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80 terms

bio exam 3

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Cannaboid receptors are
found throughout the body, not just the brain
Osmosis is
more specialized than diffusion
osmosis involves
water
if the mitochondria is negatively effected
you can experience muscle weakness
an example of exocytosis is
Vesicles are filled with molecules in the interior of the cell and then fuse with the membrane to deposit the molecules outside of the cell
The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with
ATP and NADPH
the movement of material through the stomata
Water and O2 move out; CO2 moves in
What are the resulting products of the spillting of water in photosynthesis?
Electrons, oxygen, and protons
The generation on ATP by the movement of protons down their concentration gradient occurs in:
Mitochondria, chloroplasts
transcription
a copy of the gene's sequence of bases is made, that copy is used to direct the production of a protein
Oxygen is a byproduct of
photosynthesis
pleasure and reward is associated with
Dopamine
Fermentation reactions generally occur under conditions of
low oxygen concentrations
The net movement of molecules from high concentration regions to uniform distributions is best described as
Diffusion
A pigment that transmits all wavelengths of visible light appears
White
Glycolysis
occurs in all cells
the movement of molecules from areas of low concentration to those of high concentration against chemical gradients is best described as
active transport
During photosynthesis, visible light has enough energy to directly
excite electrons in various pigments
In Humans, genes make up
5% of DNA
The phosphate groups in ATP:
1. release energy when separated from the rest of the molecules
2. are covalently bonded to each other
3.represent a significant source of stored energy
4. are negatively charged
Relationship between respiration and photosynthesis
Respiration stores energy in complex organic molecules, while photosynthesis releases it
which of the following most strongly affects serotonin receptors or reuptake channels
Cocaine
DNA contains
equal amounts of adenine and thymine, and equal amounts of guanine and cytosine
the space between two neurons
synapse
A ___________ must be passed for cell communication to occur
Neurotransmitter
The flow of sunlight to sugar is released by ________ which converts it to ATP the "fuel" for all living things
Cellular respiration
In cellular respiration
oxidization nothing is converted to oxygen
- carbs, fats and sugars all can be used to get energy
The human genome is composed of approximately how many base pairs?
3 Billions
The highest percentage of non-coding DNA is found in
eukaryotes, with the exception of yeast
If a thylakoid were punctured so that its interior was no longer separated from the stroma. Which of the following processes would be most directly affected
the synthesis of ATP
The double helix model of DNA suggested by watson and Crick was exciting to the scientific community because
it explained how genetic material could be replicated by means of the complementary strands
Chlorophyll b and the carotenoids are important as receptors of light energy because they:
Respond the wavelengths different from the wavelengths that chlorophyll a responds to
Light turned off
Cellular respiration- occurs using oxygen, produces CO2
Light turned on
Photosynthesis- occurs using CO2 produces oxygen
life gains most of its energy from
sunlight
Potential energy is
contained in matter placed in certain positions or arrangements
potential energy can be
food that is converted from potential to kinetic energy
gravity provides
a source of potential energy
every time a source of energy is converted from one form to another
some of the energy is converted to heat, which is one of the least usable forms of kinetic energy
Within the study of thermodynamics, a closed system is defined as a system in which energy does not come in or out. Which of the following is considered a closed system?
the universe
When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP, what happens
One phosphate is removed
ATP is composed of
1. an adenine
2. a five carbon sugar
3. a triphosphate group
products of photosynthesis
glucose, oxygen, sugars
a green plant can carry out photosynthesis if given nothing more than
water, light, air
Carotenoids are
accessory pigments in chloroplasts that protect the chlorophyll by absorbing excessive light energy
the most effective portions of the visible spectrum in driving photosynthesis is
the violet-blue portion and the red orange portion
biologically speaking, a pigment
is a molecule that absorbs a photon
If the plant has colors on it..
the plant is not absorbing light from those wavelengths of the visible spectrum
oxygen gas produced during photosynthesis originates as
oxygen atoms contained in water molecules
carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis enter the plant through
the stomata
anaerobic mammals
do not exist
Cellular respiration is the process by which
energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules is captured by an organism
energy used in cellular respiration can originate from
carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
Cellular respiration is an efficient process that captures approximately 35% of the energy in glucose. From 1 molecule of glucose, it yields:
30 to 32 ATP, in every tissue and organism
All contain a person's DNA
intestines, blood, skin cells, saliva, hair
Double stranded DNA that contains a high G-C content requires a higher temperature in order to separate the two DNA strands. This is because:
G-C base pairing involves three hydrogen bonds while A-T pairing involves only two
msot genes come in alternative forms called
alleles
which is the primary site of protein assembly within eukaryotic cells
the ribosomes
During eukaryotic translation, mRNA carries genetic information from the ______ to the ______, where amino acids are assembled in proteins
Nucleus, ribosome
In order for translation to occur
there must be large numbers of free amino acids present in the cytosol
the term "gene expression" refers to
the production of the protein that the gene's sequence codes for
A frameshift mutation
results from an insertion or deletion in a DNA sequence
A mutation that involves the addition, subtraction, or substitution of a single base is known as
a point mutation
the "counters" that keep track of how many times a cell had divided
telomeres
what are the two major methods of cellular division in eukaryotic cells
meiosis and mitosis
The DNA linear eukaryotic chromosomes is wrapped around proteins called ________, which keep the DNA from getting tangled and enable an orderly, tight, and efficient packing of the DNA inside the cell
histones
in asexual reproduction, daughter cells inherit their DNA from
a single parent
In DNA replication, when the DNA molecule separates into two strands
1. it is possible to reconstruct perfectly all the info on the missing strand bc one strand carries all the information needed to construct its complementary strand
2. the rebuilding process begins, in which an enzyme connects the appropriate complementary base to the exposed base
3. the mitotic phase begins
Errors sometimes occur when DNA duplicates itself. Why might that be a good thing?
New genes can enter the population and be acted upon by evolution
the planned process of cell suicide is called
apoptosis
somatic cells can include
kidney cells, heart cells
the rate at which mitosis occurs caries dramatically from different types of cells. The most rapid cell division occurs
in the blood and the cell lining the carious tissues of organs
Mitosis results in
daughter cells with the same number and composition of chromosomes
using a light microscope, it is easiest to see chromosomes
during mitosis and meiosis because the condensed chromosomes are thicker and therefore more prominent
in order for a eukaryotic cell to undergo reproduction and divide, certain steps must be successfully completed. Which of the following choices is not one of these necessary steps.
there must be proper reshuffling of the genetic material in order to provide dicersity
chemotherapy is one common treatment for cancer. Which of the following are aspects of chemotherapy
1. Drugs that interfere with cell divison are administer to the patient
2. chemotherapy drugs circulate throughout the entire body.
3. chemotherapy drugs disrupt normal systems that rely on the rapid and constant production of new cells
Cancer cells are different from other cell in that they have lost their "contact inhibiton" means:
Most cells stop dividing when they bump up against other cells or collections of cells
Which of the following are features that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells
1. normal cells have contact inhibition; cancer cells have no contact inhibition
2. normal cells can divide a finite number of times; caner cells can divide indefinitely
in humans, the haploid number, n, equals
23
During meiosis, chromatin:
condenses, becoming more tightly coiled