
According to Piaget, egocentrisim is to conservation as the _____ stage is to the ________ stage.
preoperational; concrete operational
The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by:
inner speech
Young children typically try to stay very close to their parents when they are in an unfamiliar setting. This best illustrates the adaptive value of:
attachment
Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of:
egocentrism
The process by which certain birds form attachments during a critical period very early in life is called:
imprinting
A mother who consistently responds supportively to her infant's cries for care and protection is most likely to experience:
secure attachment
Erik Erikson suggested that children with a secure attachment to their parents are especially likely to experience:
basic trust
Foster care that moves a young child through a series of foster families is most likely to result in the disruption of:
attachment
Researchers have sneakily dabbed rouge on young children's noses in order to study the developmental beginnings of:
self-awareness
In formulating his theory of psychosocial, Erikson would have suggested that authoritarian parents are likely to inhibit young children's
autonomy and initiative
According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about abstract propositions is indicative of the stage of:
formal operations
Puberty is most clearly related to the onset of:
menarche
After a series of unfulfilling relationships, 30-year-old Carlos tells a friend that he doesn't want to marry because he is afraid of losing his freedom and independence. Erikson would say that Carlos is having difficulty with the psychosocial task of.
intimacy vs. isolation
fourteen-year-old Cassandra feels freer and more open with her friends than with her family. Knowing this is the case, Cassandra's parents should:
Not worry, since adolescence is typically a time of growing peer influence and diminishing parental influence.
Lolita vacillates between acting rebellious toward her parents and high school teachers and behaving with compliance and respect. Erikson would have suggested that Lolita's inconsistency illustrates:
role confusion
Research on social relationships between parents and their adolescent children shows that:
high school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers tend to enjoy the most intimate friendships with girlfriends.
Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates _______ morality.
postconventional
Underlying Alzheimer's disease is a deterioration in neurons that produce:
acetylcholine
After their grown children have left home, most couple experience:
greater happiness and enjoyment in their marital relationships
An elderly person who can look back on life with satisfaction and reminisce with a sense of completion has attained Erikson's stage of:
integrity
The popular idea that terminally ill and bereaved people go through predicable stages, such as denial, anger, and so forth:
is not supported by research studies
Marriage bonds are especially likely to endure when members of a couple:
engage in more positive than negative interactions with each other
Explaining why the best work of scientists is often produced in early adulthood while that of novelists often originates during middle adulthood requires a distinction between:
fluid and crystallized intelligence
research on the elderly has shown that:
they become increasingly prone to care accidents
Two neighboring nations are each stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor's actions as an act of aggression and its own actions as self-defense. Evidently, these nations are victims of:
the fundamental attribution error.
The text defines social psychology as the scientific study of how people _______ one another
think about, influence, and relate to
Rhonda has just learned that her neighbor Patricia was involved in an automobile accident at a nearby intersection. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error may lead Rhonda to conclude:
"Patricia's recklessness has finally gotten her into trouble."
Carol is restless during class because her professor's distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The professor, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol's restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both student and professor should be informed of the dangers of:
the fundamental attribution error
Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite his having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the students abilities.?
her personal disposition
Bart complied with his friends' request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early on Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates the:
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
Which theory describes how we explain others' behavior as being due to internal dispositions or external situations.
attribution theory
Fernado's favorable attitude toward capitol punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by _______ theory.
cognitive dissonance
Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated:
the chameleon effect
The text indicate that the clusters of teenage suicides that occasionally occur in some communities may be the result ofL
suggestibility
Solomon Asch asked people to identify which of three comparison lines was identical to a standard line. His research was designed to study:
conformity
Professor Jones is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards. He personally disagrees with the other committee members' proposed plan to begin accepting students with below-average grades. Professor Jones is most likely, however, to vote in favor of their plan if:
the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion
Kentaro hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister's wedding to avoid his family's disapproval. Kentaro's behavior exemplifies the importance of:
normative social influence
After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who had rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul's behavior best illustrates the impact of:
informational social influence
A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage:
nonconformity
in 1942, reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when:
they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures
Based on the findings from Milgram's obedience studies, participants would be less likely to follow the experimenter's orders when:
they saw another subject disobey instructions.
Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his students of obedience?
A) Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process.
B) Most people are able, under the proper circumstances, to suppress their natural aggressiveness.
C) The need to be accepted by others is a powerful motivating force.
D) All of the above conclusions were reached.
A) Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process.
Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates:
social facilitation
The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as:
social loafing
Individuals who are normally law-abiding may vandalize and loot when they become part of a mob. This change in behavior is best understood in terms of:
deindividuation
By providing a prospective terrorists with electronic "chat rooms" for interfacing on line with others who share their attitudes, the Internet most likely serves as a medium for:
group polarization
Which of the following is most likely to promote groupthink?
A) The group's leader fails to take a firm stance on an issue.
B) A minority faction holds to its position
C) The group consults with various experts.
D) Group polarization is evident.
D) Group polarization is evident.
Arturo believes that most young women from California are extremely good looking and that extremely good-looking women are usually selfish and egotistical. His believes are examples of:
sterotypes
(Close-Up) Which of the following is an example of implicit prejudice?
A) Jake, who is white, gives higher evaluations to essays he believes to be written by black students than to white-authored essays.
B) Carol believes that white people are arrogant.
C) Brad earns more than Jane, despite having the same job skills, performance level, and seniority.
D) In certain countries, women are not allowed to drive.
A) Jake, who is white, gives higher evaluations to essays he believes to be written by black students than to white-authored essays.
People with power and status may become prejudiced because:
The tend to justify the social inequalities between themselves and others.
A sense of social identity is most likely to promote:
ingroup bias
Ever since he lost his job because he was constantly late for work, Richard has become increasingly hostile toward the "government bureaucrats who are leading the country toward bankruptcy." Richard's increasing prejudice is best explained in terms of:
scapegoat theory
Only when experimental participants were informed that a woman was raped did they perceive that woman;s behavior as inviting rape. This best illustrates that victim-blaming is fueled by:
hindsight bias
According to the text, aggression always involves:
the intent to hurt
The fact that human aggression varies widely from culture to culture most strong suggests that it is not:
A) a reaction to frustration
B) influenced by social norms
C) an unrelated instinct
D) a product of deindividuation
E) a result of group polarization
C) an unrelated instinct
After Ravi lost the student election for president of his high school class, he spread false rumors intended to spoil the newly chosen president's reputation. Ravi's behavior is best explained in terms of the:
Frustration-aggression principle
Which of the following would be the best advice to give parents who are concerned about the frequent aggressive outbursts of their 6-year-old son?
A) "Encourage your son to express his anger by slugging a punching bag."
B) "Make a point of rewarding and praising your son whenever he is socially cooperative and altruistic."
C) "Be consistent in spanking your child after every outburst so he'll realize that aggression never pays."
D) "Encourage your soon to watch the devastating consequences of violence portrayed on TV."
E) "Don't be concerned about your child's aggressiveness, unless the behavior pattern continues beyond the fifth grade."
B) "Make a point of rewarding and praising your son whenever he is socially cooperative and altruistic."
Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films:
makes a woman's friendliness seem more sexual
diminishes the attitude that rape is a serious crime
may lead individuals to devalue their partners
Research on the effects of playing violent video games most clearly provides evidence that disconfirms the:
catharsis hypothesis
After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy's reaction best illustrates:
the mere exposure effect
When Armen first heard the hit song "Gotta Love It," he wasn't at all sure he liked it. The more often he heard it played, however, the more he enjoyed it. Armen's reaction illustrates:
the mere exposure effect
Ahmed and Monique are on a blind date. Which of the following will probably be the most influential in determining whether they like each other?
their physical attractiveness
The deep affection that is felt in long-lasting relationships is called ______ love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which _______.
companionate; there is equity between the partners.
Having read the chapter, which of the following is best borne out by research on attraction?
A) Birds of a feather flock together
B) Opposites attract
C) Familiarity breeds contempt
D) Absence makes the heart grow fonder
A) Birds of a feather flock together
While driving his girlfriend to work, Nate narrowly avoided a collision with another vehicle. Moments later, he experienced an unusually warm glow of affection for his girlfriend. His romantic reaction is best explained in terms of:
the two-factor theory of emotion
In investigating the impact of physical arousal on passionate love, Dutton and Aron arranged for an attractive woman to briefly interact with men who had recently:
crossed a swaying footbridge
A gradual escalation of intimacy is most positively related to a gradual escalation of:
self-disclosure
When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk in apparent discomfort, he prepared to offer help. But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in:
the bystander effect
Research studies indicate than in an emergency situation the presence of others often:
Prevents people from even noticing the situation.
Prevents people from interpreting an unusual event as an emergency.
Prevents people from assuming responsibility for assisting.
The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York apartment stimulated social psychological research on:
altruism
After the Greenway family accepted their neighbor's invitation to Thanksgiving dinner, Mrs. Greenway felt obligated to invite the neighbors to Christmas dinner. Mrs. Greenway's sense of obligation most likely resulted from:
the reciprocity nrom
After their country was ravaged by serious of earthquakes, two bitterly antagonistic political groups set aside their difference and worked cooperatively on effective disaster relief. This cooperation best illustrates the importance of:
superordinate goals
Pablo and Sabrina argued bitterly about which of them should have use of the family car that night. Neither realized, however, that Sabrina need the car only in the early evening and that Pablo need it only in the late evening. Pablo and Sabrina's failure to resolve their argument for the mutual benefit best illustrates the dangers of:
a win-lose situation
Which of the following best describes who GRIT works?
A) The fact that two sides in a conflict have great respect for the other's strengths prevents further escalation of the problem.
B) The two sides engage in a series of reciprocated conciliatory acts.
C) The two sides agree to have their differences settled by a neutral, third-party mediator.
D) The two sides engage in cooperation in those areas in which shared goals are possible.
B) The two sides engage in a series of reciprocated conciliatory acts.