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Prime minister of Prussia appointed by William I, seen as the 19th century practitioner of Realpolitik, he collected taxes and strengthened the army, Eventually forced the Austrians to war in 1866, and won. He also went to war with France, and he collected all of the land he wanted. HIs goal was to unifiy Germany and make Germany a powerful unitied nation

Define Realpolitik

Politics of Reality, politics based on practical matters rather than theory or ethics.

William I

King of Prussia. Under him, Prussia achieved the establishment of the German empire and the unification of Germany. He appointed Count Otto von Bismarck as the new prime minister. Proclaimed kaiser, or emperor of a unified Germany.

Examples of realpolitik:

Otto von Bismarck used realpolitik to dominate in Germany. He manipulate smaller issues to avoid larger ones:
1)The southern states decided to align with northern german states to gain protection from France. (put their religious ethics aside for the good of the state)
2) Bismarck hated socialism but still allowed workers to have trade unions and workers rights.

Unification of Italy


Victor Emmanuel II

He showed leadership that led to the unification in little less than 10 years including a new constitution and liberal reforms. First king of united Italy
*Elects Cavour as his Prime Minister

Count Camilo Cavor

the prime minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont. He worked hard to increase government revenues, this allowed the empire to have a large army.


he brought up a thousand red shirts (army) to take over the Kingdom of Piedmont. He attempted to unite northern and southern Italy . Garibaldi was taken over by Victor Emmanuel II when he was made 1st king of united Italy.


he was a journalist and revolutionary that used the power of the press to get his political message of Italian unification across to the people. He founded the young Italy society which was a secret society to promote Italian unity. He was a leader of the Italian nationalist revolutionary movement.

Examples of Realpolitik:

1)Allying with France: Cavour agreed to give Nice and Savoy to France in return for the alliance. Although Italy did not like France and its politics they had to put aside their ethical issues with France for the good/safety of the unified Italian Country.
2) Garibaldi choosing to turn over lands and control to Victor Emmanuel so that a Unified Italy could happen.

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