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47 terms

MSJC A&P- Chapter 26 Study Guide

This is a stack that covers the answers to the study guide.
STUDY
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The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is____________.
glucose
____________ _______________must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth.
complete protein
Most_____________are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients.
vitamins
________________is a stabilizing component of plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones.
cholesterol
Biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy.
metabolism
The primary function of___________ ___________is to break down food molecules and generate ATP.
cellular respiration
A catabolic reaction based upon the conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid.
glycolysis
In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all but the production of_________.
energy
Eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish are all considered good sources of__________ ____________.
complete proteins
Negative nitrogen balance is when protein breakdown exceeds protein__________.
synthesis
The lipoproteins that remove cholesterol from the tissues are________.
HDL's
Dietary fats are important because they help the body absorb ___________vitamins.
fat-soluble
The term _________ _________reflects the energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities.
metabolic rate
When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in urine is__________.
urea
Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by the enzymes ________________and______________.
dehydrogenase, oxidase
Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation describes the pathway of __________ ____________.
cellular respiration
_____________includes the reactions in which larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones.
anabolism
______________is the process that breaks down complex structures into simpler ones.
catabolism
The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as_____________.
lipolysis
________________occurs when cellular ATP and glucose levels are high.
lipogenesis
Oxidative deamination takes place in the ___________.
liver
Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ___________state.
absorptive
The Krebs cycle takes place in the ____________ __________.
mitochondrial matrix
_________________is the process in which glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors such as glycerol and amino acids.
gluconeogenesis
The most abundant dietary lipids are______________.
triglycerides
The organ that synthesizes urea.
liver
__________metabolism is the most important function of the liver.
protein
In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and__________are converted to glucose.
glycerol
__________ are nutrients that yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized.
fats
Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include excessive amounts of_________in the diet.
protein
The hydrolysis of glycogen to release free glucose or glucose 1-phosphate. (catabolic)
glycogenolysis
Maintenance of a constant internal body temperature independent of the environmental temperature.
thermoregulation
G6P, PGAL,Pyruvic Acid, Acetyl CoA, Citric Acid is the metabolic order of intermediates in__________ and aerobic respiration.
glycolysis
The highest percentage of cholesterol is found in________.
LDL's
Of all the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis, most is produced by the_________ __________.
krebs cycle
Norepinephrine stimulates hunger for_____________.
carbohydrates
What fat soluble vitamin is not stored in the body?
K
The recommended daily allowance of protein is____g/kg of body weight per day.
0.8
Carbohydrates are found in blood glucose, liver glycogen, muscle glycogen, and in the oligosaccharides in the glycocalyx, but not in the _____________in the cell walls.
cellulose
Nitrogen balance is when nitrogen intake and output are___________.
equal
The ____vitamins are coenzymes that assist enzymes by transferring electrons from one metabolic reaction to another.
B
The synthesis of glycogen by polymerizing glucose. (anabolic)
glycogenesis
Many_________ _________function as electrolytes and govern the function of nerve and muscle cells, osmotically regulate the content and distribution of water in the body, and maintain blood volume.
mineral salts
Synthesizing fats from other types of molecules.
lipogenesis
_________one of the intermediates of glucose oxidation, can be converted to glycerol by lipogenesis.
PGAL
As glucose and amino acids enter the citric acid cycle by way of acetyl-CoA, the acetyl-CoA can also be diverted to make_________ _________.
fatty acids
_________ ________ are painful muscle spasms that result from excessive electrolyte loss in sweat.
heat cramps