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Cannaboid receptors are

found throughout the body, not just the brain

Osmosis is

more specialized than diffusion

osmosis involves


if the mitochondria is negatively effected

you can experience muscle weakness

an example of exocytosis is

Vesicles are filled with molecules in the interior of the cell and then fuse with the membrane to deposit the molecules outside of the cell

The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with


the movement of material through the stomata

Water and O2 move out; CO2 moves in

What are the resulting products of the spillting of water in photosynthesis?

Electrons, oxygen, and protons

The generation on ATP by the movement of protons down their concentration gradient occurs in:

Mitochondria, chloroplasts


a copy of the gene's sequence of bases is made, that copy is used to direct the production of a protein

Oxygen is a byproduct of


pleasure and reward is associated with


Fermentation reactions generally occur under conditions of

low oxygen concentrations

The net movement of molecules from high concentration regions to uniform distributions is best described as


A pigment that transmits all wavelengths of visible light appears



occurs in all cells

the movement of molecules from areas of low concentration to those of high concentration against chemical gradients is best described as

active transport

During photosynthesis, visible light has enough energy to directly

excite electrons in various pigments

In Humans, genes make up

5% of DNA

The phosphate groups in ATP:

1. release energy when separated from the rest of the molecules
2. are covalently bonded to each other
3.represent a significant source of stored energy
4. are negatively charged

Relationship between respiration and photosynthesis

Respiration stores energy in complex organic molecules, while photosynthesis releases it

which of the following most strongly affects serotonin receptors or reuptake channels


DNA contains

equal amounts of adenine and thymine, and equal amounts of guanine and cytosine

the space between two neurons


A ___________ must be passed for cell communication to occur


The flow of sunlight to sugar is released by ________ which converts it to ATP the "fuel" for all living things

Cellular respiration

In cellular respiration

oxidization nothing is converted to oxygen
- carbs, fats and sugars all can be used to get energy

The human genome is composed of approximately how many base pairs?

3 Billions

The highest percentage of non-coding DNA is found in

eukaryotes, with the exception of yeast

If a thylakoid were punctured so that its interior was no longer separated from the stroma. Which of the following processes would be most directly affected

the synthesis of ATP

The double helix model of DNA suggested by watson and Crick was exciting to the scientific community because

it explained how genetic material could be replicated by means of the complementary strands

Chlorophyll b and the carotenoids are important as receptors of light energy because they:

Respond the wavelengths different from the wavelengths that chlorophyll a responds to

Light turned off

Cellular respiration- occurs using oxygen, produces CO2

Light turned on

Photosynthesis- occurs using CO2 produces oxygen

life gains most of its energy from


Potential energy is

contained in matter placed in certain positions or arrangements

potential energy can be

food that is converted from potential to kinetic energy

gravity provides

a source of potential energy

every time a source of energy is converted from one form to another

some of the energy is converted to heat, which is one of the least usable forms of kinetic energy

Within the study of thermodynamics, a closed system is defined as a system in which energy does not come in or out. Which of the following is considered a closed system?

the universe

When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP, what happens

One phosphate is removed

ATP is composed of

1. an adenine
2. a five carbon sugar
3. a triphosphate group

products of photosynthesis

glucose, oxygen, sugars

a green plant can carry out photosynthesis if given nothing more than

water, light, air

Carotenoids are

accessory pigments in chloroplasts that protect the chlorophyll by absorbing excessive light energy

the most effective portions of the visible spectrum in driving photosynthesis is

the violet-blue portion and the red orange portion

biologically speaking, a pigment

is a molecule that absorbs a photon

If the plant has colors on it..

the plant is not absorbing light from those wavelengths of the visible spectrum

oxygen gas produced during photosynthesis originates as

oxygen atoms contained in water molecules

carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis enter the plant through

the stomata

anaerobic mammals

do not exist

Cellular respiration is the process by which

energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules is captured by an organism

energy used in cellular respiration can originate from

carbohydrates, proteins, and fats

Cellular respiration is an efficient process that captures approximately 35% of the energy in glucose. From 1 molecule of glucose, it yields:

30 to 32 ATP, in every tissue and organism

All contain a person's DNA

intestines, blood, skin cells, saliva, hair

Double stranded DNA that contains a high G-C content requires a higher temperature in order to separate the two DNA strands. This is because:

G-C base pairing involves three hydrogen bonds while A-T pairing involves only two

msot genes come in alternative forms called


which is the primary site of protein assembly within eukaryotic cells

the ribosomes

During eukaryotic translation, mRNA carries genetic information from the ______ to the ______, where amino acids are assembled in proteins

Nucleus, ribosome

In order for translation to occur

there must be large numbers of free amino acids present in the cytosol

the term "gene expression" refers to

the production of the protein that the gene's sequence codes for

A frameshift mutation

results from an insertion or deletion in a DNA sequence

A mutation that involves the addition, subtraction, or substitution of a single base is known as

a point mutation

the "counters" that keep track of how many times a cell had divided


what are the two major methods of cellular division in eukaryotic cells

meiosis and mitosis

The DNA linear eukaryotic chromosomes is wrapped around proteins called ________, which keep the DNA from getting tangled and enable an orderly, tight, and efficient packing of the DNA inside the cell


in asexual reproduction, daughter cells inherit their DNA from

a single parent

In DNA replication, when the DNA molecule separates into two strands

1. it is possible to reconstruct perfectly all the info on the missing strand bc one strand carries all the information needed to construct its complementary strand
2. the rebuilding process begins, in which an enzyme connects the appropriate complementary base to the exposed base
3. the mitotic phase begins

Errors sometimes occur when DNA duplicates itself. Why might that be a good thing?

New genes can enter the population and be acted upon by evolution

the planned process of cell suicide is called


somatic cells can include

kidney cells, heart cells

the rate at which mitosis occurs caries dramatically from different types of cells. The most rapid cell division occurs

in the blood and the cell lining the carious tissues of organs

Mitosis results in

daughter cells with the same number and composition of chromosomes

using a light microscope, it is easiest to see chromosomes

during mitosis and meiosis because the condensed chromosomes are thicker and therefore more prominent

in order for a eukaryotic cell to undergo reproduction and divide, certain steps must be successfully completed. Which of the following choices is not one of these necessary steps.

there must be proper reshuffling of the genetic material in order to provide dicersity

chemotherapy is one common treatment for cancer. Which of the following are aspects of chemotherapy

1. Drugs that interfere with cell divison are administer to the patient
2. chemotherapy drugs circulate throughout the entire body.
3. chemotherapy drugs disrupt normal systems that rely on the rapid and constant production of new cells

Cancer cells are different from other cell in that they have lost their "contact inhibiton" means:

Most cells stop dividing when they bump up against other cells or collections of cells

Which of the following are features that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells

1. normal cells have contact inhibition; cancer cells have no contact inhibition
2. normal cells can divide a finite number of times; caner cells can divide indefinitely

in humans, the haploid number, n, equals


During meiosis, chromatin:

condenses, becoming more tightly coiled

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