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leaves of shrubs/plants. nat antioxs and vits. bright stems good, use immediately or wrap in damp towel in sealed container up to 5 days


come from roots, barks, buds, seed, berries, fruit of tropical trees, plants, and shrubs. more intense flavor than herbs


crystals formed by different geological processe, mined or produced by evaporating water

flavoring agents

art or nat subs added to foods

herb/spice market forms

whole, ground, granulated, extracted, blends

salt funtions

prevents mold/bac growth, brakes chem rxns produced by yeast in baked goods, brightens colors, decreases sourness and increases sweetness

types of salt

canned/pickling, coarse, flake, grinder, kosher, popcorn, rock, sea, table

smoke pts of fats/oils

highest to lowest
safflower (513), sunflower, soybean, canola, corn, peanut, sesame, olive, lard, shortening, butter (350)


sour wine; <18% alcohol wine exposed to air, bac in air reacts with residual yeast to create mother(layer of mold) which reacts with alcohol to change into acetic acid

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